Exosome Biology and Therapeutics provides a state of the art series of review of the fundamental aspects of exosome biology, from exosome function to their potential as therapeutic modalities in regenerative medicine. Beginning with an overview of the history of exosome discovery and invesigation, Exosome Biology and Therapeutics goes on to cover biogenesis, secretion, proteomics, immune regulation, pathogenesis, exosome and RNAi therapies, the potential of exosomes in biotechnology, and much more.Exosome Biology and Therapeutics will be an essential resource for biomedical researchers - from the professional to the advanced undergraduate - interested in learning more about the basic biology and medical potential of exosomes.
Table of Contents:1) Introduction to exosome biology and therapeutics: WOOD, OxfordAn overview of the history of exosome discovery and investigation, putting this into a state of the art perspective that incorporates their roles in development, tissue maintenance and aging, and their potential power as therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine applications2) Exosome definition and characterisation: e.g. LOTVALL, GothenburgExosomes are a unique sub-class of cellular microvesicle. This chapter will outline our current understanding of what exosomes are and how they can be identified and characterised using state of the art scientific methods including transcriptomics and proteomics3) Exosome biogenesis: e.g. MEISNER, Novartis, BaselOne of the unique features of exosome biology and the one that distinguishes exosomes from other cellular microvesicles is their mode of origin or biogenesis. This chapter will describe their biogenesis in details and their origins from intracel
lular multivesicular bodies. It will review this process and how it is regulated and to what extent the mechanisms for the intracellular packaging of exosome cargoes is known4) Exosome secretion: e.g. THERY, ParisExosomes are released in a regulated manner by all cells from multivesicular bodies that reside within the cellular endosomal pathway. This chapter will explore how these vesicles are released, what regulates this process, how it varies from cell to cell and how it might be hijacked or usurped in disease5) Exosome proteomics: e.g. SIMPSON. MelbourneA major clue to the biological functions of exosomes resides in their protein repertoire and in particular the proteins that are displayed on the exosome vesicle surface. These determine for example how exosomes are capable of migrating within the body and transferring their cargoes to specific cell types. This chapter will review current knowledge on the exosome protein repertoire and to what extent a core of conserved e
xosome proteins are found within exosomes derived from all cell types6) Exosomes as transporters of RNA: e.g. LOTVALL, GothenburgOne of the major breakthroughs in our understanding of exosome biology was the discovery that exosome cargo included messenger RNA and small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs. Moreover these RNAs were found to be capable of being transferred to recipient cells and capable of function within these cells, therefore serving as a new mechanism for the intercellular exchange of genetic information. This chapter will review this fascinating aspect of exosome biology.7) Exosomes and stem cell plasticity: e.g. QUESENBERRY, ProvidenceA class of cells that are particularly rich in exosome production are stem cells and this highlights the potential importance of exosomes in development of the organism and also in the regeneration and repair of tissues in the adult where stem cell activity is required. This chapter will review the role of exosomes in the fiel
d of stem cell turnover and maintenance of tissues.8) Exosomes and immune regulation: e.g. ASKENASE, YaleOne of the areas of biology in which exosomes have been studied in detail is in the regulation of immune responses, where they provide a highly sophisticated local intercellular communication system that serves to drive and determine the outcome of immune activity. This chapter will review the role of exosomes in the regulation of the immune system9) Exosomes and immune regulation in the brain: e.g. PLUCHINO, Cambridge, UKAn area of growing interest is the potential role of exosomes in the regulation of immune activity within the nervous system, where immune responses and the activity of resident immune cells such as astrocytes and microglia are tightly controlled. This chapter will review the role of exosomes in the local regulation of immune activity within the brain and the potential importance of exosomes in dysregulated immune responses within the brain such as