Schoolchildren as Propaganda Tools in the War on Terror: Violating the Rights of Afghani Children under International Law 2011 ed. [Kõva köide]

  • Formaat: Hardback, 279 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 235x155x17 mm, kaal: 613 g, XIX, 279 p.
  • Ilmumisaeg: 22-Mar-2011
  • Kirjastus: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K
  • ISBN-10: 3642178995
  • ISBN-13: 9783642178993
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  • Formaat: Hardback, 279 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 235x155x17 mm, kaal: 613 g, XIX, 279 p.
  • Ilmumisaeg: 22-Mar-2011
  • Kirjastus: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K
  • ISBN-10: 3642178995
  • ISBN-13: 9783642178993
Teised raamatud teemal:
This book explores in what ways both sides involved in the so-called war on terror are using schoolchildren as propaganda tools while putting the children's security at grave risk. The book explores how terrorists use attacks on education to attempt to destabilize the government while the government and the international aid community use increases in school attendance as an ostensible index of largely illusory progress in the overall security situation and in development. The book challenges the notion that unoccupied civilian schools are not entitled under the law of armed conflict to a high standard of protection which prohibits their use for military purposes. Also examined are the potential violations of international law that can occur when government and education aid workers encourage and facilitate school attendance, as they do, in areas within conflict-affected states such as Afghanistan where security for education is inadequate and the risk of terror attacks on education high.

