Ceramic Processing 2nd New edition [Kõva köide]

(University of Missouri-Rolla, USA)
  • Formaat: Hardback, 526 pages, kõrgus x laius: 254x178 mm, kaal: 1157 g, 441 Illustrations, black and white
  • Ilmumisaeg: 07-Jun-2017
  • Kirjastus: Productivity Press
  • ISBN-10: 1498716415
  • ISBN-13: 9781498716413
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  • Formaat: Hardback, 526 pages, kõrgus x laius: 254x178 mm, kaal: 1157 g, 441 Illustrations, black and white
  • Ilmumisaeg: 07-Jun-2017
  • Kirjastus: Productivity Press
  • ISBN-10: 1498716415
  • ISBN-13: 9781498716413
Teised raamatud teemal:

Many of the properties critical to the engineering applications of ceramics are strongly dependent on their microstructure which, in turn, is dependent on the processing methods used to produce the ceramic material. Ceramic Processing, Second Edition provides a comprehensive treatment of the principles and practical methods used in producing ceramics with controlled microstructure.

Covering the main steps in the production of ceramics from powders, the book also provides succinct coverage of other methods for fabricating ceramics, such as sol-gel processing, reaction bonding, chemical vapor deposition and polymer pyrolysis.

While maintaining the objectives of the successful first edition, this new edition has been revised and updated to include recent developments and expanded to feature new chapters on additives used in ceramic processing; rheological properties of suspensions, slurries, and pastes; granulation, mixing, and packing of particles; and sintering theory and principles.

Intended as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in ceramic processing, the book also provides an indispensable resource for research and development engineers in industry who are involved in the production of ceramics or who would like to develop a background in the processing of ceramics.

Arvustused

"The approach is clearly very thorough and seems as if it will be pretty detailed. This book appears to be very thorough in terms of the facts about processes used and how / why they work..." -Jon Binner, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom "The book covers a vast amount of information about ceramic processing. The complexity of the field makes it extremely difficult to present in a coherent and educational manner. Rahaman's book achieves this goal by building on the success of the first edition, with topics being covered in enough depth to provide a comprehensive understanding, while not impounding the massive complexities that can sometimes deviate the reader's attention and discourage reading. The book catches the readers' attention by connecting theories with a balanced number of examples, case studies and problems so that concepts are more easily understood and translated to actual processing. -Ricardo Castro, University of California, Davis, USA "An excellent book for students and researchers in the field of ceramic processing." -Jim Song, Brunel University, Uxbridge, London, United Kingdom "Rahaman's book is an excellent text book from which to teach/learn the principles of ceramic processing. He develops the underlying