EU Law: Text, Cases, and Materials 6th Revised edition [Pehme köide]

(Professor of English Law, St John's College, University of Oxford), (Florence Ellinwood Allen Professor of Law and Director of the Jean Monnet Center for International and Regional Economic Law and Justice, New York University School)
  • Formaat: Paperback, 1380 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 247x191x47 mm, kaal: 2290 g
  • Sari: Text, Cases, And Materials
  • Ilmumisaeg: 30-Jul-2015
  • Kirjastus: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN-10: 0198714920
  • ISBN-13: 9780198714927
Teised raamatud teemal:
  • Formaat: Paperback, 1380 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 247x191x47 mm, kaal: 2290 g
  • Sari: Text, Cases, And Materials
  • Ilmumisaeg: 30-Jul-2015
  • Kirjastus: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN-10: 0198714920
  • ISBN-13: 9780198714927
Teised raamatud teemal:
'Craig & de Burca has become a byword for quality: legally accurate and contextually rich'
Christopher Hilson, Professor of Law, University of Reading

Building on its unrivalled reputation as the definitive EU law textbook, this sixth edition continues to provide clear and insightful analysis of all aspects of European Union law.

Drawing on their wealth of experience both teaching and writing in this area, Paul Craig and Grainne de Burca provide a comprehensive and enhanced account of their classic text. Working closely as an author team for over twenty years, they succeed in bringing together a unique mix of illuminating commentary and well-chosen extracts from a wide range of cases, legislation and academic articles.

All chapters have been carefully structured and designed to enhance student learning at all levels, laying the foundations of the subject while building analysis of more complex areas and cutting edge debates. Each chapter opens with a concise overview of the 'central issues', providing valuable context, before drawing together key analysis in a comprehensive chapter conclusion to provide a clear yet complete picture of the subject.

The book is accompanied by an Online Resource Centre which includes the following resources:
- An interactive map of the EU, providing key facts about each member state
- An interactive timeline, tracing key dates in the development of the EU
- Author video discussing the importance of studying EU law
- Updates to the law post-publication

Arvustused

Craig & de Burca is the bible of EU Law, I couldn't imagine studying without it. * Marianne Muona, Former Law Student, Helsinki University * By combining an impressive selection of cases, commentary and legislation, EU Law: Text, Cases, and Materials has obtained (and kept) an almost biblical status. This accolade is well-deserved; the material remains accessible whilst providing wonderful academic scholarship. * The Student Law Journal * Craig & de Burca has become a byword for quality: legally accurate and contextually rich. * Christopher Hilson, Professor of Law , University of Reading * The cases make it an interesting and enriching book for scholars because it offers depth and new insights, but the clear structure and the pedagogical genius of both authors make the book very suitable to students studying EU law for the first time...We strongly recommend this book to every EU law student. * Chris Thomale, Juristische Schulung * Deservedly regarded by students, researchers, and experts around the world as the key textbook on the discipline * Dr Nicola Countouris, Reader in EU Law, University College London *

Table of Abbreviations
xxxv
Acknowledgements xl
Table of Cases
xli
Table of Treaties, European Legislative Instruments and National Legislation
cxxxvii
Lisbon Table of Equivalences clvii
1 The Development Of European Integration
1(29)
1 Central Issues
1(1)
2 Nationalism and the Origins of the EU
2(1)
3 From the ECSC to the EEC
3(3)
(a) ECSC: European Coal and Steel Community
3(1)
(b) European Defence Community and European Political Community: EDC and EPC
3(1)
(c) European Economic Community: EEC
4(2)
4 Prom EEC to the Single European Act
6(4)
(a) Tensions within the EEC
6(2)
(b) Single European Act: SEA
8(2)
5 From the SEA to the Nice Treaty
10(7)
(a) Maastricht Treaty: The Treaty on European Union
10(4)
(b) The Treaty of Amsterdam
14(2)
(c) Nice Treaty
16(1)
6 From Nice to the Lisbon Treaty
17(6)
(a) The Laeken Declaration
17(1)
(b) Constitutional Treaty
17(2)
(c) The Lisbon Treaty
19(3)
(d) Post-Lisbon: The Financial Crisis
22(1)
7 Theories of Integration
23(4)
(a) Neofunctionalism
24(1)
(b) Liberal Intergovernmentalism
25(1)
(c) Multi-Level Governance
25(1)
(d) Rational Choice Institutionalism
26(1)
(e) Constructivism
26(1)
8 Conclusions
27(1)
9 Further Reading
28(2)
2 The Institutions
30(43)
1 Central Issues
30(1)
2 The Commission
31(9)
(a) President of the Commission
31(1)
(b) College of Commissioners
32(2)
(c) Commission Bureaucracy
34(2)
(d) Powers of the Commission
36(2)
(e) Downfall of the Santer Commission and Subsequent Reform
38(1)
(f) Role of the Commission
39(1)
3 The Council
40(6)
(a) Composition
40(1)
(b) Presidency of the Council
41(2)
(c) Committee of Permanent Representatives
43(1)
(d) Council Secretariat
43(1)
(e) Powers of the Council
44(1)
(f) Role of the Council
45(1)
4 The European Council
46(3)
(a) Composition
46(1)
(b) Presidency of the European Council
47(1)
(c) Rationale
47(1)
(d) Powers
47(1)
(e) Role of the European Council
48(1)
5 High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
49(1)
(a) Powers
49(1)
(b) Role of the High Representative
50(1)
6 European Parliament
50(7)
(a) Composition and Functioning
51(2)
(b) Powers