This book explores the ways in which both sides in the so-called 'war on terror' use schoolchildren as tools of propaganda even as they put those children's security at grave risk. It argues that secure schooling free from violence is a right too often absent.
Part I Re-Examining the Role of Education Aid as a Component of the `Humanitarian' Agenda in Conflict-Affected States
1 Introduction
3(18)
References
20(1)
2 Paradoxes Resulting from the Militarization of Education Aid
21(38)
2.1 Education and Politics (Paradox One)
51(1)
2.1.1 Education as Apolitical and Tolerant
51(1)
2.1.2 The Politicization of Education
52(1)
2.2 Education and Security (Paradox Two)
52(1)
2.2.1 Education as a Benchmark for Security
52(1)
2.2.2 Education as a Benchmark for Lack of Security
52(1)
2.3 Education and Basic Human Rights for Women and Girls (Paradox Three)
53(1)
2.3.1 Education as a Route to Gender Equity
53(1)
2.3.2 Education in the Context of Insecurity as a Facilitator of Gender Inequity
53(1)
2.4 Education and Development (Paradox Four)
53(1)
2.4.1 Education Aid Interventions as the Pathway to Development
53(1)
2.4.2 Aspects of Education Aid Interventions Blocking Development
54(1)
2.5 Education and Militarization (Paradox Five)
54(1)
2.5.1 Education Aid Intervention as Allegedly Non-Partisan
54(1)
2.5.2 The Militarization of Education Aid
54(1)
References
55(4)
Part II Attacks on Education: The Scope of the Problem and the Unwitting Complicity of CAFS, their Coalition Allies and the International Aid Community
3 Schooling as Counter-Terrorist Strategy
59(36)
3.1 The Scope of the Problem of Terror Attacks on Basic Education
65(1)
3.2 On the Issue of Negotiating with the Taliban Regarding Schools as `Safe Zones'
66(1)
3.3 Protocol II Additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions and Its Implications for Protecting Schoolchildren Living in Hot Conflict Zones Within Afghanistan
67(2)
3.3.1 The Applicability of Protocol II Additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions to the Conflict in Afghanistan Since 2004
68(1)
3.4 Ethical and Legal Obligations Relating to Humanitarian Educational Aid Interventions in the Midst of Ongoing Armed Conflict
69(3)
3.5 "Hearts and Minds" Campaigns in Their Various Forms in Conflict-Affected States: The Role of Humanitarian Aid/Human Rights Organizations
72(9)
3.5.1 Counter-Terrorism as Theatre and the Symbolic Function of Children Attending School Despite the Risk of Targeted Terror Attacks on Education
77(4)
3.6 Monitoring Targeted Terror Attacks on Education
81(2)
3.7 More on Counter-Terrorism Strategies That Include the Basic Education of Schoolchildren as a Component
83(3)
3.8 Performance Indicators for the Implementation of the Right to Education Grounded on Respect for Fundamental Human Rights: Relevance to Education in a Conflict-Affected State
86(7)
References
93(2)
4 Analysis of UN and NGO Rights Rhetoric in Addressing Terror Attacks on Education: The Implications for Schoolchildren's Security Interests
95(44)
4.1 Schoolchildren Exploited for Propaganda Purposes: Education Initiatives Framed as a Component in Counterinsurgency Strategy
95(14)
4.1.1 Excerpts of Typical News Reports Regarding Attacks on Girls' Education in Afghanistan
99(9)
4.1.2 International Aid Organizations and the Promotion of Schooling Across Both Secure and Insecure Zones in Conflict-Affected States
108(1)
4.2 Challenging the Legitimacy of School Attendance and Greater Access to Education as Indicia of Level of Overall Security in States Currently Immersed in the `War on Terror'
109(14)
4.3 The February 2010 Mission to Afghanistan of the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict: Assessment of Security Issues in Relation to Education
123(9)
4.4 Revisiting the Topic of Community-Based Schools
132(3)
References
135(4)
Part III Attacks on Education: Issues of Accountability for Both Sides in the `War on Terror'
5 International Humanitarian Law and the Protection of Education in Conflict-Affected States
139(82)
5.1 The Protected Status of Civilian Schools Under International Humanitarian Law
139(70)
5.1.1 The Entitlement of Children to `Special Protection' Under IHL and the Implications for the Protection of Civilian Schools from Attack and for the Absolute Prohibition on Their Use for a Military Purpose
139(3)
5.1.2 Challenging Status Quo Interpretations of IHL on the Alleged Less Privileged Status of Civilian Schools
142(2)
5.1.3 Civilian Schools Used for a Military Purpose: The Intransgressible `Principle of Distinction' Undermined
144(2)
5.1.4 The Use of Civilian Schools for Counter-Terrorist Propaganda as a `Military Purpose': Negating the `Principle of Distinction'
146(9)
5.1.5 More on the IHL Protection Guarantees for Civilians
155(1)
5.1.6 Non-Governmental Actors and Their Potential Culpability Under IHL for Indirectly Facilitating Terror Attacks on Education
156(9)
5.1.7 The Privileged Protected Status of Civilian Schools: Safeguarding Tangible and Intangible Cultural Property/Heritage
165(6)
5.1.8 Examining the Implications of Articles 52 and 53 of Protocol I Additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions for the Unqualified Protection of Civilian Schools Against Military Use During Armed Conflict
171(6)
5.1.9 The Rome Statute and the Protection of Civilian Schools in Armed Conflict: Interpreting Article 8
177(4)
5.1.10 The Protection of Civilian Schools in Armed Conflict: More on the Implications of Article 53 of Protocol I Additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions
181(1)
5.1.11 Use of Unoccupied Civilian Schools for a Military Purpose and the Issue of `Human Shields'
182(2)
5.1.12 Lessons Embedded in Article 52(3) of Protocol I on Whether Unoccupied Civilian Schools May be Lawfully Used for a Military Purpose
184(2)
5.1.13 Additional Considerations Regarding IHL and the Prohibition on the Use of Civilian Schools for Military Purposes
186(3)
5.1.14 More on Schools as Cultural Objects That Serve Important Humanitarian Purposes
189(2)
5.1.15 IHL and the Use of Schools for Propaganda Purposes
191(1)
5.1.16 Use of an Occupied or Unoccupied Civilian School for a Military Purpose as Unlawful Under IHL
192(3)
5.1.17 The Martens Clause and Its Application to the Issue of Protection of Unoccupied Civilian Schools from Attack or Use for a Military Purpose
195(3)
5.1.18 More on the Basic `Principle of Distinction', `Military Necessity' and the Scope of IHL Protection for Civilian Schools
198(2)
5.1.19 The IHL Criteria for Military Necessity as Involving Only Lawful Measures
200(4)
5.1.20 The Hague Convention Article 56 and Its Implications for the Protection of Civilian Schools
204(2)
5.1.21 Further Issues Regarding the Protected Status of Civilian Schools Against Use for a Military Purpose During Armed Conflict
206(3)
5.2 Prosecuting Armed Perpetrators of Attacks on Education and Those Who Intentionally Allow Schoolchildren to Become Easy Targets for Terrorists
209(10)
5.2.1 The `Grave Breaches' Versus the `Serious Violations' Designation of War Crimes Under IHL: Implications for the Protection of Schools and Schoolchildren
211(2)
5.2.2 Individual States' Handling of Accountability for International Crimes Involving Attacks on Education or Unlawful Use of Civilian Schools for a Military Purpose
213(2)
5.2.3 The Worsening Plight of Schoolchildren in Afghanistan
215(4)
References
219(2)
6 Schoolchildren Knowingly Placed at Risk of Terror Attack: The Complicity of High Profile Human Rights Gatekeepers
221(34)
6.1 The Six Grave Violations of Children's Fundamental Human Rights During Armed Conflict and a Significant Omission
224(1)
6.2 The Response of High Profile Gate-Keepers to Attacks on Education
225(7)
6.3 Eric H. Holder, Jr. (Attorney General) et al. v. Humanitarian Law Project et al.: The Question of Potential Culpability of NGOs in Allegedly Facilitating Terrorist Objectives
232(13)
6.3.1 Dissenting Opinion of Justice Breyer, with Whom Justices Ginsburg and Sotomayor Join Dissenting
234(1)
6.3.2 Analysis of the Dissenting Opinion
234(11)
6.4 Humanitarian/Human Rights Rhetoric as a Smokescreen for Non-Humanitarian Objectives?
245(4)
6.5 Combined Development-Military Tactics and the Consequences for School Security
249(4)
References
253(2)
7 Concluding Remarks
255(22)
7.1 A Summary
255(12)
7.1.1 The Organizational Accountability of NGOs, States and the UN and Its Organs for Violations of International Law
261(6)
7.2 Final Reflections
267(8)
7.2.1 The Six Grave Violations Against Children Affected by Armed Conflict
270(5)
References
275(2)
Index 277

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