Torture of Children During Armed Conflicts: The ICC's Failure to Prosecute and the Negation of Children's Human Dignity 2014 ed. [Kõva köide]

  • Formaat: Hardback, 228 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 235x155x16 mm, kaal: 537 g, XVIII, 228 p.
  • Ilmumisaeg: 24-Oct-2013
  • Kirjastus: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K
  • ISBN-10: 3642406882
  • ISBN-13: 9783642406881
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  • Formaat: Hardback, 228 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 235x155x16 mm, kaal: 537 g, XVIII, 228 p.
  • Ilmumisaeg: 24-Oct-2013
  • Kirjastus: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K
  • ISBN-10: 3642406882
  • ISBN-13: 9783642406881
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This book examines selected legal complexities of the notion of torture and the issue of the proper foundation for legally characterizing certain acts as torture, especially when children are the targeted victims of torture. ICC case law is used to highlight the International Criminal Court’s reluctance in practice to prosecute as a separable offence the crime of torture as set out in one or more of the relevant provisions of the Rome Statute where children are the particularized targets as part of a common plan during armed conflict. Also addressed is the failure of the ICC to consider that the young age of the victims of torture (i.e. children) should be an aggravating factor taken into account in determining the ICC sentence for those convicted of the torture of civilians, including children, in the context of armed conflict as part of a common plan. The six UN-designated grave crimes against children (including child soldiering for State or non-State forces perpetrating mass atrocities, and sexual violence perpetrated on a systematic and widespread basis against children including child soldiers), it is argued, are also instances of the torture of children as part of a common plan such that separate charges of torture are legally supportable (along with the other charges relating to additional Rome Statute offences involved in such circumstances). Useful legal perspectives on the issue of the torture of children in its various manifestations gleaned from the case law of other international judicial forums such as the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and the ICTY are also examined.



