E-raamat: Digital Compositing for Film and Video: Production Workflows and Techniques

(Visual Effects Supervisor, Los Angeles, CA, USA)
  • Formaat: 550 pages, 50 Line drawings, color; 8 Tables, black and white; 300 Illustrations, color
  • Ilmumisaeg: 22-Nov-2017
  • Kirjastus: Routledge
  • ISBN-13: 9781315284002
  • Formaat - PDF+DRM
  • Hind: 53,64 EUR*
  • Lisa soovinimekirja
  • Lisa ostukorvi
  • * hind on lõplik, st. muud allahindlused enam ei rakendu
  • See e-raamat on mõeldud ainult isiklikuks kasutamiseks.
  • Raamatukogudele
    • EBL
  • Formaat: 550 pages, 50 Line drawings, color; 8 Tables, black and white; 300 Illustrations, color
  • Ilmumisaeg: 22-Nov-2017
  • Kirjastus: Routledge
  • ISBN-13: 9781315284002

DRM piirangud

  • Kopeerimine (copy/paste):

    ei ole lubatud

  • Printimine:

    ei ole lubatud

  • Kasutamine:

    E-raamatu lugemiseks on vaja luua Adobe ID ning laadida arvutisse Adobe Digital Editions. Lähemalt siit. E-raamatut saab lugeda ning alla laadida kuni 6'de seadmesse.
    E-raamatut ei saa lugeda Amazon Kindle's. Ülejäänud meie e-poes pakutavad e-lugerid võimaldavad lugeda Adobe ID-ga kaitstud e-raamatuid.

Written by senior compositor, technical director and master trainer Steve Wright, this book condenses years of production experience into an easy-to-read and highly-informative guide suitable for both working and aspiring visual effects artists. This expanded and updated edition of Digital Compositing for Film and Video addresses the problems and difficult choices that professional compositors face on a daily basis with an elegant blend of theory, practical production techniques and workflows. It is written to be software-agnostic, so it is applicable to any brand of software. This edition features many step-by-step workflows, powerful new keying techniques and updates on the latest tech in the visual effects industry.Workflow examples for:Grain ManagementLens Distortion ManagementMerging CGI Render PassesBlending Multiple KeysPhotorealistic Color CorrectionRotoscopingProduction Techniques for:Keying Difficult GreenscreensReplicating Optical Lens EffectsAdvanced Spill SuppressionFixing Discoloured EdgesAdding Interactive LightingManaging Motion BlurWith brand new information on:Working in linearACES Color ManagementLight Field CinematographyPlanar TrackingCreating Color Difference KeysPremultiply vs. UnpremultiplyDeep CompositingVR Stitching3D Compositing from 2D ImagesHow Color Correction ops Effect ImagesColor SpacesRetiming ClipsWorking with Digital Cinema ImagesOpenColorIOA companion website offers images from the examples discussed in the book allowing readers to experiment with the material first-hand.

