Study of Language 5th Revised edition [Pehme köide]

(Uuem väljaanne: 9781316606759)
(University of Hawaii, Manoa)
  • Formaat: Paperback, 334 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 246x189x14 mm, kaal: 730 g, 33 b/w illus. 34 colour illus. 3 tables 310 exercises
  • Ilmumisaeg: 10-Mar-2014
  • Kirjastus: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN-10: 1107658179
  • ISBN-13: 9781107658172 (Uuem väljaanne: 9781316606759)
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  • Formaat: Paperback, 334 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 246x189x14 mm, kaal: 730 g, 33 b/w illus. 34 colour illus. 3 tables 310 exercises
  • Ilmumisaeg: 10-Mar-2014
  • Kirjastus: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN-10: 1107658179
  • ISBN-13: 9781107658172 (Uuem väljaanne: 9781316606759)
Teised raamatud teemal:
This bestselling textbook provides an engaging and user-friendly introduction to the study of language. Assuming no prior knowledge of the subject, Yule presents information in bite-sized sections, clearly explaining the major concepts in linguistics - from how children learn language to why men and women speak differently, through all the key elements of language. This fifth edition has been revised and updated with new figures and tables, additional topics, and numerous new examples using languages from across the world. To increase student engagement and to foster problem-solving and critical thinking skills, the book includes thirty new tasks. An expanded and revised online study guide provides students with further resources, including answers and tutorials for all tasks, while encouraging lively and proactive learning. This is the most fundamental and easy-to-use introduction to the study of language.

Arvustused

'... the obvious choice for the beginner language student.' Torill Hestetr'et, University of Bergen '... an excellent overview of the central topics in linguistics and how linguists study language.' Daniel W. Hieber, Content Editor, Rosetta Stone '... a clear and concise introduction to linguistics suitable for beginners.' Jeffrey Gil, Flinders University, Adelaide '... with updated material for practice and discussion, it will continue to inspire new generations of students.' Stephen Matthews, University of Hong Kong

