E-raamat: Earth Materials 2nd Edition: Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology

  • Formaat: 616 pages, Worked examples or Exercises; 30 Tables, color; 676 Halftones, color; 400 Line drawings, color
  • Ilmumisaeg: 15-Dec-2016
  • Kirjastus: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN-13: 9781108105965
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  • Formaat: 616 pages, Worked examples or Exercises; 30 Tables, color; 676 Halftones, color; 400 Line drawings, color
  • Ilmumisaeg: 15-Dec-2016
  • Kirjastus: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN-13: 9781108105965
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This concise, accessible, market-leading textbook brings together the wide-ranging fundamentals students need to understand rocks and minerals, and shows them how they relate to the broader Earth, materials and environmental sciences. Designed specifically for one-semester courses, it is beautifully illustrated to explain the key concepts in mineralogy and petrology. This edition has been fully updated based on classroom experience, and new features include a completely new chapter providing an elementary introduction to thermodynamics, kinetics, radioactive decay and absolute dating; new mineral descriptions and many new stunning color photographs; and a new section on hydraulic fracturing and discussion of some of its most serious potential environmental consequences. The book uses stunning photos of mineral specimens and rock thin sections to help students build a core understanding. It also creates a highly effective learning experience through close integration of clear illustrations with engaging text, and helps students to easily visualize crystal structures through the CrystalViewer's 3D software, available online.

Arvustused

'Earth Materials is a magnificent textbook that illustrates in a wonderful way how petrology and mineralogy relate to our planet Earth, its formation and modification by igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary processes. Outstanding photographs and detailed thin section images are neatly combined with clear illustrations, fostering the link between observations and fundamental theoretical principles. A new section in the second edition about thermodynamics and kinetics nicely complements the thorough coverage of key concepts in petrology and mineralogy. The available online resources are an essential aid for teaching, and students will benefit from the review questions at the end of each chapter. Earth Materials is simply a great textbook, which I can highly recommend.' Ralf Halama, Keele University 'Earth Materials captures the fundamentals of mineralogy and petrology in a one-semester text in a surprisingly thorough and direct way. This book can be successfully used for both one-semester courses and two-semester sequences. My students appreciate the clear, color images, and I appreciate the depth of information provided.' Christine M. Clark, Eastern Michigan University 'There is an increasing trend to condense mineralogy and petrology into a one semester course, and Earth Materials - An Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology authored by Klein and Philpotts, provides the perfect textbook for such a course. It is extensive enough to supply fundamental information on mineralogy and petrology separately, while also seamlessly integrating these two subjects into a cohesive entity. Most impressive to me are the extensive colour figures and thin sections for most of the rock types.' Zhaohui (George) Li, University of Wisconsin 'I have used this textbook in my undergraduate Earth Materials course since its publication in 2013, and the second edition adds important new elements, including a more comprehensive treatment of thermodynamics and phase equilibria. The components that made the first edition so welcome are still here: the integration of crystallography with sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic geology; the colorful images of atomic structures, minerals and geologic localities; and the consideration of the role that minerals play in our society. It is by far the best text for those of us who have to cover all the mineralogical and petrological bases in one semester.' Peter J. Heaney, Pennsylvania State University 'I really like the way this book organizes the subjects of mineralogy and petrology to emphasize the connection between plate tectonics, mantle processes, mineral stability, and rock composition. Teaching with this organization clearly reinforces the big picture of geologic processes while digging into enough depth in each subject area to prepare students to tackle integrated geologic problems.' Alexis Sitchler, Colorado School of Mines 'Brilliant! Absolutely brilliant! A landmark text in the Earth Sciences for modern times! The color illustrations, figures and photographs of all things geologically important, accompanied by lucid text, will seductively attract young minds. The chapters covering wide-ranging topics are all relevant for 