Arvustused

"This book covers both the basic fundamentals and the advanced techniques of compositing, but Steve also presents the reader with a deeper background on the task at hand. You're not just getting a how-to manual, but an understanding of why you do it." -Patrick Tubach, VFX Supervisor, Industrial Light & Magic "Digital Compositing for Film and Video is the must have book for all compositors at all levels. I always keep copies close on hand for my artists to use and still refer to it often myself. The book covers the skills all compositors must know and the techniques needed when you are fighting tricky shots." -Jeffrey Jasper, CTO, JTS Productions, LLC "What's astounding about this book is that, for the last 16 years, every edition has been ahead of its time in terms of teaching and explaining the different techniques, technologies, and tools used on a daily basis by compositors around the world. Steve Wright has managed, once again, to stay ahead of the game and spearhead the education of current and future compositors." -Ara Khanikian, VFX Supervisor, Rodeo FX

About the Author xix
Acknowledgements xxi
Preface xxiii
Chapter 1 Getting Started
1(20)
1.1 How this Book is Organized
2(3)
1.2 Web Content
5(1)
1.3 What's New in the 4th Edition
5(4)
1.4 Gold Mines
9(1)
1.5 Tool Conventions
10(7)
1.5.1 The Slice Tool
11(2)
1.5.2 Flowgraphs
13(1)
1.5.3 Color Lookup Tables (LUTs)
14(2)
1.5.4 Nuke
16(1)
1.6 Data Conventions
17(6)
1.6.1 Floating Point Data
17(2)
1.6.1.1 Banding
18(1)
1.6.1.2 Clipping
19(1)
1.6.2 Linear Light Space
19(1)
1.6.3 HDR Images
20(1)
1.6.4 Stops
20(1)
Part I Making A Great Composite 21(222)
Chapter 2 Pulling Keys
23(40)
2.1 Luma Keys
24(8)
2.1.1 How Luma Keys Work
25(2)
2.1.2 Making Your Own Luminance Image
27(2)
2.1.2.1 Variations on the Luminance Equations
27(2)
2.1.2.2 Non-luminance Monochrome Images
29(1)
2.1.3 Making Your Own Luma Keyer
29(3)
2.2 Chroma Keys
32(4)
2.2.1 How Chroma Keys Work
32(1)
2.2.2 Making Your Own Chroma Keyer
33(1)
2.2.3 Making a 3D Chroma Keyer
34(2)
2.3 Difference Mattes
36(5)
2.3.1 How Difference Mattes Work
37(2)
2.3.2 Making Your Own Difference Matte
39(8)
2.3.2.1 Making the Difference Image
39(1)
2.3.2.2 Making the Difference Matte
40(1)
2.4 Bump Mattes
41(2)
2.5 Color Difference Keys
43(3)
2.6 The "Blur and Grow" Technique
46(1)
2.7 Rotoscoping
47(16)
2.7.1 Control Point Coherency
48(1)
2.7.2 Shape Breakdown
48(3)
2.7.2.1 Hierarchical Articulation
49(1)
2.7.2.2 Organization
50(1)
2.7.3 Bezier or B-spline?
51(1)
2.7.4 Keyframe Strategies
52(3)
2.7.4.1 On 2s
52(1)
2.7.4.2 Binary Multiples
52(1)
2.7.4.3 Bifurcation
53(1)
2.7.4.4 Motion Extremes
54(1)
2.7.5 Motion Blur
55(5)
2.7.5.1 Spline Placement
55(2)
2.7.5.2 Edge Decontamination
57(3)
2.7.6 Inspection
60(3)
Chapter 3 Working with Keyers
63(40)
3.1 Keyers
63(1)
3.2 How Keyers Work
64(10)
3.2.1 Calculating the Color Difference Matte
