Child Soldier Victims of Genocidal Forcible Transfer: Exonerating Child Soldiers Charged With Grave Conflict-related International Crimes 2012 [Kõva köide]

  • Formaat: Hardback, 304 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 235x155x19 mm, kaal: 643 g, XVI, 304 p.
  • Ilmumisaeg: 04-Jan-2012
  • Kirjastus: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K
  • ISBN-10: 3642236138
  • ISBN-13: 9783642236136
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  • Formaat: Hardback, 304 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 235x155x19 mm, kaal: 643 g, XVI, 304 p.
  • Ilmumisaeg: 04-Jan-2012
  • Kirjastus: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K
  • ISBN-10: 3642236138
  • ISBN-13: 9783642236136
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This book provides an original legal analysis of child soldiers recruited into armed groups or forces committing mass atrocities and/or genocide as the victims of the genocidal forcible transfer of children. Legal argument is made regarding the lack of criminal culpability of such child soldier 'recruits' for conflict-related international crimes and the inapplicability of currently recommended judicial and non-judicial accountability mechanisms in such cases. The book challenges various anthropological accounts of child soldiers' alleged 'tactical agency' to resist committing atrocity as members of armed groups or forces committing mass atrocity and/or genocide. Also provided are original interpretations of relevant international law including an interpretation of the Rome Statute age-based exclusion from prosecution of persons who were under 18 at the time of perpetrating the crime as substantive law setting an international standard for the humane treatment of child soldiers.
1 Children's Rights Participation Rhetoric: Distorting the Plight of the Child Soldier
1(60)
1.1 The Child's Right to Survival Versus the Child's Participation Rights
1(9)
1.2 Child Soldiers as Civilians with Special Protected Status and No Unconditional Right to Participate in Hostilities
10(10)
1.3 The Privileged Status of Children During Armed Conflict and the Inadequacies of the `Best Interests of the Child Principle' Rationale
20(8)
1.4 What the Historical Record on IHL Teaches About Jus Cogens Norms and Children Affected by Armed Conflict
28(22)
1.4.1 The Origin and Basis of the Special Protections Accorded to Children During Armed Conflict
28(10)
1.4.2 The Uneven Development of Child Protection Guarantees in IHL and International Human Rights Law
38(9)
1.4.3 More on the Preparatory Work for AP I and the Position of the ICRC
47(3)
1.5 The Inapplicability of Participation Rights Rhetoric to `Child Soldiering' in an Armed Group/Force Committing Mass Atrocities and/or Genocide
50(11)
Literature and Materials
56(5)
2 The Fallacious Demonization of Child Soldiers
61(76)
2.1 Analyzing Backlash Arguments Favoring the Prosecution of Child Soldiers
61(76)
2.1.1 Examining the Failure to Establish a Universal Minimum Age of Criminal Culpability for International Crimes
61(15)
2.1.2 Challenging the Categorization of the Age Exclusion of the Rome Statute as `Procedural' Rather than `Substantive' Law
76(3)
2.1.3 International Practice in Cases Concerning Child Soldiers Accused of Conflict-Related International Crimes
79(7)
2.1.4 The Issue of Duress and Child Soldier Alleged Criminal Culpability for Conflict-Related International Crimes
86(5)
2.1.5 The Flawed Presumption of Child Soldier Alleged `Tactical Agency' as a Basis for Assigning Culpability
91(5)
2.1.6 Rome Statute Article 26 and State Prosecution of Child Soldier Perpetrators of Conflict-Related International Crimes
96(10)
2.1.7 Re-Victimizing Child Soldiers: Setting the Stage for the Alleged Criminal Liability of Child Soldiers for Conflict-related International Crimes
106(10)