21st century students of Earth and material science. I can't think of a better text that is a 'must buy' for our undergraduates.' Asish R. Basu, University of Texas, Arlington 'This latest edition includes a number of new topics ...The authors discuss concepts such as heat, work, internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy in a simple, intuitive fashion that most any reader can understand and appreciate ... Phase diagrams show the stability fields of minerals in terms of temperature and pressure, and temperature and composition. Another addition to the book is a section on the use of hydraulic fracturing to extract shale oil and gas prospects and its implications on the environment. The authors treat this last topic in a fair and open manner, admitting the potential risks, but also acknowledging the benefits of having this technology to meet the world's energy needs.' The Leading Edge 'Earth Materials is a magnificent textbook that illustrates in a wonderful way how petrology and mineralogy relate to our planet Earth, its formation and modification by igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary processes. Outstanding photographs and detailed thin section images are neatly combined with clear illustrations, fostering the link between observations and fundamental theoretical principles. A new section in the second edition about thermodynamics and kinetics nicely complements the thorough coverage of key concepts in petrology and mineralogy. The available online resources are an essential aid for teaching, and students will benefit from the review questions at the end of each chapter. Earth Materials is simply a great textbook, which I can highly recommend.' Ralf Halama, Keele University 'Earth Materials captures the fundamentals of mineralogy and petrology in a one-semester text in a surprisingly thorough and direct way. This book can be successfully used for both one-semester courses and two-semester sequences. My students appreciate the clear, color images, and I appreciate the depth of information provided.' Christine M. Clark, Eastern Michigan University 'There is an increasing trend to condense mineralogy and petrology into a one semester course, and Earth Materials - An Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology authored by Klein and Philpotts, provides the perfect textbook for such a course. It is extensive enough to supply fundamental information on mineralogy and petrology separately, while also seamlessly integrating these two subjects into a cohesive entity. Most impressive to me are the extensive colour figures and thin sections for most of the rock types.' Zhaohui (George) Li, University of Wisconsin 'I have used this textbook in my undergraduate Earth Materials course since its publication in 2013, and the second edition adds important new elements, including a more comprehensive treatment of thermodynamics and phase equilibria. The components that made the first edition so welcome are still here: the integration of crystallography with sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic geology; the colorful images of atomic structures, minerals and geologic localities; and the consideration of the role that minerals play in our society. It is by far the best text for those of us who have to cover all the mineralogical and petrological bases in one semester.' Peter J. Heaney, Pennsylvania State University 'I really like the way this book organizes the subjects of mineralogy and petrology to emphasize the connection between plate tectonics, mantle processes, mineral stability, and rock composition. Teaching with this organization clearly reinforces the big picture of geologic processes while digging into enough depth in each subject area to prepare students to tackle integrated geologic problems.' Alexis Sitchler, Colorado School of Mines 'Brilliant! Absolutely brilliant! A landmark text in the Earth Sciences for modern times! The color illustrations, figures and photographs of all things geologically important, accompanied by lucid text, will seductively attract young minds. The chapters covering wide-ranging topics are all relevant for 21st century students of Earth and material science. I can't think of a better text that is a `must buy' for our undergraduates.' Asish R. Basu, University of Texas, Arlington 'This latest edition includes a number of new topics ...The authors discuss concepts such as heat, work, internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy in a simple, intuitive fashion that most any reader can understand and appreciate ... Phase diagrams show the stability fields of minerals in terms of temperature and pressure, and temperature and composition. Another addition to the book is a section on the use of hydraulic fracturing to extract shale oil and gas prospects and its implications on the environment. The authors treat this last topic in a fair and open manner, admitting the potential risks, but also acknowledging the benefits of having this technology to meet the world's energy needs.' The Leading Edge