53(3)
(c) Role of the European Parliament
56(1)
7 Courts
57(9)
(a) Court of Justice
58(1)
(b) General Court
59(1)
(c) Specialized Courts
60(1)
(d) Reform of the Court System
60(1)
(e) Advocate General
61(1)
(f) Procedure Before the Court
62(1)
(g) Style of the Court's Judgments
62(1)
(h) Role of the Court
62(4)
8 The Court of Auditors
66(1)
9 EU Advisory Bodies
67(2)
(a) Economic and Social Committee
67(1)
(b) Committee of the Regions
68(1)
10 Agencies
69(1)
11 Conclusions
70(1)
12 Further Rending
71(2)
3 Competence
73(32)
1 Central Issues
73(1)
2 Impetus for Reform
74(1)
3 Lisbon Strategy
75(3)
(a) Categories and Consequences
75(1)
(b) Express and Implied Power
75(3)
4 Exclusive Competence
78(5)
(a) Basic Principles
78(1)
(b) Area Exclusivity
78(1)
(c) Conditional Exclusivity
79(4)
5 Shared Competence
83(3)
(a) Basic Principles
83(1)
(b) Pre-Emption
84(1)
(c) Scope and Variation
85(1)
(d) Shared Competence and Retained Power
85(1)
6 Supporting, Coordinating, or Supplementary Action
86(2)
(a) Basic Principles
86(1)
(b) Scope and Variation
86(1)
(c) Legal Acts, Harmonization, and Member State Competence
87(1)
7 Economic, Employment, and Social Policy
88(1)
(a) Basic Principles
88(1)
(b) Category and Legal Consequence
89(1)
8 Common Foreign and Security Policy and Defence
89(1)
9 Broad Treaty Provisions: The `Flexibility' Clause
90(3)
(a) Article 308 EC
90(1)
(b) Article 352 TFEU
91(2)
10 Broad Treaty Provisions: The Harmonization Clause
93(2)
11 Subsidiarity
95(7)
(a) Pre-Lisbon
95(1)
(b) Post-Lisbon
96(6)
12 Conclusions
102(1)
13 Further Reading
103(2)
4 Instruments And The Hierarchy Of Norms
105(19)
1 Central Issues
105(1)
2 Instruments
106(4)
(a) Introduction
106(1)
(b) Regulations
107(1)
(c) Directives
108(1)
(d) Decisions
108(1)
(e) Inter-Institutional Agreements
109(1)
(f) Recommendations, Opinions, and Soft Law
109(1)
3 Hierarchy of Norms
110(11)
(a) Rationale
110(1)
(b) Treaties and Charter
111(1)
(c) General Principles
111(2)
(d) Legislative Acts
113(1)
(e) Delegated Acts
114(2)
(f) Implementing Acts
116(4)
(g) Incomplete Categorization
120(1)
4 Conclusions
121(1)
5 Further Reading
122(2)
5 Legislation And Decision-Making
124(38)
1 Central Issues
124(1)
2 Legislative Initiative: Principle and Practice
124(2)
3 Legislative Acts: The Ordinary Legislative Procedure
126(7)
(a) Pre-Lisbon
126(1)
(b) Ordinary Legislative Procedure
126(2)
(c) Ordinary Legislative Procedure: Stages in the Process
128(2)
(d) Ordinary Legislative Procedure: Practical Operation
130(2)
(e) Ordinary Legislative Procedure: Power Dynamics
132(1)
(f) Ordinary Legislative Procedure: Normative Foundations
133(1)
4 Legislative Acts: Special Legislative Procedure
133(1)
5 Legislative Acts: Council Voting Requirements
134(3)
(a) Pre-Lisbon
134(1)
(b) Post-Lisbon
135(2)
6 Delegated Acts: Enactment and Control
137(5)
(a) Pre-Lisbon: The Rationale for Comitology
137(1)
(b) Post-Lisbon Delegated Acts: Demise of Comitology
138(2)
(c) Evaluation
140(2)
7 Implementing Acts: Enactment and Control
142(3)
(a) The Lisbon Schema
142(1)
(b) Evaluation
143(2)
8 Enhanced Cooperation: Conditions and Use
145(1)
9 EU Decision-Making: Process and Reality
146(5)
(a) The Temporal Dimension
146(2)
(b) The Inter-Institutional Dimension
148(3)
10 EU Democracy: Argument and Evaluation
151(8)
(a) The Nature of the Argument
152(1)
(b) Evaluation: The Empirical Frame of Reference
153(1)
(c) Evaluation: The Normative Frame of Reference
154(5)
(d) Evaluation: The Shadow of the Financial Crisis
159(1)
11 Conclusions
159(1)
12 Further Reading
160(2)
6 Decision-Making And New Forms Of Governance
162(22)
1 Central Issues
162(1)
2 Hierarchy, Classic Community Method, and New Governance
163(3)
3 The New Approach to Harmonization
166(1)
4 The Lisbon Agenda and the Open Method of Coordination
167(4)
5 General EU Governance Reform Initiatives
171(8)
(a) Subsidiarity and Proportionality
172(2)
(b) Better Regulation and the Commission's White Paper on governance
174(5)
6 Appraising the Move Towards New Forms of Governance
179(3)
7 Conclusions
182(1)
8 Further Reading
182(2)
7 The Nature And Effect Of EU Law: Direct Effect And Beyond
184(41)
1 Central Issues
184(1)
2 Direct Effect: A Guide
185(2)
3 Direct Effect of Primary Law: Treaty Articles, General Principles, and the Charter of Fundamental Rights
187(11)
(a) The Foundations: Direct Effect of Treaty Provisions in Van Gend en Loos
187(3)
(b) The Conditions for Direct Effect: Broadening the Conditions
190(2)
(c) Treaty Articles: Vertical and Horizontal Direct Effect
192(1)
(d) General Principles of EU Law
193(3)
(e) The Charter of Fundamental Rights
196(2)
4 Direct Effect of Secondary Law: Regulations and Decisions
198(2)
(a) Regulations
198(1)
(b) Decisions
199(1)
5 Directives: Direct Effect
200(6)
(a) Direct Effect of Directives
200(4)
(b) The Vertical/Horizontal Distinction
204(2)
6 Directives: Enhancing Their Legal Effects
206(16)
(a) A Broad Concept of the State
206(3)
(b) `Indirect Effect': Principle of Harmonious Interpretation
209(7)
(c) Incidental Horizontal Effects
216(4)
(d) Interaction with General Principles of Law
220(1)
(e) Regulations Conditional on Compliance with Directives
221(1)
(f) State Liability in Damages
222(1)
7 Conclusions
222(1)
8 Further Reading
223(2)
8 The Application Of EU Law: Remedies In National Courts
225(41)
1 Central Issues
225(1)
2 The Principles of National Procedural Autonomy, Equivalence, and Practical Possibility
226(3)
(a) Where No Relevant EU Rules Exist: National Law Determines the Conditions for Enforcement of EU Rights
226(1)
(b) The Principles of Equivalence and Practical Possibility
227(1)
(c) No Obligation to Create New Remedies (Unless...)