This book examines certain of the legal complexities of the notion of torture and the issue of the proper foundation for legally characterizing certain acts as torture and, in particular, where children are the targeted victims.
1 Contentious Issues Regarding What Constitutes Torture
1(46)
1.1 The Torture of Children by Any Other Name is Still Torture
1(8)
1.1.1 Torture as an International Crime: Remaining Ambiguities in the Legal Concept
5(4)
1.2 `Child Abuse' vs. `Child Torture' as Legal Concepts Under International Law
9(4)
1.3 More on the Indeterminacy in the Legal Concept of Torture as an International Crime
13(13)
1.4 Children as the Particularized Targets for Torture During Armed Conflict
26(3)
1.5 The UN Designated Six Grave Crimes Against Children
29(18)
1.5.1 The Six Grave Crimes Against Children and the Syrian Conflict
31(4)
1.5.2 The UN Designated Six Grave Crimes Against Children as Torture
35(8)
References
43(1)
Materials
44(1)
Cases
45(2)
2 Selected ICC Cases Involving the Systematic Torture of Children Where Torture was Not Charged
47(52)
2.1 The Prosecutor v Joseph Kony, Vincent Otti, Okot Odhiambo, and Dominic Ongwen
47(2)
2.2 LRA Atrocities Perpetrated Against Children as Constituting Torture
49(12)
2.3 The Backlash Against the Kony 2012 YouTube Video: Inconvenient Truths Regarding Barriers to Justice for Child Torture Victims under International Criminal Law
61(9)
2.4 The Prosecutor v Thomas Lubanga Dyilo
70(9)
2.4.1 FPLC Child Soldiering: Torture as a War Crime
72(4)
2.4.2 Sexual Violence Perpetrated Against the FPLC Child `Recruits': Torture as a War Crime
76(3)
2.5 Situation in the Republic of Cote D'Ivoire in the Case of the Prosecutor v Simone Gbagbo
79(3)
2.6 The Situation in the Central African Republic in the Case of the Prosecutor v Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo
82(17)
2.6.1 Bemba Gombo: Selected Excerpts from the Pre-trial Chamber II Confirmation Decision (15 June, 2009)
82(5)
2.6.2 Mass Rape as `Torture' and an `Outrage on Personal Dignity': The Cumulative Charging Issue
87(8)
References
95(1)
Literature
95(1)
Materials
96(1)
Cases
97(2)
3 Selected ICC Cases in which Torture Charges Were Brought but the Special Targeting of Children for Torture Not Addressed
99(10)
3.1 Situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo in the Case of the Prosecutor v Sylvester Mudacamura
99(2)
3.2 Commentary on the Prosecutor v Sylvester Mudacamura
101(1)
3.3 Situation in Darfur and the Prosecutor v Ahmad Muhammad Harun ("Ahmad Harun") and Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman ("Ali Kushayb")
102(7)
References
106(1)
Literature
106(1)
Cases
106(1)
Materials
107(2)
4 Lessons From the Inter-American Court of Human Rights: Addressing Child Torture
109(18)
4.1 Case of the Gomez-Paquiyauri Brothers v. Peru
111(16)
References
125(1)
Materials
126(1)
Cases
126(1)
5 The Enforced Disappearance of Children as Torture
127(28)
5.1 Introduction
127(3)
5.2 Additional IACtHR Cases Re the `Enforced Disappearance' of Children
130(4)
5.2.1 Excerpts from Molina Theissen v Guatemala
130(4)
5.3 `Enforced Disappearance' of Children as Torture Gone Unacknowledged by the ICC
134(2)
5.4 A Case Example: `Enforced Disappearance' in Darfur
136(2)
5.5 Some History on the Prosecution of `Enforced Disappearance' Under International Criminal Law
138(2)
5.6 The Connection between the International Crimes of `Enforced Disappearance', Torture and Murder
140(2)
5.7 The Continuous Nature of the Crime of `Enforced Disappearance' of Children
142(4)
5.8 The IACtHR Serrano Cruz Sisters Case: Enforced Disappearance as a Continuous Crime
146(9)
5.8.1 Excerpts from the Dissenting Opinion of Judge Cancado Trinidade: IACtHR Judgement in Serrano Cruz Sisters Case
147(6)
References
153(1)
Materials
153(1)
Cases
153(2)
6 The Non-Materialization of ICC Charges of `Enforced Disappearance'
155(6)
6.1 On `Enforced Disappearance' in Darfur: Re-Examining the View of Former ICC Prosecutor Mr. Moreno-Ocampo
155(3)
6.1.1 Child Recruitment and Deployment
156(1)
6.1.2 Armed Groups
156(1)
6.1.3 Armed Groups in Darfur
157(1)
6.1.4 Chadian-Backed Sudanese Armed Opposition Groups
157(1)
6.1.5 Lord's Resistance Army (LRA)
157(1)
6.2 Situation in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya: Prosecutor v Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi, Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi, and Abdullah Al-Senussi
158(3)
References
159(1)
Cases
159(2)
7 `Murder', `Wilful Killing' or `Extra-Judicial Killings' of Children as Conflict Strategy and a Form of Torture
161(10)
7.1 Extra Judicial Killing: Inter-American Commission of Human Rights Report No. 33/04 in Jailton Neri Da Fonseca v Brazil 11 March, 2004
161(2)
7.2 `Murder' and `Wilful Killing' as Psychological Torture: The ICC Case of Prosecutor v Germain Katanga and Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui (Democratic Republic of Congo)
163(8)
References
170(1)
Literature
170(1)
Materials
170(1)
Cases
170(1)
8 The International Legal Responsibility to Child Victims of Systematic Torture During Armed Conflict
171(44)
8.1 Preliminary Comments
171(2)
8.2 Lessons Yet to be Learned Given the Failure of the ICC to Acknowledge the Systematic Widespread Torture of Children During Armed Conflict
173(17)
8.2.1 Child Soldiering for Perpetrator Armed Forces as Torture
173(6)
8.2.2 The Rape of Children by Perpetrator Armed Forces as Torture
179(6)
8.2.3 Torture Under the Rome Statute and the Young Age of the Victims
185(1)
8.2.4 Children's Juridical Personality, Their Right to the Full Measure of International Criminal Justice and to Reparations for Torture Suffered During Armed Conflict
186(2)
8.2.5 The Widespread and Systematic Targeting of Children for Torture as Intimidation of the Populace: A Cautionary Tale on the `International Responsibility to Protect' the Vulnerable
188(2)
8.3 Speaking of Torture and the Complicity of the International Community
190(1)
8.4 UN Peacekeepers and the Torture of Children as an International Crime
191(24)
8.4.1 On the Issue of the Number of Victims and Gravity of the International Crime: UN Peacekeepers as Victims
191(2)
8.4.2 The Prosecutor v Abdallah Banda Abaeker Nourain and Saleh Mohammed Jerboa Jamus
193(1)
8.4.3 UN Peacekeepers as Perpetrators: The Torture and Murder of Shidane Abukar Arone by Canadian UN Peacekeepers as a Case Example
194(4)
8.4.4 Gender-Based International Crimes Perpetrated by UN Peacekeepers
198(2)
8.4.5 Prosecuting UN Peacekeepers at the ICC for Torture and Other Grave International Crimes Perpetrated Against Children
200(11)
References
211(1)
Literature
211(1)
Materials
212(1)
Cases
213(2)
9 Conclusion
215(10)
9.1 A Final Comment
215(10)
References
223(2)
Index 225

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