How Languages are Learned 4th Revised edition [Pehme köide]

, (University of Toronto Canada)
  • Formaat: Paperback, 272 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 246x168x15 mm, kaal: 467 g, illustrations
  • Ilmumisaeg: 24-Jan-2013
  • Kirjastus: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN-10: 0194541266
  • ISBN-13: 9780194541268
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  • Formaat: Paperback, 272 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 246x168x15 mm, kaal: 467 g, illustrations
  • Ilmumisaeg: 24-Jan-2013
  • Kirjastus: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN-10: 0194541266
  • ISBN-13: 9780194541268
Teised raamatud teemal:
A thoroughly updated edition of this prize-winning, readable introduction to the main theories of first and second language acquisition. This book introduces you to some of the language acquisition research that will help you not just to evaluate existing materials, but also to adapt and use them in a way that fits what we currently understand about how languages are learned. -Content including new research and new areas in pedagogy to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of research in the field.-Chapter Preview s and Summaries with round-up questions.-Companion website with vodcasts, content updates, and shared user content.-Also available as an e-book.

Relates theories of first and second language acquisition to what actually goes on in the classroom Uses activities throughout to explore the practical implications of the ideas presented NEW Updated content gives teachers information about recent research on L2 learning NEW Activities and Questions for Reflection personalise content and support critical thinking NEW Extra Activities, Study Questions, and videos available online at www.oup.com/elt/teacher/hlal

A thoroughly updated edition of this prize-winning, readable introduction to the main theories of first and second language acquisition.

This book introduces you to some of the language acquisition research that will help you not just to evaluate existing materials, but also to adapt and use them in a way that fits what we currently understand about how languages are learned.

-Content including new research and new areas in pedagogy to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of research in the field.
-Chapter Preview s and Summaries with round-up questions.
-Companion website with vodcasts, content updates, and shared user content.
-Also available as an e-book.

Arvustused

How Languages Are Learned, 4th edn. P. Lightbrown & N. Spada. (2013) Oxford U. Press. ISBN 978-0-19-454126-8; 256pp+. This edition of the standard introductory work on this subject is over 20 pp. longer than the 3rd edition. A strong feature of this admirable book is its concise, clear summaries of important research findings. The chapters are; Language learning in early childhood, Second language learning (SLL), Individual differences in SLL, Explaining SLL, Observing learning and teaching in the SL classroom, SLL in the classroom, and Popular ideas about language learning revisited. Extra activities, study questions, and videos are available online at

Muu info

Winner of English-Speaking Union's Duke of Edinburgh Book Prize 1993.
Acknowledgements xi
Preface to the fourth edition xiii
Introduction 1(1)
Before we begin... 2(3)
1 Language learning in early childhood
5(30)
Preview
5(1)
First language acquisition
5(9)
The first three years: Milestones and developmental sequences
6(6)
The pre-school years
12(1)
The school years
13(1)
Explaining first language acquisition
14(15)
The behaviourist perspective
15(5)
The innatist perspective
20(4)
Interactionist/developmental perspectives
24(5)
Language disorders and delays
29(1)
Childhood bilingualism
30(3)
Summary
33(1)
Suggestions for further reading
34(1)
2 Second language learning
35(40)
Preview
35(1)
Learner characteristics
36(2)
Learning conditions
38(2)
Studying the language of second language learners
40(20)
Contrastive analysis, error analysis, and interlanguage
41(4)
Developmental sequences
45(12)
More about first language influence
57(3)
Vocabulary
60(5)
Pragmatics
65(3)
Phonology
68(4)
Sampling learners' language
72(1)
Summary
72(1)
Suggestions for further reading
73(2)
3 Individual differences in second language learning
75(28)
Preview
75(2)
Research on learner characteristics
77(15)
Intelligence
79(1)
Language learning aptitude
80(3)
Learning styles
83(1)
Personality
84(3)
Attitudes and motivation
87(1)
Motivation in the classroom
88(1)
Identity and ethnic group affiliation
89(1)
Learner beliefs
90(2)
Individual differences and classroom instruction
92(1)
Age and second language learning
92(4)
The critical period: More than just pronunciation?
94(1)
Intuitions of grammaticality
95(1)
Rate of learning
96(1)
Age and second language instruction
96(3)
Summary
99(1)
Suggestions for further reading
100(3)
4 Explaining second language learning
103(20)
Preview
103(1)
The behaviourist perspective
103(1)
Second language applications: Mimicry and memorization
103(1)
The innatist perspective
104(4)
Second language applications: Krashen's `Monitor Model'
106(2)
The cognitive perspective
108(10)
Information processing
108(2)
Usage-based learning
110(1)
The competition model
111(2)
Language and the brain
113(1)
Second language applications: Interacting, noticing, processing, and practising
113(5)
The sociocultural perspective
118(2)
Second language applications: Learning by talking
119(1)
Summary
120(1)
Suggestions for further reading
121(2)
5 Observing learning and teaching in the second language classroom
123(30)
Preview
123(1)
Natural and instructional settings
123(6)
In natural acquisition settings
124(2)
In structure-based instructional settings
126(1)
In communicative instructional settings
127(2)
Observation schemes
129(20)
Classroom comparisons: Teacher-student interactions
129(6)
Classroom comparisons: Student-student interactions
135(4)
Corrective feedback in the classroom
139(6)
Questions in the classroom
145(4)
Ethnography
149(2)
Summary
151(1)
Suggestions for further reading
152(1)
6 Second language learning in the classroom
153(48)
Preview
153(1)
Proposals for teaching
153(41)
1 Get it right from the beginning
154(5)
2 Just listen ... and read
159(6)
3 Let's talk
165(6)
4 Get two for one
171(6)
5 Teach what is teachable
177(5)
6 Get it right in the end
182(12)
Assessing the proposals
194(3)
Summary
197(1)
Suggestions for further reading
198(3)
7 Popular ideas about language learning revisited
201(12)
Preview
201(1)
Reflecting on the popular ideas: Learning from research
201(11)
Conclusion
212(1)
Glossary 213(14)
Bibliography 227(22)
Index 249
Patsy M. Lightbown is Distinguished Professor Emerita at Concordia University in Montreal and Past President of the American Association for Applied Linguistics. Her research focuses on how instruction and feedback affect second-language acquisition in classrooms where the emphasis is on "communicative" or "content-based" language teaching. The contexts for her work have included elementary schools in Canada and, more recently, dual-language bilingual classes in the U.S. Nina Spada is Professor of Applied Linguistics at the Modern Language Centre, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto, Canada. Her main areas of professional interest are second language acquisition, classroom research in L2 teaching and learning, and English as a Second Language.

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