228(1)
3 Emergence of Requirements of Proportionality, Adequacy, and Effective Judicial Protection
229(2)
4 Development of the `Effectiveness' Requirement
231(8)
(a) A Strong Initial Requirement
231(4)
(b) A More Cautious Approach
235(2)
(c) When Specific Remedies Must Be Made Available
237(2)
5 The Current Approach: Balancing Effective Judicial Protection and National Procedural Autonomy
239(11)
(a) Effectiveness
239(7)
(b) Equivalence
246(4)
(c) The Effect of the Plaintiff's Conduct on the Right to an Effective Remedy
250(1)
6 Summary
250(1)
7 The Principle of (State) Liability for Breach of EU Law
251(13)
(a) Origins of the Principle
251(2)
(b) Clarifying and Extending the Principle
253(4)
(c) The Conditions for State Liability
257(4)
(d) State Liability and the National Remedial Framework
261(2)
(e) State Liability as a Residual Remedy?
263(1)
8 Conclusions
264(1)
9 Further Reading
265(1)
9 The Relationship Between EU Law And National Law: Supremacy
266(50)
1 Central Issues
266(1)
2 First Dimension: Supremacy from the ECJ's Perspective
266(12)
(a) Foundations
266(2)
(b) Ambit
268(3)
(c) The National Bodies That Must Apply the Supremacy Doctrine
271(1)
(d) Impact on National Law
272(2)
(e) Declaration 17 on Primacy
274(2)
(f) Relation with Direct Effect
276(1)
(g) Conclusion
277(1)
3 Second Dimension: Supremacy from the Perspective of the Pre-2004 Member States
278(26)
(a) Germany
279(11)
(b) Italy
290(2)
(c) France
292(4)
(d) The United Kingdom
296(8)
4 Second Dimension: Supremacy from the Perspective of the Post-2004 Member States
304(5)
(a) Central and East European States
304(1)
(b) Poland
305(2)
(c) Czech Republic
307(2)
5 Constitutional Pluralism and National Identity
309(4)
(a) Constitutional Pluralism
309(3)
(b) National Identity
312(1)
6 Conclusions
313(1)
7 Further Reading
314(2)
10 EU International Relations Law
316(64)
1 Central Issues
316(1)
2 Introduction: The EU as an International Actor and the General Principles of EU External Action
317(4)
(a) The EU as an International Actor
317(1)
(b) The Constitutional Framework and General Principles of EU External Action
318(1)
(c) The Post-Lisbon Institutions of EU International Action
319(2)
3 External Capacity and EU Competence
321(14)
(a) International Legal Personality
321(1)
(b) The Need for a Legal Basis and the Limits of External EU Competence
322(2)
(c) Express and Implied Competence
324(3)
(d) Exclusive EU Competence
327(6)
(e) Shared Competence
333(2)
(f) Summary
335(1)
4 Four Fields of EU External Action
335(9)
(a) The Common Commercial Policy (CCP)
336(3)
(b) Association, Partnership, Cooperation, and Neighbourhood Relations
339(2)
(c) Development Policy, Technical Cooperation, and Humanitarian Aid
341(1)
(d) External Dimensions of Other Internal Policies
342(2)
5 The Common Foreign and Security Policy
344(5)
(a) The Scope of the CFSP
344(2)
(b) The Constitutional Nature of the CFSP
346(1)
(c) The CFSP and Economic Sanctions
347(2)
6 The Conclusion of International Agreements by the EU and Other Forms of EU International Practice
349(6)
(a) EU Procedures for Concluding International Agreements
349(3)
(b) Mixed Agreements
352(1)
(c) The Role of the European Parliament
353(1)
(d) The Member States' Duty of Sincere Cooperation
354(1)
(e) Cooperation Within International Organizations
355(1)
7 The EU and International Law
355(6)
(a) International Agreements Concluded by the EU are Binding Upon It and are Part of EU Law
356(1)
(b) The EU Legal System as an Autonomous Legal Order
356(2)
(c) The Effect of Other Rules of International Law, and of International Agreements to Which the Member States are Party
358(3)
8 The Legal Effect of International Agreements in the EU Legal Order
361(8)
9 The Role of The CJEU in EU International Relations
369(6)
(a) Pre-Emptive Jurisdiction: The Advisory Opinion Procedure of Article 218(11)
369(2)
(b) Jurisdiction of the CJEU over International Agreements under Other EU Treaty Procedures
371(1)
(c) The CJEU and Mixed Agreements
372(2)
(d) The CJEU and the CFSP
374(1)
10 Coherence, Consistency, and Cooperation in the Governance of EU International Relations
375(3)
(a) International Representation and the EU
375(1)
(b) The Requirement of Coherence across Policies
376(1)
(c) Coordination Between the Member States and the EU: Cooperation and Compliance
377(1)
11 Conclusions
378(1)
12 Further Reading
379(1)
11 Human Rights In The EU
380(49)
1 Central Issues
380(2)
2 Introduction
382(1)
3 The ECJ Discovers the `General Principles of EU Law'
383(1)
4 The ECJ Develops the General Principles of EU Law
384(6)
(a) The ECHR as a Source of Special Significance for the General Principles of EU Law
385(1)
(b) Other International Human Rights Instruments
386(2)
(c) National Constitutional Traditions
388(2)
5 Institutional and Policy Developments
390(4)
(a) The Inclusion of Human Rights in the Treaty Framework
390(1)
(b) The Fundamental Rights Agency
391(1)
(c) EU Human Rights Powers and Policies
392(2)
6 The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights
394(6)
(a) Introduction
394(2)
(b) Content
396(1)
(c) The `Horizontal' Clauses
397(3)
7 Human Rights-Based Judicial Review of EU Action
400(9)
(a) Challenges to EU Legislation
401(5)
(b) Rights-Based Challenges to EU Administrative Action
406(2)
(c) Construing EU Legislation In Conformity with Fundamental Rights
408(1)
(d) Summary
408(1)
8 Human Rights-Based Challenges to Member State Action
409(10)
(a) Member States as Agents of the EU: Implementing and Applying EU Measures
410(3)
(b) Member States Derogating From EU Rules or Restricting EU Rights
413(2)
(c) Other Kinds of Member State Action `Within the Scope of EU Law'
415(3)
(d) Situations Falling Outside the Scope of EU Law
418(1)
(e) Horizontal Application of the Charter?