65(6)
3.2.1.1 The Theory
65(1)
3.2.1.2 Pulling the Raw Matte
66(1)
3.2.1.3 A Simplified Example
66(2)
3.2.1.4 A Slightly More Realistic Case
68(2)
3.2.1.5 And Now, the Real World
70(1)
3.2.1.6 Matte Edge Penetration
70(1)
3.2.2 Scaling the Raw Matte
71(3)
3.3 The After Effects Keyer
74(4)
3.3.1 Step-by-step Procedure
74(2)
3.3.2 Flowgraph of the After Effects Keyer
76(2)
3.4 Typical Greenscreen Problems
78(6)
3.4.1 Overexposed
78(1)
3.4.2 Underexposed
79(2)
3.4.3 Impure Greenscreens
81(1)
3.4.4 Uneven Lighting
82(2)
3.5 Preprocessing the Greenscreen
84(19)
3.5.1 Denoise and Degrain
85(2)
3.5.2 Screen Leveling
87(2)
3.5.3 Local Suppression
89(2)
3.5.4 Channel Clamping
91(2)
3.5.5 Channel Shifting
93(1)
3.5.6 Screen Correction
94(11)
3.5.6.1 Step-by-step Procedure
95(3)
3.5.6.2 Pictographic Flow Chart
98(1)
3.5.6.3 Flowgraph of the Screen Correction Procedure
98(1)
3.5.6.4 How to Create a Clean Greenscreen
99(4)
Chapter 4 Refining Mattes
103(18)
4.1 Gamma Slamming
104(1)
4.2 Garbage Mattes
105(4)
4.2.1 Pre-matting
106(1)
4.2.2 Post-matting
107(2)
4.3 Filtering the Matte
109(4)
4.3.1 Noise Suppression with a Median Filter
109(2)
4.3.2 Softer Edges
111(1)
4.3.3 Controlling the Blur Operation
112(1)
4.3.3.1 The Blur Radius
112(1)
4.3.3.2 The Blur Percentage
113(1)
4.3.3.3 Masking the Blur
113(1)
4.4 Adjusting the Matte Size
113(6)
4.4.1 Eroding a Matte with Blur and Scale
114(2)
4.4.2 Dilating a Matte with Blur and Scale
116(1)
4.4.3 Blurring Out
116(1)
4.4.4 Sculpting Edges
117(2)
4.5 Edge Masks
119(2)
Chapter 5 Spill Suppression
121(22)
5.1 Sources of Spill
122(1)
5.2 The Despill Operation
123(1)
5.3 Despill Algorithms
124(7)
5.3.1 Green Limited by Red
125(4)
5.3.1.1 Implementing the Algorithm
127(1)
5.3.1.2 The Spillmap
128(1)
5.3.2 Green Limited by the Average of Red and Blue
129(1)
5.3.3 An Adjustable Despill
130(1)
5.3.4 What About Blue Spill?
130(1)
5.3.5 Refining the Despill
130(1)
5.3.5.1 Channel Shifting
131(1)
5.3.5.2 Spillmap Scaling
131(1)
5.3.5.3 Mixing Despills
131(1)
5.3.5.4 Matting Despills Together
131(1)
5.4 The Unspill Operation
131(3)
5.4.1 How to Set It Up
132(1)
5.4.2 Grading to the Backing Color
133(1)
5.5 Despill Artifacts
134(4)
5.5.1 Finding the Artifacts
134(1)
5.5.2 Hue Shifts
135(1)
5.5.3 Dark Edges
136(1)
5.5.4 Fixing Despill Artifacts
136(2)
5.6 Edge Grading
138(2)
5.7 Edge Extension
140(3)
Chapter 6 The Composite
143(34)
6.1 Premultiply vs. Unpremultiply
144(4)
6.1.1 Premultiply
145(1)
6.1.2 Unpremultiply
146(1)
6.1.3 The Double Premultiply
147(1)
6.2 The Composite
148(8)
6.2.1 The Over Composite
148(1)
6.2.2 The KeyMix Composite
149(1)
6.2.3 The AddMix Composite
149(4)
6.2.3.1 How It Works
150(1)
6.2.3.2 How to Build It
151(1)
6.2.3.3 How to Use It
151(2)
6.2.4 The Processed Foreground Method
153(3)
6.2.4.1 The Workflow
154(1)
6.2.4.2 What to Watch Out For
155(1)
6.3 Compositing With a Keyer
