Signals from the Subatomic World: How to Build a Proton Precession Magnetometer [Paperback / softback]

  • Formaat: Paperback / softback, 150 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 216x140x10 mm, kaal: 213 g, illustrations
  • Ilmumisaeg: 01-May-2008
  • Kirjastus: Abrazol Publishing
  • ISBN-10: 1887187006
  • ISBN-13: 9781887187008
  • Paperback / softback
  • Hind: 27,80 EUR
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  • Formaat: Paperback / softback, 150 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 216x140x10 mm, kaal: 213 g, illustrations
  • Ilmumisaeg: 01-May-2008
  • Kirjastus: Abrazol Publishing
  • ISBN-10: 1887187006
  • ISBN-13: 9781887187008
The discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance earned Felix Bloch and Ed Purcell the 1952 Nobel Prize in Physics. What their discovery took advantage of, is that protons are the world's smallest magnets. These tiny magnets can also be used to make a magnetometer, of the type described in this book. This book describes how to build a proton precession magnetometer, suitable for measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. This method of measuring magnetic fields offers the theoretically highest possible precision, limited only by the known value of the gyromagnetic ratio of the proton. Uses of the magnetometer include: making precise measurements of the Earth's magnetic field, calibrating low field magnetometers, teaching modern signal processing techniques, demonstrating nuclear magnetism and NMR to students, and measuring nuclear magnetic relaxation in liquids. The Earth's field proton precession magnetometer, called the Magnum, described in this book, was formerly a commercial product, developed and sold by Exstrom Laboratories LLC. It was designed by Stefan Hollos and Richard Hollos.
1 Introduction 1
1.1 The proton precession magnetometer
2
1.2 How PPM's work
5
1.3 Overview of magnetometer
12
2 Polarization Coil and Platform 17
2.1 Materials not allowed
17
2.2 Wire for polarizing coil
18
2.3 Purpose of polarizing coil
19
2.4 Positioning polarizing coil
20
2.5 Inductance of a coil
21
2.6 Magnetic field strength due to coil
22
2.7 Polarizing coil parts list
23
2.8 Specifications of polarizing coil
25
2.9 Construction of polarizing coil
25
2.10 Tiltable platform parts list
26
2.11 Construction of tiltable platform
29
3 Pulse Controller 31
3.1 Purpose of pulse controller
31
3.2 Quenching the current
32
3.3 How a MOSFET works
33
3.4 Advantage of using multiple MOSFETs
34
3.5 Pulse controller circuit description
35
3.6 Microcontroller circuit description
38
3.7 Microcontroller software
39
3.8 Power supply
41
3.9 Assembly and enclosure
42
3.10 Pulse controller parts list
51
4 Sensor Coil 57
4.1 Sensor coil requirements
57
4.2 How the coils are wired together
60
4.3 How to connect cable to coils
61
4.4 Specifications of sensor coil
62
4.5 Sensor coils parts list
62
4.6 Construction of sensor coils
63
5 Amplifier 69
5.1 Why a differential amplifier is best
70
5.2 Why a low noise amplifier is needed
71
5.3 Description of amplifier circuit
71
5.4 Supplying power to the amplifier
73
5.5 Layout of amplifier circuit
74
5.6 Capacitors at amplifier input
75
5.7 Estimating precession frequency
78
5.8 Amplifier parts list
79
6 Data Acquisition and PC Control 87
6.1 What sampling rate to use
88
6.2 What resolution to use
89
6.3 How long to take data
90
6.4 The ADC board used in the Magnum
90
6.5 Pulse controller and data acquisition software
92
7 Data Processing and Analysis 101
7.1 Signal averaging
101
7.1.1 Why it improves signal to noise ratio
101
7.1.2 Limits due to MOSFET slow down
102
7.2 Filtering the data
103
7.3 Spectral analysis using the FFT
108
7.4 Converting bin number to actual frequency
112
7.5 High resolution spectrum for peak location
113
A Magnum Control Program 117
B Microcontroller Program 129