419(1)
9 The EU and the ECHR
419(8)
(a) Accession by the EU to the ECHR
419(3)
(b) Indirect Review of EU Acts by the ECtHR Prior to Accession
422(3)
(c) Mutual Influence of the CJEU and the ECtHR Prior to Accession
425(2)
10 Conclusions
427(1)
11 Further Reading
427(2)
12 Enforcement Actions Against Member States
429(35)
1 Central Issues
429(2)
2 The Function and Operation of the Infringement Procedure
431(5)
(a) Nature and Function of the Article 258 Procedure
431(3)
(b) Operation of the Procedure
434(2)
3 Relationship Between `Public' and `Private' Enforcement Mechanisms
436(1)
4 The Commission's Discretion
436(3)
5 The Reasoned Opinion
439(4)
(a) Function
439(1)
(b) Form and Content
440(2)
(c) Confidentiality of the Reasoned Opinion
442(1)
6 Why is an Enforcement Action Admissible After the Breach is Remedied?
443(1)
7 Types of Breach by Member States of EU Law
444(6)
(a) Breach of the Obligation of Sincere Cooperation Under Article 4(3) TEU
445(1)
(b) Inadequate Implementation of EU Law
446(2)
(c) Breaches Which Interfere with EU External Relations
448(1)
(d) Systemic and Persistent Breaches or General Practices
449(1)
(e) Action by the Courts of a Member State
450(1)
8 State Defences in Enforcement Proceedings
450(3)
9 The Consequences of an Article 258 Ruling
453(1)
10 Article 259
453(1)
11 Article 260 TFEU: The Pecuniary Penalty
454(7)
12 Interim Measures
461(1)
13 Conclusions
462(1)
14 Further Reading
462(2)
13 Preliminary Rulings
464(45)
1 Central Issues
464(1)
2 Foundations: Article 267
464(7)
(a) Questions That Can Be Referred
466(1)
(b) Courts or Tribunals Which Can Refer
466(2)
(c) Courts or Tribunals Which Must Refer
468(1)
(d) Relationship Between National Courts
469(1)
(e) National Court Raising EU Law of Its Own Volition
470(1)
3 The Existence of a Question: Development of Precedent
471(7)
(a) National Law in Breach of EU Law and Prior CJEU Rulings
471(3)
(b) The Validity of EU Legislation and Prior CJEU Rulings
474(2)
(c) CJEU Rulings and Legal Certainty
476(2)
(d) Conclusion
478(1)
4 The Existence of a Question: The `Acte Clair' Doctrine
478(4)
(a) Summary
482(1)
5 The Decision to Refer: The National Court's Perspective
482(2)
6 The Decision to Accept the Reference: The CJEU's Perspective
484(12)
(a) The Liberal Initial Approach
485(1)
(b) The CJEU Asserts Authority Over Cases Referred
486(4)
(c) Cases Where the CJEU has Declined Jurisdiction
490(4)
(d) Recommendations to National Courts on Preliminary References
494(1)
(e) Limits of the Power to Decline a Case
494(2)
(f) Summary
496(1)
7 The Decision on the Reference: Interpretation versus Application
496(3)
8 Development of an EU Judicial System: National Courts and the CJEU
499(2)
(a) Precedent
499(1)
(b) Acte clair
500(1)
(c) Sectoral Delegation
501(1)
9 Development of an EU Judicial System: CJEU, General Court, and National Courts
501(6)
(a) The Caseload Problem
501(2)
(b) Limiting the National Courts Empowered to Make a Reference
503(1)
(c) A Filtering Mechanism Based on the Novelty, Complexity, or Importance of the Question
503(1)
(d) The National Court Proposes an Answer to the Question
504(1)
(e) Towards an Appellate System
504(1)
(f) Creation of Decentralized Judicial Bodies
505(1)
(g) General Court to Have Jurisdiction to Give Preliminary Rulings
506(1)
10 Conclusions
507(1)
11 Further Reading
507(2)
14 Review Of Legality: Access
509(35)
1 Central Issues
509(1)
2 Article 263(1): Bodies Subject to Review
509(1)
3 Article 263(1): Acts Subject to Review
510(4)
(a) General Principles
510(3)
(b) Non-Existent Acts
513(1)
(c) Limitations on Review
513(1)
4 Article 263(2)--(3): Standing for Privileged and Quasi-Privileged Applicants
514(1)
5 Article 263(4): Standing for Non-Privileged Applicants
515(18)
(a) Direct Concern
515(2)
(b) Individual Concern: Plaumann
517(11)
(c) Individual Concern: Lisbon Treaty Reform
528(4)
(d) Summary
532(1)
6 Article 267: Indirect Challenge to the Legality of EU Acts
533(4)
(a) The Rationale for Using Article 267
533(1)
(b) The Acts That Can Be Challenged Under Article 267
534(1)
(c) `A Complete System of Legal Protection'
535(2)
7 Article 265: Failure to Act
537(2)
(a) Reviewable Omissions
537(2)
(b) Procedure
539(1)
(c) Standing
539(1)
8 Article 277: The Plea of Illegality
539(3)
(a) The Acts That Can Be Challenged
539(2)
(b) The Parties Who Can Use Article 277
541(1)
9 Conclusions
542(1)
10 Further Reading
542(2)
15 Review Of Legality: Grounds Of Review
544(39)
1 Central Issues
544(1)
2 Lack of Competence
545(1)
3 Infringement of an Essential Procedural Requirement
545(5)
(a) Right to be Heard
545(1)
(b) Consultation and Participation
546(2)
(c) Duty to Give Reasons
548(2)
4 Infringement of the Treaty or Any Rule of Law Relating to its Application
550(26)
(a) Scope
550(1)
(b) General Principles of Law: Proportionality
551(7)