156(3)
6.3.1 Soft Comp/Hard Comp
156(2)
6.3.2 "Cut and Paste" Keyer Compositing
158(1)
6.4 Compositing Outside the Keyer
159(6)
6.4.1 The Single Key
160(1)
6.4.2 The Uberkey
161(1)
6.4.3 Soft Key/Hard Key
162(2)
6.4.4 The Additive Keyer
164(1)
6.5 Stereo Compositing
165(12)
6.5.1 Anaglyph
166(1)
6.5.2 Stereopsis
167(1)
6.5.3 Stereoscopy
168(1)
6.5.4 The Stereo Conversion Process
169(2)
6.5.5 Depth Grading
171(2)
6.5.5.1 Scene Transition
171(1)
6.5.5.2 The Dashboard Effect
172(1)
6.5.5.3 Window Violation
172(1)
6.5.5.4 Miniaturization
173(1)
6.5.5.5 Divergence
173(1)
6.5.6 Stereo Compositing
173(5)
6.5.6.1 Dual View Display
174(1)
6.5.6.2 Split and Join Views
175(1)
6.5.6.3 Disparity Maps
175(2)
Chapter 7 Compositing CGI
177(26)
7.1 Multi-pass CGI Compositing
178(13)
7.1.1 Process Verification for Your Renderer
179(1)
7.1.2 Render Passes
180(1)
7.1.3 lighting Passes
181(4)
7.1.3.1 Render Passes Workflow
182(2)
7.1.3.2 Beauty Pass Workflow
184(1)
7.1.4 AOVs
185(2)
7.1.5 ID Passes
187(2)
7.1.6 Normals Relighting
189(2)
7.2 EXR File Format
191(2)
7.2.1 Film Scans
191(1)
7.2.2 Linear Lightspace
192(1)
7.2.3 Arbitrary Image Channels
192(1)
7.3 HDR Images
193(2)
7.4 Deep Compositing
195(8)
7.4.1 Deep Images
196(1)
7.4.2 The Layering Complexity Problem
197(1)
7.4.3 The Depth Compositing Edge Problem
198(1)
7.4.4 The Re-rendering Problem
199(1)
7.4.5 Deep Compositing with Live Action
200(3)
Chapter 8 3D Compositing
203(40)
8.1 A Short Course in 3D
204(19)
8.1.1 The 3D Coordinate System
204(1)
8.1.2 Vertices
205(1)
8.1.3 Meshes
206(1)
8.1.4 Surface Normals
206(2)
8.1.5 UV Coordinates
208(1)
8.1.6 Map Projection
208(1)
8.1.7 UV Projection
209(2)
8.1.8 3D Geometry
211(1)
8.1.9 Geometric Transformations
212(1)
8.1.10 Geometric Deformations
213(2)
8.1.10.1 Image Displacement
213(1)
8.1.10.2 Noise Displacement
214(1)
8.1.10.3 Deformation Lattice
215(1)
8.1.11 Point Clouds
215(2)
8.1.12 Lights
217(1)
8.1.13 Shaders
217(2)
8.1.14 Reflection Mapping
219(1)
8.1.15 Ray Tracing
220(1)
8.1.16 Image-based Lighting
221(1)
8.1.17 Cameras
222(1)
8.2 3D Compositing
223(9)
8.2.1 3D Compositing from 2D Images
223(1)
8.2.2 Pan and Tile
224(2)
8.2.3 Camera Projection
226(1)
8.2.4 Multiplane Shots
227(2)
8.2.5 Set Extension
229(1)
8.2.6 3D Backgrounds
230(2)
8.3 Alembic Geometry
232(3)
8.3.1 The Simple Case
233(1)
8.3.2 Scenegraphs
233(1)
8.3.3 Advantages Over FBX
234(1)
8.4 Camera Tracking
235(10)
8.4.1 Step 1 Feature Tracking
236(1)
8.4.2 Step 2 The Solve
237(1)
8.4.3 Step 3 Build the Scene
238(1)
8.4.4 Placing the Geometry
239(1)
8.4.5 A Large Outdoor Scene
240(3)
Part II The Quest For Realism 243(94)
Chapter 9 Color Correction
245(36)
9.1 The Behavior of Light
246(5)
9.1.1 The Inverse Square Law
246(1)
9.1.2 Diffuse Reflections
247(1)
9.1.3 Specular Reflections
248(1)
9.1.4 Bounce Light
249(1)
9.1.5 Scattering
249(2)
9.2 Gamma
251(3)
9.2.1 The Math
251(1)