science in a systematic manner where the science can be correlated with other related topics in disciplines such as chemistry and physics. The book covers all the main areas of the field and is up to date. I do not want to put any other books down, but this is the only text book which I have found to cover the field of ceramic processing in sufficient systematic breadth and also depth." -Waltraud M. Kriven, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA "This book is an invaluable addition to the literature on making ceramics. It covers the various steps in manufacture of ceramic components in sufficient depth to be useful to researchers, but in an accessible fashion for teaching undergraduates and graduate students. It will also find a place on the bookshelves of anyone involved with commercial ceramic manufacturers." -William E Lee, Imperial College London, United Kingdom "Ceramic processing by Rahaman is an excellent text that introduces undergrad student to the complex and highly varied topic of making ceramics from molecules or powder to the final product. It is furthermore an excellent resource for graduate students and professionals. The chapters are easy to read and understand, yet in depth and high quality. I highly recommend this book to anyone who wants to know more about the field of ceramic processing." -Wolfgang Sigmund, University of Florida, USA "Ceramic Processing provides a clear and complete coverage of the fundamental principles and practical aspects of ceramic processing. The book follows a clear logic flow both in its entire structure and local content. It contains conventional techniques as well as modern processes in the field such as sintering of nano-powders, use of additive manufacturing methods, spark plasma sintering and microwave sintering. Very little is missed as far as ceramic processing techniques are concerned. The book can be used as either a text book for students or a good reference for researchers in this field." -Jingzhe Pan, University of Leicester, United Kingdom

Preface xix
Acknowledgments xxi
Author xxiii
Chapter 1 Ceramic Fabrication Processes: An Introductory Overview 1(18)
1.1 Introduction
1(1)
1.2 Ceramic Fabrication Processes
2(3)
1.3 Production of Ceramics from Powders: An Overview
5(10)
1.3.1 Powder Preparation and Characterization
7(1)
1.3.2 Powder Consolidation
8(1)
1.3.3 Sintering Process
9(3)
1.3.4 Ceramic Microstructures
12(3)
1.4 Case Study in Processing: Fabrication of Al2O3 from Powders
15(2)
1.5 Concluding Remarks
17(1)
References
17(2)
Chapter 2 Synthesis and Preparation of Powders: Mechanical Methods 19(16)
2.1 Introduction
19(1)
2.2 Powder Characteristics
20(2)
2.2.1 Desirable Powder Characteristics for Advanced Ceramics
21(1)
2.3 Powder Preparation by Mechanical Methods
22(1)
2.4 High-Compression Roller Mills
23(1)
2.5 Jet Mills
24(1)
2.6 Ball Mills
25(5)
2.6.1 Tumbling Ball Mills
25(4)
2.6.1.1 Mill Parameters
25(1)
2.6.1.2 Grinding Media
26(1)
2.6.1.3 Particle Parameters
26(1)
2.6.1.4 Empirical Relationship for Ball Milling
27(1)
2.6.1.5 Practical Considerations
28(1)
2.6.2 Vibratory Ball Mills
29(1)
2.6.3 Attrition Mills
29(1)
2.6.4 Planetary Ball Mills
29(1)