(c) General Principles of Law: Legal Certainty and Legitimate Expectations
558(6)
(d) General Principles of Law: Non-Discrimination
564(3)
(e) General Principles of Law: Transparency
567(8)
(f) General Principles of Law: Precautionary Principle
575(1)
5 Misuse of Power
576(1)
6 The Intensity of Review
577(2)
7 The Consequences of Illegality and Invalidity
579(2)
8 Conclusions
581(1)
9 Further Reading
582(1)
16 Damages Actions And Money Claims
583(24)
1 Central Issues
583(1)
2 Discretionary Acts
583(8)
(a) The General Test
584(1)
(b) Legislative and Non-Legislative Discretionary Acts
585(1)
(c) Superior Rule of Law
585(2)
(d) Flagrant Violation/Serious Breach
587(3)
(e) Assessment
590(1)
(f) Summary
590(1)
3 Non-Discretionary Acts
591(3)
(a) The General Principle: Illegality, Causation, Damage
591(1)
(b) Application of the General Principle
591(1)
(c) The Meaning of Illegality
592(1)
(d) Summary
593(1)
4 Official Acts of Union Servants
594(1)
5 Valid Legislative Acts
595(3)
(a) The Nature of the Problem
595(1)
(b) The Case Law
596(2)
6 Causation and Damage
598(3)
(a) Causation
598(1)
(b) Damage
599(2)
7 Joint Liability of the EU and Member States
601(3)
(a) Procedural Issues
601(1)
(b) Substantive Issues
601(3)
8 Contract
604(1)
9 Restitution
605(1)
10 Conclusions
606(1)
11 Further Reading
606(1)
17 The Single Market
607(31)
1 Central Issues
607(1)
2 Economic Integration: Forms and Techniques
607(2)
(a) Forms of Economic Integration
607(1)
(b) Techniques of Economic Integration
608(1)
3 Pre-1986: Limits of Integration
609(1)
4 Single European Act 1986: The Economics and Politics of Integration
609(5)
(a) The Economic Dimension: The Commission's White Paper
609(3)
(b) The Political Dimension: The Politics of Integration
612(2)
5 The Internal Market: Legislative Reform and the SEA
614(6)
(a) Article 26: The Obligation Stated
614(1)
(b) Article 27: The Obligation Qualified
615(1)
(c) Article 114(1): Facilitating the Passage of Harmonization Measures
615(3)
(d) Article 114(2)--(10): Qualifications to Article 114(1)
618(2)
6 Tire Internal Market: The New Legislative Approach to Marketing of Products and Harmonization
620(7)
(a) The Rationale for the New Approach
620(1)
(b) The Elements of the New Approach
621(6)
7 The Internal Market: Tensions and Concerns
627(5)
(a) Consumer Interests and Commercial Power
627(2)
(b) The Single Market, Market Freedom, and Structural Balance
629(1)
(c) The Challenge to Positive Integration
630(1)
(d) Politics, Economics, and the Single Market Enterprise
630(2)
8 The Internal Market: Reconceptualization
632(3)
9 Conclusions
635(1)
10 Further Reading
636(2)
18 Free Movement Of Goods: Duties, Charges, And Taxes
638(27)
1 Central Issues
638(1)
2 Articles 28--30: Deities and Charges
639(8)
(a) Duties and Charges: Effect Not Purpose
640(1)
(b) Charges Having an Equivalent Effect: General Principles
641(1)
(c) Charges Having an Equivalent Effect: Inspections and the `Exchange Exception'
642(2)
(d) Charges Having an Equivalent Effect: Inspections and Fulfilment of Mandatory Legal Requirements
644(2)
(e) Recovery of Unlawful Charges
646(1)
(f) The Customs Union: The Broader Perspective
646(1)
3 Articles 110--113: Discriminatory Tax Provisions
647(12)
(a) The Purpose of Article 110
648(1)
(b) Article 110(1): Direct Discrimination
648(1)
(c) Article 110(1): Indirect Discrimination
649(1)
(d) Article 110: National Autonomy and Fiscal Choices
650(2)
(e) The Relationship Between Article 110(1) and (2)
652(1)
(f) Article 110(1) and (2): The Determination of Similarity
653(2)
(g) Article 110(2): The Determination of Protective Effect
655(2)
(h) Taxation: The Broader Legal Perspective
657(1)
(i) Taxation: The Broader Political Perspective
658(1)
4 The Boundary Between Articles 28--30 and 110--113
659(3)
(a) Levies Imposed on Importers
659(1)
(b) Imports Taxed But Not Made By the State of Import
660(1)
(c) Selective Tax Refund
661(1)
5 Conclusions
662(1)
6 Further Reading
663(2)
19 Free Movement Of Goods: Quantitative Restrictions
665(56)
1 Central Issues
665(1)
2 Directive 70/50 and Dassonville
666(2)
3 Discriminatory Barriers to Trade
668(6)
(a) Import and Export Restrictions
668(1)
(b) Promotion or Favouring of Domestic Products
669(3)
(c) Price Fixing
672(1)
(d) National Measures versus Private Action
673(1)
(e) Summary
674(1)
4 Indistinctly Applicable Rules: Cassis de Dijon
674(7)
(a) Foundations: Cassis de Dijon
674(3)
(b) Application: The Post-Cassis Jurisprudence
677(1)
(c) Indistinctly Applicable Rules: Article 35
677(1)
(e) Indistinctly Applicable Rules: The Limits of Article 34
678(3)
5 Indistinctly and Distinctly Applicable Rules: Keck and Selling Arrangements
681(6)
(a) Keck: Selling Arrangements
681(2)
(b) Keck: Static and Dynamic Selling Arrangements
683(1)
(c) Keck and Selling Arrangements: Two Qualifications
683(4)
6 Indistinctly and Distinctly Applicable Rules: Product Use