9.2.2 Why Do We Need Gamma?
252(2)
9.3 The Affect of Color Operations
254(11)
9.3.1 Lift
255(1)
9.3.2 Gamma
256(1)
9.3.3 Gain
257(1)
9.3.4 Offset
258(1)
9.3.5 Saturation
259(1)
9.3.6 Color Grading vs. Color Correcting
260(1)
9.3.7 Increasing Contrast with the "S" Curve
260(1)
9.3.8 Histograms
261(2)
9.3.9 Channel Swapping
263(1)
9.3.10 Premultiply vs. Unpremultiply - Again
264(1)
9.4 Matching the Light Space
265(16)
9.4.1 Brightness and Contrast
266(6)
9.4.1.1 Matching the Black and White Points
267(3)
9.4.1.2 Matching the Midtones
270(1)
9.4.1.3 Gamma Slamming
271(1)
9.4.2 Matching Color
272(3)
9.4.2.1 Grayscale Balancing
272(1)
9.4.2.2 Flesh Tones
273(1)
9.4.2.3 The "Constant Green" Method of Color Correction
273(1)
9.4.2.4 Daylight
274(1)
9.4.2.5 Specular Highlights
274(1)
9.4.3 Lighting Direction
275(1)
9.4.4 Quality of Light Sources
275(1)
9.4.4.1 Creating Softer Lighting
276(1)
9.4.4.2 Creating Harsher Lighting
276(1)
9.4.5 Non-linear Gradients for Color Correction
276(2)
9.4.6 The DI Process
278(1)
9.4.7 A Checklist
279(2)
Chapter 10 Sweetening the Comp
281(28)
10.1 Layer Integration
282(1)
10.2 Interactive Lighting
283(2)
10.3 Edge Blending
285(2)
10.4 Light Wrap
287(2)
10.5 Creating Shadows
289(7)
10.5.1 Edge Characteristics
289(1)
10.5.2 Density
290(1)
10.5.3 Color
291(1)
10.5.4 Faux Shadows
292(1)
10.5.5 Shadow Warping
293(1)
10.5.6 Contact Shadows
294(2)
10.6 Atmospheric Haze
296(3)
10.7 Adding a Glow
299(1)
10.8 Grain Management
300(5)
10.8.1 Grain Characteristics
300(1)
10.8.2 Regraining Techniques
301(3)
10.8.2.1 Regrain Tool
301(1)
10.8.2.2 Lifted Grain
302(1)
10.8.2.3 Grain Rescue
302(2)
10.8.3 Grain Management Workflows
304(6)
10.8.3.1 Live Over Live
304(1)
10.8.3.2 Live Over CGI
305(1)
10.8.3.3 CGI Over Live
305(1)
10.8.3.4 CGI Over CGI
305(1)
10.8.3.5 Still Photos
305(1)
10.9 Managing Clipping
305(4)
Chapter 11 Camera Effects
309(28)
11.1 Lens Effects
310(12)
11.1.1 Lens Distortion
311(1)
11.1.2 Depth of Field
312(1)
11.1.3 Vignetting
313(1)
11.1.4 Lens Defects
314(2)
11.1.4.1 Spherical Aberration
314(1)
11.1.4.2 Astigmatism
315(1)
11.1.4.3 Chromatic Aberration
316(1)
11.1.5 Glows and Flares
316(6)
11.1.5.1 Lens Flare
317(1)
11.1.5.2 Lens Filter Flare
318(2)
11.1.5.3 Diffraction Glows
320(1)
11.1.5.4 Veiling Glare
321(1)
11.1.6 Grain
322(1)
11.2 Lens Distortion Workflows
322(5)
11.2.1 CGI Over Live Action
323(2)
11.2.2 Live Action Over CGI
325(1)
11.2.3 CGI Over CGI
325(1)
11.2.4 Live Action Over Live Action
326(1)
11.3 Matching the Focus
327(6)
11.3.1 Using a Blur for Defocus
327(2)
11.3.2 How to Simulate a Defocus
329(1)
11.3.3 Sharpening
330(10)
11.3.3.1 Sharpening Operations
330(1)
11.3.3.2 Unsharp Masks
331(1)
11.3.3.3 Making Your Own Unsharp Mask
332(1)
11.4 Rolling Shutter
333(4)
Part III Things You Should Know 337(164)
Chapter 12 Digital Color
339(16)
12.1 Color Spaces
340(3)
12.1.1 Primary Chromaticities
340(1)
12.1.2 Units of Measure
341(1)
12.1.3 Transfer Function
341(1)
12.1.4 Gamut
341(1)
12.1.5 HSV and HSL
342(1)
12.1.6 Log and Linear
342(1)
12.2 Working in Linear
343(6)
12.2.1 What Exactly Is Linear?
344(1)
12.2.2 Color Operations
345(1)
12.2.3 Transformations and Filtering
346(1)
12.2.4 CGI
347(2)
12.3 Metadata
349(1)
12.4 OpenColorIO
350(1)
12.5 ACES Color Management
351(4)
12.5.1 The ACES Workflow
351(2)
12.5.2 The ACES Gamut
353(1)