2.7 High-Energy Ball Milling
30(2)
2.8 Concluding Remarks
32(1)
Problems
32(1)
References
32(3)
Chapter 3 Powder Synthesis by Chemical Methods 35(44)
3.1 Introduction
35(1)
3.2 Solid-State Reactions
35(11)
3.2.1 Decomposition
35(6)
3.2.2 Reaction between Solids
41(4)
3.2.3 Reduction
45(1)
3.3 Precipitation from Liquid Solutions
46(21)
3.3.1 Principles of Precipitation from Solution
46(6)
3.3.1.1 Nucleation of Particles
46(2)
3.3.1.2 Growth of Particles
48(2)
3.3.1.3 Controlled Particle Size Distribution
50(1)
3.3.1.4 Particle Growth by Aggregation
51(1)
3.3.1.5 Particle Growth by Ostwald Ripening
52(1)
3.3.2 Methods for Preparing Powders by Hydrolysis
52(10)
3.3.2.1 Hydrolysis of Solutions of Metal Alkoxides
52(2)
3.3.2.2 Hydrolysis of Solutions of Metal Salts
54(3)
3.3.2.3 Coprecipitation of Complex Oxides
57(1)
3.3.2.4 Precipitation under Hydrothermal Conditions
58(1)
3.3.2.5 Heterogeneous Precipitation to Form Coated Particles
59(3)
3.3.2.6 Industrial Preparation of Powders by Precipitation from Solution
62(1)
3.3.3 Precipitation Methods Based on Evaporation of the Liquid
62(5)
3.3.3.1 Spray Drying
62(1)
3.3.3.2 Spray Pyrolysis
63(3)
3.3.3.3 Spray Drying of Suspensions
66(1)
3.4 Freeze Drying
67(1)
3.5 Gel Routes
67(2)
3.5.1 Sol-Gel Processing
67(1)
3.5.2 Pechini Method
68(1)
3.5.3 Citrate Gel Method
68(1)
3.5.4 Glycine Nitrate Process
68(1)
3.6 Nonaqueous Liquid Reaction
69(1)
3.7 Vapor-Phase Reactions
69(4)
3.7.1 Gas-Solid Reaction
70(1)
3.7.2 Reaction between Gases
71(2)
3.8 Concluding Remarks
73(1)
Problems
73(2)
References
75(4)
Chapter 4 Synthesis of Ceramic Nanoparticles 79(10)
4.1 Introduction
79(1)
4.2 Methods for Synthesizing Ceramic Nanoparticles
79(1)
4.3 Solid-Solid Methods
79(1)
4.4 Solid-Vapor-Solid Methods
80(2)
4.5 Liquid-Solid Methods
82(1)
4.6 Liquid-Vapor-Solid Methods
83(2)
4.7 Concluding Remarks
85(2)
Problems
87(1)
References
87(2)
Chapter 5 Powder Characterization 89(44)
5.1 Introduction
89(1)
5.2 Physical Characterization
89(25)
5.2.1 Types of Particles
89(3)
5.2.1.1 Primary Particles
89(1)
5.2.1.2 Agglomerates
90(1)
5.2.1.3 Particles
91(1)
5.2.1.4 Granules
91(1)
5.2.1.5 Flocs
91(1)
5.2.1.6 Colloids
92(1)
5.2.1.7 Aggregates
92(1)
5.2.2 Particle Size and Particle Size Distribution
92(6)
5.2.2.1 Definition of Particle Size
92(1)
5.2.2.2 Average Particle Size
93(2)
5.2.2.3 Representation of Particle Size Data
95(3)
5.2.3 Particle Shape
98(1)
5.2.4 Measurement of Particle Size and Size Distribution
98(8)
5.2.4.1 Microscopy
98(1)
5.2.4.2 Sieving
99(2)
5.2.4.3 Sedimentation
101(1)
5.2.4.4 Electrical Sensing Zone Techniques (Coulter Counter)
102(1)
5.2.4.5 Light Scattering
103(2)
5.2.4.6 X-Ray Line Broadening
105(1)
5.2.5 Surface Area
106(2)
5.2.6 Porosity of Particles
108(6)
5.2.6.1 Gas Adsorption (Capillary Condensation)
109(2)
5.2.6.2 Mercury Porosimetry
111(2)
5.2.6.3 Pycnometry
113(1)
5.3 Chemical Composition
114(5)
5.3.1 Optical Atomic Spectroscopy: Atomic Absorption and Atomic Emission
114(2)
5.3.2 X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
116(2)
5.3.3 Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Analysis
118(1)
5.3.4 Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis
118(1)