687(2)
7 The Current Law: Summary
689(1)
8 The Current Law: Assessment
690(5)
(a) Market Access as Overarching Principle
690(3)
(b) Market Access as Slogan
693(2)
(c) Summary and Choices
695(1)
9 Defences to Discriminatory Measures: Article 36
695(9)
(a) Public Morality
696(1)
(b) Public Policy
697(1)
(c) Public Security
698(1)
(d) Protection of Health and Life of Humans, Animals, or Plants
699(3)
(e) Other Grounds for Validating Discriminatory Measures
702(1)
(f) The Relationship Between Harmonization and Article 36
703(1)
10 Defences to Indistinctly Applicable Rules: The Mandatory Requirements
704(8)
(a) The Rationale for the Mandatory Requirements
704(1)
(b) The Relationship Between the Mandatory Requirements and Article 36
705(1)
(c) The Mandatory Requirements: Consumer Protection
706(1)
(d) The Mandatory Requirements: Fairness of Commercial Transactions
707(1)
(e) The Mandatory Requirements: Public Health
707(2)
(f) Other Mandatory Requirements
709(2)
(g) Mandatory Requirements and Harmonization
711(1)
(h) Summary
711(1)
11 Free Movement of Goods and Cassis: The Broader Perspective
712(5)
(a) The Commission's Response to Cassis
712(1)
(b) Problems With Realizing the Cassis Strategy
713(2)
(c) Problems Flowing from the Cassis Strategy
715(2)
12 Conclusions
717(1)
13 Further Reading
718(3)
20 Free Movement Of Capital And Economic And Monetary Union
721(23)
1 Central Issues
721(1)
2 Free Movement of Capital
721(5)
(a) The Original Treaty Provisions
721(1)
(b) The Current Provisions: The Basic Principle
722(2)
(c) The Current Provisions: The Exceptions
724(2)
3 EMU and the European Monetary System: Early Attempts
726(1)
4 Economic and Monetary Union: The Three Stages
727(2)
(a) Stage One and the Delors Report
727(1)
(b) Stage Two and the Maastricht Settlement
727(1)
(c) Stage Three and the Legal Framework
728(1)
5 EMU: Economic Faundations
729(2)
(a) The Case for EMU
729(1)
(b) The Case Against EMU
730(1)
(c) EMU: Economics, Politics, and Law
731(1)
6 EMU: Monetary Union and the ECB
731(4)
(a) ECB and ESCB
732(1)
(b) Monetary Policy
733(1)
(c) Policy Issues: Central Bank Independence
733(2)
7 EMU: Coordination of Economic Policy
735(6)
(a) Multilateral Surveillance Procedure
736(1)
(b) Excessive Deficit Procedure
736(1)
(c) Policy Issues: Economic Policy Coordination
737(4)
8 Conclusions
741(1)
9 Further Reading
742(2)
21 Free Movement Of Workers
744(50)
1 Central Issues
744(1)
2 Article 45: Direct Effect
745(3)
3 Article 45: Worker and the Scope of Protection
748(10)
(a) Definition of `Worker': An EU Concept
748(1)
(b) Definition of `Worker': Minimum-Income and Working-Time Requirements
749(4)
(c) Definition of `Worker': Purpose of the Employment
753(3)
(d) Definition of `Worker': The Job-Seeker
756(2)
(e) Scope of Protection: New Member States
758(1)
4 Article 45: Discrimination, Market Access, and Justification
758(7)
(a) Direct Discrimination
758(1)
(b) Indirect Discrimination
759(2)
(c) Obstacles to Access to the Employment Market
761(1)
(d) Internal Situations
762(1)
(e) Objective Justification
763(2)
5 Article 45(4): The Public-Service Exception
765(5)
(a) The Meaning Determined By the Court, Not the Member States
766(1)
(b) The ECJ's Test for Public Service
766(2)
(c) Application of the ECJ's Test
768(2)
(d) Discriminatory Conditions of Employment within the Public Service are Prohibited
770(1)
6 Directive 2004/38: Right of Entry and Residence of Workers and Their Families
770(6)
(a) Formal Requirements for Workers
770(4)
(b) Job-Seekers and the Unemployed
774(1)
(c) The Right of Permanent Residence
775(1)
(d) Conditions for Exercise of the Right to Residence
776(1)
7 Regulation 492/2011: Substantive Rights and Social Advantages
776(10)
(a) Regulation 492/2011
776(2)
(b) Article 7(2) of Regulation 492/2011
778(2)
(c) Article 7(3) of Regulation 492/2011 and Educational Rights for Workers
780(1)
(d) Article 10 of Regulation 492/2011: Educational Rights for Children
781(1)
(e) Rights of Families as Parasitic on the Workers' Rights
782(2)
(f) Family Members in an Internal Situation
784(1)
(g) Directive 2014/54
785(1)
8 Directive 2004/38: Public Policy, Security, and Health Restrictions
786(5)
(a) Three Levels of Protection
786(1)
(b) Article 27: General Principles
786(1)
(c) Article 28: Expulsion
787(3)
(d) Article 29: Public Health
790(1)
(e) Article 30: Notification of Decisions
790(1)
(f) Article 31: Procedural Safeguards
790(1)
(g) Articles 32--33: Duration of Exclusion Orders and Expulsion
791(1)
9 Conclusions
791(1)
10 Further Reading
792(2)
22 Freedom Of Establishment And To Provide Services
794(58)
1 Central Issues
794(2)
2 Differences and Commonalities between the Free Movement of Persons, Services, and Establishment
796(5)
(a) Comparing the Treaty
Chapters
796(1)
(b) Are the Freedoms Horizontally Applicable?