12.5.3 What About Video Productions?
353(2)
Chapter 13 Image Blending
355(46)
13.1 Image Blending in Linear Light Space
356(5)
13.1.1 Image-blending Operations
356(2)
13.1.2 Compositing Operations
358(1)
13.1.3 Matching the Look of sRGB in Linear
359(3)
13.1.3.1 All sRGB Color Space
359(1)
13.1.3.2 sRGB Within Linear
360(1)
13.2 Alpha Compositing Operations
361(1)
13.3 Image-blending Operations
362(10)
13.3.1 The Screen Operation
362(3)
13.3.1.1 Adjusting the Appearance
364(1)
13.3.2 The Weighted Screen Operation
365(1)
13.3.3 Multiply
366(3)
13.3.3.1 Adjusting the Appearance
368(1)
13.3.4 Maximum
369(1)
13.3.5 Minimum
370(1)
13.3.6 Absolute Difference
371(1)
13.4 Adobe Photoshop Blending Modes
372(4)
13.4.1 Simple Blending Modes
372(1)
13.4.2 Complex Blending Modes
373(3)
13.5 Slot Gags
376(1)
13.6 Retiming Clips
377(7)
13.6.1 Constant Speed Changes
377(1)
13.6.2 Variable Speed Changes
378(2)
13.6.3 Interpolation Methods
380(4)
13.6.3.1 Nearest Neighbor
381(1)
13.6.3.2 Frame Average
381(1)
13.6.3.3 Motion Estimation
382(2)
13.7 VR Stitching
384(17)
13.7.1 Workflow Overview
386(2)
13.7.2 Removing Lens Distortion
388(1)
13.7.3 Building a Matching Computer Rig
389(1)
13.7.4 Projecting Onto the Panosphere
390(2)
13.7.5 The Stitching Process
392(1)
13.7.6 Coping with Parallax
393(2)
13.7.7 Exposure Correction
395(1)
13.7.8 Visual Effects
396(5)
Chapter 14 Transforms and Tracking
401(52)
14.1 Geometric Transforms
402(20)
14.1.1 2D Transforms
402(8)
14.1.1.1 Translation
402(2)
14.1.1.2 Rotation
404(2)
14.1.1.3 Resize vs. Scale
406(1)
14.1.1.4 Skew
407(1)
14.1.1.5 Corner Pinning
408(2)
14.1.2 Managing Motion Blur
410(3)
14.1.2.1 Transform Motion Blur
410(1)
14.1.2.2 Motion UV Motion Blur
411(1)
14.1.2.3 Speed Changes
412(1)
14.1.3 3D Transforms
413(1)
14.1.4 Filtering
414(3)
14.1.4.1 The Effects of Filtering
414(1)
14.1.4.2 Twinkling Starfields
415(1)
14.1.4.3 Choosing a Filter
416(1)
14.1.5 Lining Up Images
417(6)
14.1.5.1 Offset Mask Lineup Display
417(1)
14.1.5.2 Edge-detection Lineup Display
418(2)
14.1.5.3 The Pivot Point Lineup Procedure
420(2)
14.2 Image Displacement
422(1)
14.3 Warps and Morphs
423(5)
14.3.1 Mesh Warps
423(1)
14.3.2 Spline Warps
424(1)
14.3.3 Morphs
425(2)
14.3.4 Tips, Tricks, and Techniques
427(1)
14.4 Point Tracking
428(20)
14.4.1 The Tracking Operation
429(12)
14.4.1.1 Selecting Good Tracking Targets
430(1)
14.4.1.2 Bad Tracking Targets
431(1)
14.4.1.3 Tracker Enable/Disable
432(1)
14.4.1.4 Offset Tracking
432(1)
14.4.1.5 Keep Shape and Follow Shape
433(2)
14.4.1.6 Pre-processing the Clip
435(1)
14.4.1.7 Coping with Grain
436(1)
14.4.1.8 Tracking Workflow
437(1)
14.4.1.9 Cleaning up Tracking Data
438(1)
14.4.1.10 The Stability Test
439(1)
14.4.1.11 Reasons for Failure
439(2)
14.4.2 Match Move
441(3)
14.4.2.1 2D Transforms
442(1)
14.4.2.2 Corner Pinning
442(2)
14.4.3 Stabilizing
444(4)
14.4.3.1 The Repo Problem