5.4 Crystal Structure and Phase Composition
119(1)
5.5 Surface Characterization
120(9)
5.5.1 Surface Structure
122(1)
5.5.2 Surface Chemistry
123(11)
5.5.2.1 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
123(2)
5.5.2.2 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
125(1)
5.5.2.3 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)
126(3)
5.6 Concluding Remarks
129(1)
Problems
129(2)
References
131(2)
Chapter 6 Science of Colloidal Processing 133(42)
6.1 Introduction
133(1)
6.2 Types of Colloidal Suspensions
133(1)
6.3 Attractive Surface Forces
134(6)
6.3.1 Van der Waals Forces between Atoms and Molecules
134(2)
6.3.2 Van der Waals Forces between Macroscopic Bodies
136(1)
6.3.3 Hamaker Constant
137(1)
6.3.4 Effect of Intervening Medium
138(2)
6.4 Stabilization of Colloidal Suspensions
140(1)
6.5 Electrostatic Stabilization
141(16)
6.5.1 Development of Charges on Oxide Particles in Water
141(3)
6.5.1.1 Isomorphic Substitution
141(1)
6.5.1.2 Adsorption of Ions from Solution
142(2)
6.5.2 Origins of Electrical Double Layer
144(2)
6.5.3 Isolated Double Layer
146(3)
6.5.4 Surface Charge
149(1)
6.5.5 Repulsion between Two Double Layers
149(2)
6.5.6 Stability of Electrostatically Stabilized Colloids
151(3)
6.5.6.1 Factors Controlling the Stability of Suspensions
153(1)
6.5.7 Kinetics of Flocculation
154(1)
6.5.8 Electrokinetic Phenomena
155(2)
6.5.8.1 Theory
155(1)
6.5.8.2 Significance of C Potential
156(1)
6.6 Steric Stabilization
157(7)
6.6.1 Adsorption of Polymers from Solution
158(1)
6.6.2 Origins of Steric Stabilization
159(2)
6.6.3 Effect of Solvent and Temperature
161(1)
6.6.4 Stability of Sterically Stabilized Suspensions
162(1)
6.6.5 Stabilization by Polymers in Free Solution
163(1)
6.7 Electrosteric Stabilization
164(4)
6.7.1 Dissociation of Polyelectrolytes in Solution
165(1)
6.7.2 Adsorption of Polyelectrolytes from Solution
166(1)
6.7.3 Stability of Electrosterically Stabilized Suspensions
167(1)
6.8 Structure of Consolidated Colloids
168(2)
6.9 Concluding Remarks
170(1)
Problems
170(2)
References
172(3)
Chapter 7 Rheology of Colloidal Suspensions, Slurries, and Pastes 175(18)
7.1 Introduction
175(1)
7.2 Types of Rheological Behavior
175(4)
7.2.1 Viscous Flow Behavior
175(3)
7.2.2 Viscoelastic Behavior
178(1)
7.3 Rheological Measurement
179(1)
7.4 Factors Influencing the Rheology of Colloidal Suspensions
180(10)
7.4.1 Interparticle Forces
180(6)
7.4.1.1 Hard Sphere Systems
180(3)
7.4.1.2 Soft Sphere Systems
183(1)
7.4.1.3 Flocculated Systems
183(1)
7.4.1.4 Effect of Particle Interactions on the Viscosity
183(3)
7.4.2 Particle Concentration
186(1)
7.4.3 Particle Size and Particle Size Distribution
186(2)
7.4.4 Particle Morphology
188(1)
7.4.5 Suspension Medium
188(2)
7.5 Concluding Remarks
190(1)
Problems
190(1)
References
190(3)
Chapter 8 Processing Additives 193(20)
8.1 Introduction
193(1)
8.2 Types of Additives
193(1)
8.3 Solvents
194(3)
8.3.1 Selection of a Solvent
195(2)
8.4 Dispersants
197(5)
8.4.1 Inorganic Acid Salts
197(1)
8.4.2 Surfactants
198(3)
8.4.3 Low to Medium Molecular Weight Polymers
201(1)
8.5 Binders
202(6)
8.5.1 Inorganic Binders
204(1)
8.5.2 Synthetic Organic Binders
204(1)
8.5.3 Natural Organic Binders
204(2)