Preface xi
1 The origins of language
The divine source
2(1)
The natural sound source
2(1)
The "bow-wow" theory
3(1)
The "pooh-pooh" theory
3(1)
The social interaction source
3(1)
The physical adaptation source
4(1)
Teeth and lips
4(1)
Mouth and tongue
5(1)
Larynx and pharynx
5(1)
The tool-making source
5(1)
The human brain
6(1)
The genetic source
6(2)
Study questions
8(1)
Tasks
8(1)
Discussion topics/projects
9(1)
Further reading
9(3)
2 Animals and human language
Communication
12(1)
Properties of human language
12(4)
Displacement
13(1)
Arbitrariness
13(1)
Productivity
14(1)
Cultural transmission
15(1)
Duality
16(1)
Talking to animals
16(1)
Chimpanzees and language
17(3)
Washoe
17(1)
Sarah
18(1)
Lana
19(1)
The controversy
19(1)
Kanzi
20(1)
Using language
20(2)
Study questions
22(1)
Tasks
22(1)
Discussion topics/projects
23(1)
Further reading
24(3)
3 The sounds of language
Phonetics
27(1)
Voiced and voiceless sounds
27(1)
Place of articulation
27(1)
Consonants
28(2)
Familiar symbols
28(1)
Unfamiliar symbols
29(1)
Consonants: manner of articulation
30(1)
Stops
30(1)
Fricatives
30(1)
Affricates
30(1)
Nasals
31(1)
Liquids
31(1)
Glides
31(1)
A consonant chart
31(1)
Glottal stops and flaps
31(1)
Vowels
32(1)
Diphthongs
33(1)
Subtle individual variation
34(1)
Study questions
35(1)
Tasks
35(2)
Discussion topics/projects
37(1)
Further reading
37(3)
4 The sound patterns of language
Phonology
40(1)
Phonemes
40(1)
Natural classes
41(1)
Phones and allophones
41(1)
Minimal pairs and sets
42(1)
Phonotactics
43(1)
Syllables
43(1)
Consonant clusters
44(1)
Coarticulation effects
44(3)
Assimilation
45(1)
Nasalization
45(1)
Elision
46(1)
Normal speech
46(1)
Study questions
47(1)
Tasks
47(1)
Discussion topics/projects
48(1)
Bob Belviso translated
49(1)
Further reading
49(2)
5 Word formation
Neologisms
51(1)
Etymology
51(1)
Borrowing
52(1)
Loan-translation
52(1)
Compounding
53(1)
Blending
53(1)
Clipping
54(1)
Hypocorisms
54(1)
Backformation
54(1)
Conversion
55(1)
Coinage
56(1)
Acronyms
56(1)
Derivation
57(1)
Prefixes and suffixes
57(1)
Infixes
57(1)
Multiple processes
58(1)
Study questions
59(1)
Tasks
60(2)
Discussion topics/projects
62(1)
Further reading
63(3)
6 Morphology
Morphology
66(1)
Morphemes
66(1)
Free and bound morphemes
66(2)
Lexical and functional morphemes
67(1)
Derivational morphemes
67(1)
Inflectional morphemes
68(1)
Morphological description
68(1)
Problems in morphological description
69(1)
Morphs and allomorphs
69(1)
Other languages
70(3)
Kanuri
70(1)
Ganda
71(1)
Ilocano
71(1)
Tagalog
71(2)
Study questions
73(1)
Tasks
73(3)
Discussion topics/projects
76(2)
Further reading
78(2)
7 Grammar
English grammar
80(1)
Traditional grammar
80(3)
The parts of speech
80(1)
Agreement
81(1)
Grammatical gender
82(1)
Traditional analysis
83(1)
The prescriptive approach
83(1)
Captain Kirk's infinitive
84(1)
The descriptive approach
84(5)
Structural analysis
85(1)
Constituent analysis
85(1)
Labeled and bracketed sentences
86(1)
Hierarchical organization
87(1)
A Gaelic sentence
87(1)
Why study grammar?
88(1)
Study questions
89(1)
Tasks
89(3)
Discussion topics/projects
92(1)
Further reading
93(2)
8 Syntax
Syntactic rules
95(1)
A generative grammar
95(1)
Deep and surface structure
96(1)
Structural ambiguity
96(1)
Tree diagrams
97(1)
Tree diagram of an English sentence
97(1)
Symbols used in syntactic analysis
98(1)
Phrase structure rules
99(1)
Lexical rules
100(1)
Movement rules
101(2)
Study questions
103(1)
Tasks
104(2)
Discussion topics/projects
106(2)
Further reading
108(2)
9 Semantics
Meaning
110(1)
Semantic features
110(2)
Words as containers of meaning
111(1)
Semantic roles
112(1)
Agent and theme
112(1)
Instrument and experiencer
112(1)
Location, source and goal
113(1)
Lexical relations
113(5)
Synonymy
113(1)
Antonymy
114(1)
Hyponymy
115(1)
Prototypes
116(1)
Homophones and homonyms
116(1)
Polysemy
117(1)
Word play
117(1)
Metonymy
118(1)
Collocation
118(2)
Study questions
120(1)
Tasks
120(3)
Discussion topics/projects
123(1)
Further reading
123(3)
10 Pragmatics
Pragmatics
126(1)
Context
127(1)
Deixis
128(1)
Reference
128(3)
Inference
129(1)
Anaphora
129(1)
Presupposition
130(1)
Speech acts
131(1)
Direct and indirect speech acts
131(1)
Politeness
132(2)
Negative and positive face
133(1)
Study questions
134(1)
Tasks
134(2)
Discussion topics/projects
136(2)
Further reading
138(2)
11 Discourse analysis
Discourse
140(3)
Interpreting discourse
140(1)
Cohesion
141(1)
Coherence
142(1)
Speech events
142(1)
Conversation analysis
143(1)
Turn-taking
143(1)
The co-operative principle
144(2)
Hedges
145(1)
Implicatures
146(1)
Background knowledge
146(3)
Schemas and scripts
147(2)
Study questions
149(1)
Tasks
149(2)
Discussion topics/projects
151(1)
Further reading
152(3)
12 Language and the brain
Neurolinguistics
155(1)
Language areas in the brain
155(3)
Broca's area
156(1)
Wernicke's area
156(1)
The motor cortex and the arcuate fasciculus
157(1)
The localization view
157(1)