444(2)
14.4.3.2 Motion Smoothing
446(1)
14.4.3.3 Stabilizing For Rotoscoping
446(2)
14.5 Planar Tracking
448(5)
14.5.1 The Planar Grid
450(1)
14.5.2 Drift Correction
450(1)
14.5.3 Exporting Data
451(1)
14.5.4 Roto Assist
451(2)
Chapter 15 Digital Images
453(48)
15.1 HD Video
454(16)
15.1.1 Frame Formats
455(1)
15.1.2 Anamorphic Video
456(1)
15.1.3 Scan Modes
457(1)
15.1.4 Working with Interlaced Video
458(3)
15.1.4.1 De-interlacing
459(1)
15.1.4.2 Scan Line Interpolation
460(1)
15.1.4.3 Field Averaging
460(1)
15.1.5 Color Subsampling
461(2)
15.1.6 Keying with 4:2:2 Video
463(2)
15.1.7 Frame Rates
465(1)
15.1.7.1 24, 25, 30, 60fps
465(1)
15.1.7.2 23.98, 29.97, 59.94fps
466(1)
15.1.8 Timecodes
466(1)
15.1.9 Video File Formats
467(1)
15.1.10 Telecine
467(3)
15.1.10.1 The 3:2 Pull-down
468(1)
15.1.10.2 The 3:2 Pull-up
469(1)
15.2 Digital Cinema Images
470(4)
15.2.1 Digital Camera Advantages
471(1)
15.2.2 The Bayer Array
472(1)
15.2.3 Sensor Crop
473(1)
15.2.4 HFR - High Frame Rate
473(1)
15.2.5 The DCI
474(1)
15.3 Film Scans
474(11)
15.3.1 Grain
475(1)
15.3.2 The "Safe-to" Window
476(1)
15.3.3 Apertures
476(1)
15.3.4 Aspect Ratios
477(1)
15.3.5 Film Formats
478(7)
15.3.5.1 Full Aperture
478(1)
15.3.5.2 Academy Aperture
479(1)
15.3.5.3 Super 35 Formats
479(1)
15.3.5.4 Cinemascope
480(1)
15.3.5.5 Working with Cscope
481(1)
15.3.5.6 "3-perf" Film
482(1)
15.3.5.7 VistaVision
483(1)
15.3.5.8 65mm/70mm
483(1)
15.3.5.9 IMAX
484(1)
15.4 Log Images
485(7)
15.4.1 What Are Log Images?
485(2)
15.4.2 Why We Need Log Images
487(5)
15.4.2.1 Human Vision
487(1)
15.4.2.2 Data Compression
488(1)
15.4.2.3 Working with Log Images
488(4)
15.5 Light Field Cinematography
492(9)
15.5.1 How It Works
493(1)
15.5.2 The Impact on Visual Effects
494(5)
15.5.2.1 Deep Images
494(1)
15.5.2.2 Arbitrary Depth of Field
495(1)
15.5.2.3 Depth Maps
495(1)
15.5.2.4 Stereo Through a Single Lens
496(1)
15.5.2.5 Volumetric Optical Flow
496(1)
15.5.2.6 Position Pass
497(1)
15.5.2.7 Point Clouds
497(1)
15.5.2.8 Mattes
497(1)
15.5.2.9 Normals and Normal Relighting
498(1)
15.5.2.10 Camera Tracking
498(1)
15.5.3 When, and How Much?
499(2)
Glossary 501(36)
Index 537
Steve Wright is a visual effects pioneer and a 20-year veteran of visual effects compositing on over 70 feature films and many broadcast television commercials. With extensive production experience and a knack for the math and science of visual effects he is a world-recognized expert on visual effects compositing. Since 2005 he has been a master trainer in compositing visual effects, providing staff training to over 25 visual effects studios around the world including Pixar Animation Studios, Disney Feature Animation, Troublemaker Studios, New Deal Studios, and Reliance MediaWorks, along with many others. He has also trained over 1,000 artists in compositing. Visit Steve's training website at www.fxecademy.com