8.5.4 Selection of a Binder
206(2)
8.6 Plasticizers
208(2)
8.7 Other Additives
210(1)
8.8 Concluding Remarks
211(1)
Problems
211(1)
References
212(1)
Chapter 9 Granulation, Mixing, and Packing of Particles 213(28)
9.1 Introduction
213(1)
9.2 Granulation of Particles
214(5)
9.2.1 Desirable Characteristics of Granules
214(1)
9.2.2 Preparation of Granules
215(1)
9.2.3 Spray Drying
215(1)
9.2.4 Factors Controlling the Characteristics of Spray-Dried Granules
216(2)
9.2.5 Spray Freeze Drying
218(1)
9.3 Mixing of Particulate Solids
219(8)
9.3.1 Mixing and Segregation Mechanisms
219(2)
9.3.2 Mixture Composition and Quality
221(1)
9.3.3 Statistical Methods
222(2)
9.3.3.1 Mixture Composition
222(1)
9.3.3.2 Standard Deviation and Variance
222(1)
9.3.3.3 Theoretical Limits of Standard Deviation
223(1)
9.3.3.4 Mixing Indices
224(1)
9.3.4 Measurement Techniques
224(1)
9.3.5 Mixing Technology
225(2)
9.4 Packing of Particles
227(10)
9.4.1 Regular Packing of Monosize Spheres
227(2)
9.4.2 Random Packing of Particles
229(6)
9.4.2.1 Monosize Particles
230(1)
9.4.2.2 Bimodal Mixtures of Spheres
230(4)
9.4.2.3 Binary Mixtures of Nonspherical Particles
234(1)
9.4.2.4 Ternary and Multiple Mixtures
235(1)
9.4.3 Continuous Particle Size Distributions
235(2)
9.5 Concluding Remarks
237(1)
Problems
238(1)
References
239(2)
Chapter 10 Forming of Ceramics: Conventional Methods 241(44)
10.1 Introduction
241(1)
10.2 Dry or Semidry Pressing
241(9)
10.2.1 Die Compaction
242(6)
10.2.1.1 Die Filling
242(1)
10.2.1.2 Compaction of Particles
242(3)
10.2.1.3 Compaction of Granules
245(3)
10.2.1.4 Ejection of Powder Compact
248(1)
10.2.1.5 Compaction Defects
248(1)
10.2.2 Isostatic Compaction
248(2)
10.3 Suspension-Based Techniques
250(23)
10.3.1 Slip Casting
251(4)
10.3.1.1 Slip Casting Mechanics
252(1)
10.3.1.2 Effect of Permeability of Cast
253(1)
10.3.1.3 Effect of Mold Parameters
254(1)
10.3.1.4 Effect of Slurry Parameters
254(1)
10.3.1.5 Microstructural Defects in Slip-Cast Green Articles
255(1)
10.3.2 Pressure Casting
255(2)
10.3.3 Tape Casting
257(4)
10.3.3.1 Slurry Preparation
258(2)
10.3.3.2 Tape Casting Process
260(1)
10.3.3.3 Microstructural Flaws in Tape-Cast Sheets
261(1)
10.3.4 Centrifugal Consolidation
261(1)
10.3.5 Dip and Spin Coating
262(2)
10.3.6 Electrophoretic Deposition
264(4)
10.3.6.1 Kinetics and Mechanisms of Deposition
265(1)
10.3.6.2 Applications of Electrophoretic Deposition
266(1)
10.3.6.3 Electrophoretic Deposition on Porous Nonconductors
267(1)
10.3.7 Freeze Casting
268(1)
10.3.8 Gelcasting
269(2)
10.3.8.1 Monomers and Polymerization
270(1)
10.3.8.2 Mold Materials
271(1)
10.3.9 Direct Coagulation Casting
271(1)
10.3.10 Aqueous Injection Molding
271(2)
10.4 Plastic Forming Methods
273(8)
10.4.1 Extrusion
273(3)
10.4.1.1 Extrusion Mechanics
275(1)
10.4.1.2 Extrusion Defects
276(1)
10.4.2 Coextrusion
276(1)
10.4.3 Injection Molding
277(9)
10.4.3.1 Powder Characteristics
278(1)
10.4.3.2 Binder System
278(1)
10.4.3.3 Powder-Binder Mixture
278(1)
10.4.3.4 Molding
279(2)
10.5 Concluding Remarks
281(1)
Problems
281(1)
References
282(3)
Chapter 11 Additive Manufacturing of Ceramics 285(14)
11.1 Introduction
285(1)
11.2 Powder Methods
286(2)
11.2.1 Selective Laser Sintering