797(2)
(c) The `Official Authority' Exception
799(1)
(d) The Public Policy, Security, and Health Justifications
800(1)
(e) Legislation Governing Entry, Residence, and Expulsion
801(1)
3 The Right of Establishment
801(19)
(a) The Effect of Article 49
802(2)
(b) The Scope of Article 49
804(6)
(c) Establishment of Companies
810(9)
(d) Summary
819(1)
4 Free Movement of Services
820(22)
(a) The Effect of Article 56 TFEU
822(2)
(b) The Scope of Article 56
824(8)
(c) Justifying Restrictions on the Free Movement of Services
832(7)
(d) Non-Discriminatory Restrictions Under Article 56
839(3)
5 General Legislation to Facilitate Establishment and Services: Recognition of Professional Qualifications
842(4)
(a) The Initial Sectoral Harmonization/Coordination Approach
842(1)
(b) Introduction of the Mutual Recognition Approach
843(1)
(c) Directive 2005/36 on the Recognition of Professional Qualifications
844(1)
(d) Situations Not Covered by the Legislation
845(1)
6 General Legislation to Facilitate Establishment and Services: The Services Directive
846(4)
7 Conclusions
850(1)
8 Further Reading
851(1)
23 Citizenship Of The European Union
852(40)
1 Central Issues
852(1)
2 Introduction
853(3)
3 The Rights of Free Movement and Residence of EU Citizens
856(4)
(a) Directive 2004/38 on the Rights of Free Movement and Residence for EU Citizens and their Families
857(3)
4 The Impact of EU Citizenship Law
860(28)
(a) Article 20 TFEU Created an Autonomous and Directly Effective Right of Movement and Residence
860(5)
(b) Developments in the Law on `Wholly Internal Situations' Under the Impact of Articles 20 and 21 TFEU
865(7)
(c) The Impact of Articles 20 and 21 on the Rights of EU Nationals Who Are Neither Economically Active Nor Economically Self-Sufficient
872(12)
(d) Articles 20 and 21 TFEU Have Enhanced the Rights of EU Citizens to Challenge Restrictive Member State Measures
884(3)
(e) Summary
887(1)
5 Political Rights of Citizenship
888(2)
6 Conclusions
890(1)
7 Further Reading
891(1)
24 Equal Treatment And Non-Discrimination
892(72)
1 Central Issues
892(1)
2 EU Anti-Discrimination Law: Origins and Context
893(1)
3 Equal Treatment and Non-Discrimination: The Legal Framework
894(1)
4 The Origins: Article 157 TFEU and the Principle of Equal Pay for Women and Men
895(10)
(a) The Social and Economic Underpinnings of Article 157
896(2)
(b) The Breadth of Article 157: The Definition of Pay
898(7)
5 Article 19 TFEU and the Article 19 Directives
905(9)
(a) The Race Directive 2000/43
906(2)
(b) The Framework Employment Directive 2000/78
908(5)
(c) The Proposed New Article 19 Directive on Equal Treatment
913(1)
6 The Gender Directives
914(18)
(a) The `Recast' Equal Treatment Directive 2006/54
914(8)
(b) The Social Security Directive 79/7
922(3)
(c) The Pregnancy Directive 92/85
925(3)
(d) Directive 2004/113 on Access to and Supply of Goods and Services
928(2)
(e) Parental Leave
930(1)
(f) Directive 2010/41 on the Self-Employed
931(1)
7 The General Principle of Equal Treatment and Non-Discrimination
932(3)
8 Common Provisions and Concepts of EU Anti-Discrimination Law
935(26)
(a) Direct and Indirect Discrimination
935(3)
(b) Exceptions and Justifications
938(12)
(c) Positive Action
950(5)
(d) Remedies
955(6)
9 Conclusions
961(1)
10 Further Reading
962(2)
25 AFSJ: EU Criminal Law
964(37)
1 Central Issues
964(1)
2 Maastricht to Lisbon
965(1)
(a) Maastricht: Three Pillars
965(1)
(b) Amsterdam: Three Pillars Modified
966(1)
3 Rationale
966(6)
(a) Rationale for the Three-Pillar Structure
966(1)
(b) Rationale for Subject Matter Comprising AFSJ
967(5)
4 Lisbon Treaty: General Principles
972(7)
(a) Objectives
972(1)
(b) Treaty Architecture
973(1)
(c) Competence
973(1)
(d) Article 67 TFEU
974(1)
(e) Institutions
974(2)
(f) Union Courts
976(1)
(g) UK and the AFSJ
977(2)
5 Criminal Law and Procedure: Pre-Lisbon
979(2)
6 Criminal Law and Procedure: Post-Lisbon
981(5)
(a) Criminal Law
981(2)
(b) Criminal Procedure
983(1)
(c) Crime Prevention
984(1)
(d) Criminal Investigation and Prosecution
984(1)
(e) Criminal Prosecution and the European Public Prosecutor
985(1)
(f) Crime and Police Cooperation
985(1)
7 Criminal Law and Procedure: Objectives
986(1)
8 Criminal Law and Procedure: Challenges
987(11)
(a) Member State Acceptance
987(1)
(b) Mutual Recognition
987(3)
(c) Mutual Recognition and the European Arrest Warrant
990(5)
(d) Mutual Recognition and the European Evidence Warrant
995(1)
(e) Substantive Criminal Law
996(2)
9 Conclusions
998(1)
10 Further Reading
999(2)
26 Competition Law: Article 101
1001(54)
1 Central Issues
1001(1)
2 Competition Law: Objectives
1001(1)
3 Article 101: The Treaty Text
1002(1)
5 Article 101(1): Undertakings
1003(1)
5 Article 101(1): Agreements, Decisions, and Concerted Practices
1004(8)
(a) Agreements
1004(3)
(b) Concerted Practice
1007(5)
6 Article 101(1): Object or Effect of Preventing, Restricting, or Distorting Competition
1012(13)
(a) Nature of the Problem
1012(1)
(b) Experience in the United States
1013(1)
(c) The Academic Debate in the EU
1013(2)
(d) The Case Law
1015(9)
(e) Summary
1024(1)
7 Article 101(1): The Effect on Trade Between Member Stales
1025(1)
8 Article 101(1): The De Minimis Doctrine
1026(1)
9 Article 101(3): Exemptions
1026(4)
(a) Individual Exemption
1027(2)
(b) Block Exemption
1029(1)
10 Article 101: Competition and Non-Competition Considerations
1030(2)
(a) Article 101(1)
1030(1)
(b) Article 101(3)
1031(1)
11 Article 101: Vertical Restraints
1032(16)
(a) The Economic Debate
1032(3)
(b) The Commission and Vertical Restraints
1035(2)
(c) Exclusive Distribution
1037(1)
(d) Selective Distribution
1038(4)
(e) Franchising
1042(1)
(f) Exclusive Purchasing
1043(1)
(g) The Block Exemption
1044(4)
(h) Summary
1048(1)
12 Competition Law: Enforcement
1048(5)
(a) The Traditional Approach and the Modernization White Paper
1048(1)
(b) The New Regime
1049(2)
(c) Judicial Review
1051(1)
(d) Damages Actions
1052(1)
13 Conclusions
1053(1)
14 Further Reading
1053(2)
27 Competition Law: Article 102
1055(35)
1 Central Issues
1055(1)
2 Dominant Position: Defining the Relevant Market
1056(5)
(a) The Product Market
1056(3)
(b) The Geographic Market
1059(1)
(c) The Temporal Factor
1060(1)
(d) The Commission Notice on Market Definition
1060(1)
3 Dominant: Position: Market Power
1061(7)
(a) Single Firm Dominance
1061(5)
(b) Joint Dominance
1066(2)
4 Abuse: Three Problems of Interpretation
1068(2)
(a) Who is Article 102 Designed to Protect?
