"Global contributors discuss the theoretical controversies concerning the merits and demerits of affirmative action, and explain why affirmative action is needed in multi-ethnic countries. They analyze actual experience with affirmative action policies -their origin, nature and consequences - in nine countries"--
Global contributors discuss the theoretical controversies concerning the merits and demerits of affirmative action, and explain why affirmative action is needed in multi-ethnic countries. They analyze actual experience with affirmative action policies – their origin, nature and consequences – in nine countries.
Across the developmental spectrum, the prospects and problems of 'affirmative action' are increasingly important issues facing multi-ethnic countries. Drawing on philosophy, economics and sociology, the contributors explore the merits and demerits of affirmative action, and explain why affirmative action may be needed in countries facing large inequalities across ethnic, religious or racial groups. They analyse the origin, nature and consequences of affirmative action in Brazil, South Africa, the United States, Malaysia, Northern Ireland and Nigeria. Evaluating alternatives, they seek to provide guidance on the design of policies in different circumstances, with the aim of reducing horizontal inequalities, while minimising possible negative consequences.
'This important book shows that affirmative action is necessary to offset centuries-old discrimination in some situations. The question we should be asking is not 'Does it work?' but rather 'How can we make it work better?' From this perspective the wide variety of policies and experiences from around the world presented here is of benefit to academics and policymakers alike, because it allows us to explore and understand the potential impacts of different policies. Understanding what has worked better, but also what has gone wrong, in different contexts, will allow policymakers to design better policies for the future of their own countries. By taking an even-handed and wide-ranging perspective, this book makes an important contribution to the task of combating horizontal inequalities and social injustice.' - Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, Former President of Brazil
List of Figures
List of Tables
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva
Notes on Contributors
1 Affirmative Action: Foundations, Contexts, and Debates
Graham K. Brown
1.2 Why horizontal inequalities matter and why they are so persistent
1.3 Clearing the analytical ground
1.4 Overview of the book
1.5 Conclusions about affirmative action policies in the light of these empirical findings
2 Affirmative Action and Its Alternatives in Public Universities: What Do We Know?
Mark C. Long
2.2 Context and brief history of affirmative action in admissions
2.3 What do we know about the prevalence and effects of affirmative action?
2.4 State and university responses to court challenges and voter referenda
2.5 Effects of state and university responses on minority enrollment
2.6 Research on the effects of alternative admissions and recruitment systems
2.7 Conclusion: how should research findings shape future administrative choices?
3 The Challenge of Positive Discrimination in India
Niraja Gopal Jayal
3.2 Group disadvantage
3.3 PD policies since 1950
3.4 India's current PD programmes and policies
3.5 Political outcomes
3.6 Economic outcomes
3.7 The challenges of positive discrimination today
4 Affirmative Action in South Africa: An Empirical Assessment of the Impact on Labour Market Outcomes
4.2 Affirmative action in South Africa: a brief historical overview
4.3 The institutional and legislative setting for affirmative action policies in South Africa
4.4 Empirical analysis of the impact of affirmative action on labour market outcomes
5 The Persistence of Black-White Income Differentials in Brazil
Rafael Guerreiro Osorio
5.2 Income mobility in Brazil
5.3 Data and methods
5.5 Can affirmative actions reduce racial inequality?
5.6 Some conclusions
6 Affirmative Action in Malaysia: An Overview of Progress and Limitations
Zainal Aznam Yusof
6.2 Inequality, poverty and restructuring of society
6.3 Affirmative action policies
6.4 Poverty restructuring and inequality - progress
6.5 Affirmative action - some limitations
6.6 Some conclusions
7 Ethnicity and Inequality in Malaysia: A Retrospect and a Rethinking
7.2 Summary of positions and debates
7.3 Quelling conflict beyond the state
7.4 Further analysis of the NEP
7.5 New issues and new inequalities
8 Beyond Inequality? Assessing the Impact of Fair Employment, Affirmative Action and Equality Measures on Conflict in Northern Ireland
8.2 Theoretical issues
8.3 Origins, depth and reproduction of communal inequality
8.4 A changing economic culture and politics, 1968-2001
8.5 Economic inequality, 1971-2001
8.6 The impact of fair employment legislation on relative economic condition
8.7 The impact of fair employment and equality legislation on conflict
9 Institutionalising Ethnic Representation: How Effective Is the Federal Character Commission in Nigeria?
Abdul Raufu Mustapha
9.1 Why do societies like Nigeria need affirmative action and build institutions to carry it out?
9.2 Federal Character Commission as an institution: legal powers, structures and method of operation
9.3 An evaluation of the FCC
9.4 Conclusion: policy implications
GRAHAM K. BROWN is Director of the Centre for Development Studies and Senior Lecturer in International Development at the University of Bath, UK. He is a Research Associate at Oxford Department of International Development, University of Oxford, and has held visiting fellowships at Stanford University and the National University of Singapore. His research focuses on the nexus of inequality, identity and conflict with an empirical focus on Southeast Asia. ARNIM LANGER is Director of the Centre for Research on Peace and Development (CRPD) and University Lecturer in International Relations at the University of Leuven, Belgium. He is also a visiting research fellow at the Centre for Development Studies at the University of Bath and a research associate at Oxford Department of International Development, University of Oxford, both in the UK. He has published extensively on the relationship between horizontal inequalities and violent conflict, the persistence of group inequalities and on issues of post-conflict reconstruction. FRANCES STEWART is Emeritus Professor of Development Economics and Director of the Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity (CRISE) at the University of Oxford, UK. Books include UNICEF's influential study Adjustment with a Human Face (1987); War and Underdevelopment (2001); and Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict: Understanding Group Violence in Multiethnic Societies (2008).
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