Tongue tips and slips
158(2)
The tip of the tongue phenomenon
158(1)
Slips of the tongue
158(1)
Slips of the brain
159(1)
Slips of the ear
159(1)
Aphasia
160(1)
Broca's aphasia
160(1)
Wernicke's aphasia
160(1)
Conduction aphasia
161(1)
Dichotic listening
161(2)
Left brain, right brain
162(1)
The critical period
163(2)
Genie
163(2)
Study questions
165(1)
Tasks
165(1)
Discussion topics/projects
166(1)
Further reading
167(3)
13 First language acquisition
Acquisition
170(1)
Input
170(1)
Caregiver speech
171(1)
The acquisition schedule
171(3)
Cooing
172(1)
Babbling
172(1)
The one-word stage
173(1)
The two-word stage
173(1)
Telegraphic speech
174(1)
The acquisition process
174(2)
Learning through imitation?
175(1)
Learning through correction?
175(1)
Developing morphology
176(1)
Developing syntax
177(1)
Forming questions
177(1)
Forming negatives
178(1)
Developing semantics
178(3)
Later developments
179(2)
Study questions
181(1)
Tasks
181(2)
Discussion topics/projects
183(1)
Further reading
184(3)
14 Second language acquisition/learning
Second language learning
187(2)
Acquisition and learning
187(1)
Acquisition barriers
187(1)
The age factor
188(1)
Affective factors
188(1)
Focus on teaching method
189(1)
The grammar-translation method
189(1)
The audiolingual method
190(1)
Communicative approaches
190(1)
Focus on the learner
190(4)
Transfer
191(1)
Interlanguage
191(1)
Motivation
192(1)
Input and output
192(1)
Task-based learning
193(1)
Communicative competence
194(1)
Applied linguistics
194(2)
Study questions
196(1)
Tasks
196(2)
Discussion topics/projects
198(1)
Further reading
198(3)
15 Gestures and sign languages
Gestures
201(1)
Iconics
201(1)
Deictics
201(1)
Beats
202(1)
Types of sign languages
202(1)
Oralism
203(1)
Signed English
203(1)
Origins of ASL
204(1)
The structure of signs
204(2)
Shape and orientation
205(1)
Location
205(1)
Movement
205(1)
Primes
205(1)
Facial expressions and finger-spelling
206(1)
The meaning of signs
206(1)
Representing signs
207(1)
ASL as a natural language
208(1)
Study questions
209(1)
Tasks
209(1)
Discussion topics/projects
210(1)
Further reading
210(3)
16 Written language
Writing
213(2)
Pictograms
213(1)
Ideograms
213(1)
Logograms
214(1)
Phonographic writing
215(1)
The rebus principle
216(1)
Syllabic writing
216(1)
Alphabetic writing
217(1)
Written English
218(3)
English orthography
219(2)
Study questions
221(1)
Tasks
221(1)
Discussion topics/projects
222(2)
Further reading
224(3)
17 Language history and change
Family trees
227(1)
Indo-European
227(1)
Cognates
228(1)
Comparative reconstruction
228(2)
General principles
229(1)
Sound reconstruction
229(1)
Word reconstruction
230(1)
The history of English
230(2)
Old English
231(1)
Middle English
231(1)
Sound changes
232(2)
Metathesis
233(1)
Epenthesis
233(1)
Prothesis
234(1)
Syntactic changes
234(1)
Loss of inflections
234(1)
Semantic changes
235(1)
Broadening of meaning
235(1)
Narrowing of meaning
235(1)
Diachronic and synchronic variation
236(1)
Study questions
237(1)
Tasks
237(2)
Discussion topics/projects
239(1)
Further reading
240(3)
18 Regional variation in language
The standard language
243(1)
Accent and dialect
243(1)
Variation in grammar
244(1)
Dialectology
244(3)
Regional dialects
244(1)
Isoglosses and dialect boundaries
245(1)
The dialect continuum
246(1)
Bilingualism
247(2)
Diglossia
248(1)
Language planning
249(1)
Pidgins
250(1)
Creoles
251(1)
The post-creole continuum
251(1)
Study questions
252(1)
Tasks
252(2)
Discussion topics/projects
254(1)
Further reading
254(3)
19 Social variation in language
Sociolinguistics
257(2)
Social dialects
257(1)
Education and occupation
257(2)
Social markers
259(1)
Speech style and style-shifting
259(2)
Prestige
260(1)
Speech accommodation
261(1)
Convergence
261(1)
Divergence
261(1)
Register
261(1)
Jargon
262(1)
Slang
262(1)
Taboo terms
263(1)
African American English
263(3)
Vernacular language
263(1)
The sounds of a vernacular
264(1)
The grammar of a vernacular
264(2)
Study questions
266(1)
Tasks
266(2)
Discussion topics/projects
268(1)
Further reading
268(3)
20 Language and culture
Culture
271(1)
Categories
271(2)
Kinship terms
272(1)
Time concepts
272(1)
Linguistic relativity
273(2)
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
273(1)
Against the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
274(1)
Snow
274(1)
Non-lexicalized categories
275(1)
Cognitive categories
275(1)
Classifiers
276(1)
Social categories
276(2)
Address terms
277(1)
Gender
278(3)
Gendered words
278(1)
Gendered structures
279(1)
Gendered speech
279(1)
Same-gender talk
280(1)
Gendered interaction
280(1)
Study questions
281(1)
Tasks
281(3)
Discussion topics/projects
284(1)
Further reading
284(2)
Glossary 286(14)
References 300(12)
Index 312
George Yule has taught linguistics at the University of Edinburgh, the University of Hawai'i, the University of Minnesota and Louisiana State University.

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