1068(1)
(b) What Kinds of Behaviour Are Abusive?
1069(1)
(c) Abuse of Which Market?
1069(1)
5 Abuse: Particular Examples
1070(15)
(a) Abuse and Mergers
1070(2)
(b) Abuse and Refusal to Supply
1072(5)
(c) Abuse and Price Discrimination
1077(5)
(d) Abuse and Predatory Pricing
1082(2)
(e) Abuse and Selective Pricing
1084(1)
6 Defences: Objective Justification, Proportionality, and Efficiency
1085(1)
7 Article 102: Reform
1085(2)
8 Conclusions
1087(1)
9 Further Reading
1087(3)
28 Competition Law: Mergers
1090(27)
1 Central Issues
1090(1)
2 Merger Control: The Policy Rationale
1091(2)
(a) Arguments Against Mergers
1091(1)
(b) Arguments in Favour of Mergers
1092(1)
3 Regulation 139/2004: Jurisdictional Issues
1093(6)
(a) Concentration: General
1093(1)
(b) Concentration: Joint Ventures
1094(1)
(c) Concentrations With an EU Dimension
1095(1)
(d) The Relation Between EU and National Merger Control
1096(2)
(e) Residual Role for Articles 101 and 102 TFEU
1098(1)
4 Regulation 139/2004: Procedural Issues
1099(2)
(a) Prior Notification
1099(1)
(b) Suspension Pending Investigation
1099(1)
(c) Investigation
1099(1)
(d) Investigation and Enforcement
1100(1)
5 Regulation 139/2004: The Substantive Criteria
1101(12)
(a) Market Definition
1101(1)
(b) The Test
1101(2)
(c) Horizontal Mergers: Non-Coordinated Effects
1103(4)
(d) Horizontal Mergers: Coordinated Effects and Collective Dominance
1107(4)
(e) Vertical and Conglomerate Mergers: Coordinated and Non-Coordinated Effects
1111(1)
(f) Concentration and Efficiencies
1112(1)
(g) Concentrations and Failing Firms
1112(1)
(h) The Relevance of Non-Competition Considerations
1113(1)
(i) Remedies
1113(1)
6 Judicial Review
1113(1)
7 Conclusions
1114(1)
8 Further Reading
1115(2)
29 The State And The Common Market
1117(42)
1 Central Issues
1117(1)
2 The State and the Market: General Principles
1117(3)
(a) The General Principle: The Competition Ethos
1117(1)
(b) The Qualification: Services of General (Economic) Interest
1118(2)
3 Public Undertakings and Article 106
1120(9)
(a) Article 106(1)
1120(5)
(b) Article 106(2)
1125(2)
(c) Article 106(3)
1127(1)
(d) Article 106 and National Courts
1128(1)
(e) Summary
1129(1)
4 The State, Articles 4(3) TEU, 101, 102, and 34 TFEU
1129(1)
5 State Aids: Policy Development and Reform
1130(3)
(a) Policy Development
1130(2)
(b) Reform
1132(1)
6 State Aids: The Substantive Rules and Article 107
1133(12)
(a) Definition of State Aid
1133(6)
(b) Article 107(2)
1139(1)
(c) Article 107(3)
1139(6)
(d) The Block Exemption
1145(1)
7 State Aids: The Procedural Rules and Articles 108 and 109
1145(8)
(a) Review of Existing State Aids
1145(1)
(b) The Procedure for New State Aids: Notification and Preliminary Review
1146(1)
(c) The Procedure for State Aids: Detailed Investigation and Enforcement
1147(1)
(d) Exceptional Circumstances: Article 108(2), Paragraphs 3 and 4
1148(1)
(e) Article 109: Implementing Regulations
1148(1)
(f) Challenge to Commission Decisions
1149(1)
(g) Aid That Has Not Been Notified
1150(2)
(h) Recovery of Unlawful Aid
1152(1)
8 State Aids, Market Integration, and Regional Policy
1153(3)
(a) Policy Foundations
1153(1)
(b) State Aid and Free Movement
1154(1)
(c) National and EU Regional Policy
1155(1)
9 Conclusions
1156(1)
10 Further Reading
1156(3)
Index 1159
Paul Craig, QC FBA is Professor of English Law at St John's College, Oxford. Paul is one of the foremost scholars on European Law and Administrative Law and has published extensively in these areas. Grainne de Burca is the Florence Ellinwood Allen Professor of Law and Director of the Jean Monnet Center for International and Regional Economic Law and Justice at New York University. Grainne is a leading expert on European Union law, European human rights law, and European and transnational governance and has written widely in these areas.

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