286(1)
11.2.2 Three-Dimensional Printing
287(1)
11.3 Particle-Filled Polymer Methods
288(2)
11.3.1 Fused Deposition Modeling
288(1)
11.3.2 Laminated Object Manufacturing
289(1)
11.4 Suspension-Based Methods
290(6)
11.4.1 Stereolithography
290(1)
11.4.2 Inkjet Printing
291(2)
11.4.3 Robocasting
293(2)
11.4.4 Freeze Extrusion Fabrication
295(1)
11.5 Concluding Remarks
296(1)
Problems
296(1)
References
297(2)
Chapter 12 Drying, Debinding, and Microstructural Characterization of Green Articles 299(32)
12.1 Introduction
299(1)
12.2 Drying of Granular Ceramics
300(15)
12.2.1 Drying of Drops of a Suspension on a Surface
300(1)
12.2.2 Drying of Adherent Coatings
301(4)
12.2.2.1 Measurement of Drying Stress
301(3)
12.2.2.2 Cracking during Drying of Adherent Coatings
304(1)
12.2.3 Drying of Three-Dimensional Solids
305(9)
12.2.3.1 Stages of Drying
305(5)
12.2.3.2 Moisture Distribution and Movement
310(2)
12.2.3.3 Drying Stresses
312(1)
12.2.3.4 Warping and Cracking
313(1)
12.2.3.5 Avoidance of Warping and Cracking
314(1)
12.2.4 Drying Technology
314(1)
12.3 Binder Removal (Debinding)
315(10)
12.3.1 Extraction of Binder by Capillary Flow
316(1)
12.3.2 Solvent Extraction
317(1)
12.3.3 Supercritical Fluid Extraction
317(1)
12.3.4 Thermal Debinding
317(7)
12.3.4.1 Binder Degradation
318(1)
12.3.4.2 Stages of Thermal Debinding
318(2)
12.3.4.3 Binder Redistribution
320(1)
12.3.4.4 Effect of Ceramic Surface Interactions
321(2)
12.3.4.5 Models for Thermal Debinding
323(1)
12.3.5 Thermal Debinding Process Design
324(1)
12.4 Green Microstructures and Their Characterization
325(2)
12.5 Concluding Remarks
327(1)
Problems
327(1)
References
328(3)
Chapter 13 Principles of Sintering and Microstructural Development 331(66)
13.1 Introduction
331(3)
13.1.1 Types of Sintering
331(1)
13.1.2 Measurement of Sintering
332(2)
13.1.3 Analysis of Sintering
334(1)
13.2 Solid-State Sintering
334(17)
13.2.1 Driving Force for Sintering
334(1)
13.2.2 Effects of Surface Curvature
335(4)
13.2.2.1 Stress on Atoms under a Curved Surface
335(1)
13.2.2.2 Chemical Potential of Atoms under a Curved Surface
336(1)
13.2.2.3 Vacancy Concentration under a Curved Surface
337(1)
13.2.2.4 Vapor Pressure over a Curved Surface
338(1)
13.2.3 Grain Boundary Effects
339(2)
13.2.4 Mechanisms of Sintering
341(1)
13.2.5 Stages of Sintering
342(2)
13.2.6 Theoretical Analysis of Solid-State Sintering
344(7)
13.2.6.1 Analytical Models
344(6)
13.2.6.2 Herring Scaling Law
350(1)
13.2.6.3 Numerical Simulations
350(1)
13.2.6.4 Phenomenological Sintering Equations
350(1)
13.3 Grain Growth
351(22)
13.3.1 Types of Grain Growth
352(1)
13.3.2 Importance of Controlling Grain Growth during Sintering
352(1)
13.3.3 Normal Grain Growth
353(4)
13.3.4 Abnormal Grain Growth
357(2)
13.3.5 Ostwald Ripening
359(3)
13.3.6 Control of Grain Growth
362(6)
13.3.6.1 Effect of Dopants
362(4)
13.3.6.2 Effect of Fine Inert Second-Phase Particles
366(2)
13.3.7 Grain Growth in Porous Ceramics
368(3)
13.3.8 Simultaneous Densification and Grain Growth
371(2)
13.4 Viscous Sintering
373(2)
13.5 Liquid-Phase Sintering
375(11)
13.5.1 Stages of Liquid-Phase Sintering
376(1)
13.5.2 Microstructure of Liquid-Phase Sintered Ceramics