2.1.8 On the Issue of Prosecuting `Those Most Responsible': What then of Child Soldiers?
116(5)
2.1.9 On `Blaming the Victim'
121(7)
2.1.10 A Note on Child Soldiers' Entitlement Under IHL and International Human Rights Law to Special Protections
128(1)
2.1.11 Child Soldier Narratives
129(6)
Literature and Materials
135(2)
3 Recruitment and Use of `Child Soldiers' in Hostilities by Armed Groups/Forces Committing Mass Atrocity and/or Genocide as Itself a Form of Genocide
137(72)
3.1 Introduction to the Convention on the Punishment and Prevention of the Crime of Genocide
137(10)
3.2 Children and Women as `Protected Groups' Under the Genocide Convention
147(5)
3.2.1 Life Force Assaults as Genocidal Acts: Applications of the Concept
150(2)
3.3 More on Determining `Protected Groups' Under the Genocide Convention
152(17)
3.3.1 Analysis of the Terms in Article 2(e) of the Genocide Convention
154(15)
3.4 Children as Autonomous Rights Bearers
169(7)
3.4.1 Preserving Children's Authentic Identity in Times of Armed Conflict
174(2)
3.5 More on Controversies in Applying Article 2 of the Genocide Convention
176(7)
3.6 ICTR: A Case Example in Which the Transfer of Children as Child Soldiers to an Armed Group Attempting to Destroy a Targeted Population Ought to Have Been Classified as Itself a Form of Genocide
183(4)
3.6.1 Case of Joseph Kanyabashi ICTR-9-15
184(1)
3.6.2 Background to the Ethnic Conflict in Rwanda in Brief
184(1)
3.6.3 Unjustified Failure to Charge Genocide Under Article 2(e) of the Statute of the ICTR: Kanyabashi as a Case in Point
185(2)
3.7 SCSL: Prosecutor v Charles Ghankay Taylor
187(5)
3.8 Ethnic Cleansing as Genocide: The Forcible Transfer of Children as a Case in Point
192(17)
3.8.1 Introduction
192(4)
3.8.2 An Analysis of Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro (Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide)
196(3)
3.8.3 Genocidal Attacks on Family
199(2)
3.8.4 The ICC Charge of Genocide Against Omar Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir
201(3)
3.8.5 The Case of Prosecutor v Momir Nikolic
204(1)
Literature and Materials
205(4)
4 Challenging the Attempt to De-legitimize the Human Rights Claims of Child Soldier Victims of Genocidal Forcible Transfer
209(54)
4.1 Human Rights Gatekeepers and Their Approach to Child Soldiers
209(5)
4.2 The Failure to Acknowledge the Genocidal Forcible Transfer of Child Soldiers: A Parallel Case in Children Born of War-Time Rape
214(16)
4.2.1 `Children of the Enemy': Parallel Cases of the Genocidal Forcible Transfer of Children
217(2)
4.2.2 Additional Commentary on Defining What Is Meant by `Group' in the Context of Genocide
219(5)
4.2.3 Gendered Sexual Violence and the Forcible Transfer of Children to Another Group
224(6)
4.3 Gaps in Protection Under International Law Against Child Soldiering
230(4)
4.3.1 Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict (OP-CRC-AC)
230(3)
4.3.2 Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography
233(1)
4.3.3 Weaknesses in the CRC and the Rome Statute Protection for Girls in the Context of Armed Conflict
233(1)
4.4 The Thomas Lubanga Dyilo ICC Case and Girl Child Soldiers
234(2)
4.5 Improving the Bar to Impunity for the Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Groups to Perpetrate Atrocity and/or Genocide
236(1)
4.6 The Omar Khadr Child Soldier Case
237(11)
4.6.1 Children as Propaganda Tools in Conflict and Post-Conflict Contexts
247(1)
4.7 The Case of Prosecutor v Joseph Kony, Vincet Otti, Okut Odhiambo and Dominic Ongwen
248(7)
4.8 The Case of Thomas Kwoyelo
255(8)
Literature and Materials
258(5)
5 Truth and Reconciliation Mechanisms: A Re-victimization of Child Victims of Genocidal Forcible Transfer?
263(26)
5.1 On Whether Truth and Reconciliation Mechanisms Deliver Justice to Ex Child Soldiers and Their Community
263(7)
5.2 Children and the Truth and Reconciliation Process: Co-opting Children's Rights Participation Rhetoric
270(10)
5.2.1 The Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission
270(7)
5.2.2 On `Socially Constructed' Ex Child Soldier Perceived Identities
277(1)
5.2.3 The Liberian Truth and Reconciliation Commission
278(2)
5.3 Children's Experiences in Testifying Before a Truth and Reconciliation Commission: The Sierra Leone Example
280(2)
5.4 On Whether Truth and Reconciliation Mechanisms Foster Effective Community Re-integration of the Ex Child Soldier
282(7)
Literature and Materials
286(3)
6 Concluding Remarks
289(10)
Literature and Materials
296(3)
Index 299

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