377(1)
13.5.3 Role of Solid-State Sintering in Liquid-Phase Sintering
377(1)
13.5.4 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Factors
377(4)
13.5.4.1 Wetting and Spreading of the Liquid
378(1)
13.5.4.2 Dihedral Angle
379(1)
13.5.4.3 Morphology of Grains and Liquid Phase
380(1)
13.5.4.4 Effect of Solubility
380(1)
13.5.4.5 Capillary Forces
381(1)
13.5.4.6 Effect of Gravity
381(1)
13.5.5 Mechanisms of Liquid-Phase Sintering
381(4)
13.5.5.1 Stage 1: Rearrangement and Liquid Redistribution
382(1)
13.5.5.2 Stage 2: Solution-Precipitation
382(3)
13.5.5.3 Stage 3: Ostwald Ripening
385(1)
13.5.6 Phase Diagrams in Liquid-Phase Sintering
385(1)
13.6 Pressure-Assisted Sintering
386(2)
13.6.1 Pressure-Assisted Sintering Models
386(2)
13.6.2 Mechanisms of Pressure-Assisted Sintering
388(1)
13.7 Field-Assisted Sintering Techniques
388(3)
13.7.1 Spark Plasma Sintering
389(1)
13.7.2 Flash Sintering
390(1)
13.8 Concluding Remarks
391(1)
Problems
391(3)
References
394(3)
Chapter 14 Sintering Process Variables and Techniques 397(40)
14.1 Introduction
397(1)
14.2 Sintering Furnaces and Furnace Supports
397(1)
14.3 Particle Size and Packing
398(6)
14.3.1 Particle Size
399(1)
14.3.2 Particle Size Distribution
399(1)
14.3.3 Particle Shape and Particle Structure
400(1)
14.3.4 Particle Packing
400(3)
14.3.5 Effect of Green Density
403(1)
14.4 Anisotropic Shrinkage
404(2)
14.4.1 Pore Shape Anisotropy
405(1)
14.4.2 Particle Alignment
406(1)
14.5 Heating Schedule
406(6)
14.5.1 Design and Prediction of Heating Schedule
408(1)
14.5.2 Effect of Heating Rate on Sintering
409(1)
14.5.3 Special Heating Schedules
410(2)
14.5.3.1 Multistage Sintering
410(1)
14.5.3.2 Fast Firing
411(1)
14.5.3.3 Rate-Controlled Sintering
412(1)
14.6 Sintering Atmosphere
412(8)
14.6.1 Gases in Pores
412(4)
14.6.2 Effect on Vapor Transport
416(1)
14.6.3 Volatilization and Decomposition
417(2)
14.6.4 Oxidation State
419(1)
14.7 Microwave Sintering
420(2)
14.8 Pressure-Assisted Sintering
422(4)
14.8.1 Hot Pressing
423(1)
14.8.2 Hot Isostatic Pressing
424(2)
14.9 Spark Plasma Sintering
426(1)
14.10 Sintering of Ceramic Composites, Coatings, and Multilayers
427(6)
14.10.1 Sintering of Ceramic Composites
427(2)
14.10.2 Sintering of Adherent Coatings
429(2)
14.10.3 Cosintering of Multilayer Ceramics
431(2)
14.11 Concluding Remarks
433(1)
Problems
433(1)
References
434(3)
Chapter 15 Sol-Gel Processing 437(44)
15.1 Introduction
437(1)
15.2 Sol-Gel Processing of Aqueous Silicates
437(5)
15.2.1 Effect of pH
440(2)
15.2.1.1 Polymerization in the pH Range 2 to 7
441(1)
15.2.1.2 Polymerization above pH almost = to 7
441(1)
15.2.1.3 Polymerization below pH almost = to 2
442(1)
15.3 Metal Alkoxides
442(4)
15.3.1 Preparation of Metal Alkoxides
443(1)
15.3.2 Basic Properties of Metal Alkoxides
444(2)
15.3.2.1 Physical Properties
444(1)
15.3.2.2 Chemical Properties
445(1)
15.4 Sol-Gel Processing of Silicon Alkoxides
446(22)
15.4.1 Hydrolysis and Condensation
446(3)
15.4.1.1 Acid-Catalyzed Conditions
448(1)
15.4.1.2 Base-Catalyzed Conditions
448(1)
15.4.2 Polymer Growth
449(2)
15.4.3 Structural Evolution of Sol-Gel Silicates
451(1)
15.4.3.1 pH < similar to 2
451(1)
15.4.3.2 pH > similar to 7
451(1)
15.4.3.3 pH almost = to 2 to 7
451(1)
15.4.4 Gelation
452(2)
15.4.5 Drying of Gels
454(10)
15.4.5.1 Conventional Drying
455(7)
15.4.5.2 Supercritical Drying
462(1)
15.4.5.3 Structural Changes during Conventional Drying
463(1)
15.4.6 Gel Densification during Sintering
464(4)
15.4.6.1 Driving Forces and Mechanisms of Densification
464(3)
15.4.6.2 Kinetic and Practical Factors
467(1)
15.5 Sol-Gel Preparation Techniques
468(6)
15.5.1 Preparation of Particulate Gels
468(2)
15.5.1.1 Single-Component Gels
468(1)
15.5.1.2 Multicomponent Gels
469(1)
15.5.2 Preparation of Polymeric Gels
470(4)
15.5.2.1 Partial Hydrolysis of the Slowest Reacting Alkoxide
471(1)
15.5.2.2 Slow Addition of Small Amounts of Water
472(1)
15.5.2.3 Use of a Mixture of Alkoxides and Metal Salts
473(1)
15.5.2.4 Alternative Routes
474(1)
15.6 Applications of Sol-Gel Processing
474(4)
15.6.1 Thin Films and Coatings
474(2)
15.6.2 Fibers
476(1)
15.6.3 Monoliths
477(1)
15.6.4 Porous Materials
477(1)
15.6.5 Hybrid Inorganic-Organic Materials
478(1)
15.7 Concluding Remarks
478(1)
Problems
479(1)
References
479(2)
Chapter 16 Ceramic Fabrication Methods for Specific Shapes and Architectures 481(22)
16.1 Introduction
481(1)
16.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition
481(3)
16.2.1 Plasma-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition
483(1)
16.2.2 Chemical Vapor Infiltration
484(1)
16.3 Directed Metal Oxidation
484(2)
16.4 Reaction Bonding
486(5)
16.4.1 Reaction-Bonded Silicon Nitride
486(1)
16.4.2 Reaction-Bonded Silicon Carbide
487(3)
16.4.3 Reaction Bonding of Oxide Ceramics
490(1)
16.5 Polymer Pyrolysis
491(5)
16.5.1 Polymer Precursors for Silicon Carbide
493(1)
16.5.2 Polymer Precursors for Silicon Nitride
494(2)
16.6 Fabrication Routes for Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites
496(5)
16.6.1 Processing of SiC Fiber-Reinforced SiC Matrix Composites
496(3)
16.6.1.1 Chemical Vapor Infiltration
497(2)
16.6.1.2 Polymer Infiltration and Pyrolysis
499(1)
16.6.1.3 Reactive Melt Infiltration
499(1)
16.6.1.4 Powder Processing
499(1)
16.6.2 Processing of Porous Oxide Fiber-Oxide Matrix Composites
499(2)
16.7 Concluding Remarks
501(1)
Problems
501(1)
References
502(1)
Appendix I: Physical Constants 503(2)
Appendix II: SI Units - Names and Symbols 505(2)
Appendix III: Conversion of Units 507(2)
Appendix IV: Aperture Size of U.S. Standard Wire Mesh Sieves (ASTM E 11:87) 509(2)
Appendix V: Density and Melting Point of Some Elements, Ceramics, and Minerals 511(4)
Index 515
Mohamed N. Rahaman is Professor of Ceramics in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla. He received B.A. (Hons) and M.A. degrees from the University of Cambridge, England, and a Ph.D. degree from the University of Sheffield, England. Prior to joining the University of Missouri in 1986, Dr. Rahaman held positions at the University of Leeds, England; the University of the West Indies, Trinidad; and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. Dr. Rahaman is the author of three books and the author or coauthor of more than 135 publications, most of them in the area of processing and sintering of ceramics.

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