Muu info

Designed specifically for one-semester courses, this beautifully illustrated textbook explains the key concepts in mineralogy and petrology.
Preface xv
Acknowledgments to First Edition xviii
Acknowledgments to Second Edition xix
1 Introduction
1(12)
1.1 Formation of Earth's Chemical Elements in Supernovae
2(1)
1.2 Birth of the Solar System and Earth
2(3)
1.3 Accretion and Early History of the Earth
5(1)
1.4 Internal Structure of the Earth
5(1)
1.5 Cooling of the Planet and Plate Tectonics
6(1)
1.6 Plate Tectonics and the Formation of Rocks
7(2)
1.6.1 Divergent Plate Boundaries
8(1)
1.6.2 Convergent Plate Boundaries
9(1)
1.6.3 Transform Boundaries
9(1)
1.6.4 Mantle Plumes and Hot Spots
9(1)
1.7 Outline of Subsequent
Chapters
9(4)
Summary
10(1)
Review Questions
11(1)
Online Resources
11(1)
Further Reading
11(2)
2 Materials of the Solid Earth
13(24)
2.1 Definition of a Mineral
14(4)
2.1.1 Examples of Some Familiar Minerals
15(3)
2.2 How Are Minerals Classified?
18(1)
2.3 How Are Minerals Named?
19(1)
2.4 What Is a Crystal, and What Is the Crystalline State?
20(1)
2.5 What Is a Rock?
21(2)
2.6 How Do Rocks Form? Classification into Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic
23(2)
2.7 Examples of Some Familiar Rocks
25(5)
2.8 Plate Tectonics and the Generation of Rocks
30(7)
2.8.1 Midocean-ridge Rock Factory
30(1)
2.8.2 Convergent-plate-boundary Rock Factory
30(2)
2.8.3 Continental Divergent-plate-boundary Rock Factory (Rift Valley)
32(1)
2.8.4 Mantle Plume Hot-spot Rock Factory
32(1)
2.8.5 Passive-margin Rock Factories
32(1)
2.8.6 Epeiric-sea Rock Factories
32(1)
2.8.7 Metamorphic Rock Factories
33(1)
Summary
33(1)
Review Questions
34(1)
Online Resources
35(1)
Further Reading
35(2)
3 How Are Minerals Identified?
37(24)
3.1 Habit
38(1)
3.2 State of Aggregation
39(1)
3.3 Color and Luster
40(7)
3.3.1 Reasons for Color
43(4)
3.4 Cleavage
47(2)
3.5 Hardness
49(1)
3.6 Specific Gravity (Relative Density)
50(1)
3.6.1 Specific Gravity and Atomic Structure
51(1)
3.7 Magnetism, Solubility in Acid, and Radioactivity
51(1)
3.8 Instrumental Methods for the Quantitative Characterization of Minerals
52(9)
3.8.1 X-Ray Powder Diffraction
53(1)
3.8.2 Electron Beam Techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Microprobe Analysis, and Transmission Electron Microscopy
54(4)
Summary
58(1)
Review Questions
58(1)
Further Reading
59(2)
4 Fundamentals of Crystal Structures
61(26)
4.1 Naturally Occurring Chemical Elements
62(1)
4.2 Atomic and Ionic Radii
62(3)
4.3 What Factors Control the Packing of Ions (and Atoms) in Mineral Structures?
65(1)
4.4 Pauling's Rules
66(7)
4.5 What Forces Hold Crystal Structures Together?
73(6)
4.5.1 Electronic Configuration of Atoms and Ions
74(1)
4.5.2 Chemical Bonding
75(4)
4.6 Atomic Substitutions
79(8)
4.6.1 Factors Responsible for the Extent of Atomic Substitution (Solid Solution)
79(3)
4.6.2 Types of Solid Solution
82(1)
Summary
82(2)
Review Questions
84(1)
Further Reading
85(2)
5 Introduction to Crystallography
87(48)
5.1 Symmetry Elements and Operations
89(1)
5.2 Combinations of Symmetry Elements
90(1)
5.3 The Six Crystal Systems
91(7)
5.3.1 Crystallographic Axes
91(1)
5.3.2 Hermann-Mauguin Symmetry Notation
91(2)
5.3.3 Crystallographic Notation for Planes in Crystals
93(3)
5.3.4 Definition of Crystal Form
96(2)
5.3.5 Crystallographic Notation for Directions in Crystals
98(1)
5.4 Crystal Projections
98(3)
5.5 Seven of the Thirty-two Point Groups
101(11)
5.6 Twins
112(3)
5.7 Some Aspects of Space Groups
115(7)
5.7.1 Space Groups
119(3)
5.8 Polymorphism
122(13)
Summary
131(1)
Review Questions
132(1)
Further Reading
133(2)
6 Minerals and Rocks Observed under the Polarizing Optical Microscope
135(24)
6.1 Light and the Polarizing Microscope
136(2)
6.2 Passage of Light through a Crystal: Refractive Index and Angle of Refraction
138(1)
6.3 Passage of Polarized Light through Minerals
139(4)
6.4 Accessory Plates and Determination of Fast and Slow Vibration Directions
143(1)
6.5 Extinction Positions and the Sign of Elongation
144(1)
6.6 Anomalous Interference Colors, Pleochroism, and Absorption
144(1)
6.7 Mineral Identification Chart
145(1)
6.8 Uniaxial Optical Indicatrix
146(2)
6.9 Biaxial Optical Indicatrix
148(1)
6.10 Uniaxial Interference Figures
149(2)
6.11 Determination of Optic Sign from Uniaxial Optic Axis Figure
151(1)
6.12 Biaxial Interference Figures, Optic Sign, and Optic Angle (2V)
151(2)
6.13 Modal analysis
153(6)
Summary
154(2)
Review Questions
156(1)
Online Resources
157(1)
Further Reading
157(2)
7 Igneous Rock-forming Minerals
159(38)
7.1 Common Chemical Elements in the Earth's Crust and in Mineral and Rock Analyses
160(1)
7.2 Calculation of Mineral Formulas
161(2)
7.3 Triangular Diagrams
163(1)
7.4 Systematic Mineralogical Descriptions of Common Igneous Minerals
164(2)
7.5 Plagioclase Feldspar
166(2)
7.6 K-Feldspar
168(1)
7.7 Quartz and Silica Polymorphs
169(1)
7.8 Nepheline
170(1)
7.9 Leucite
171(1)
7.10 Sodalite
172(1)
7.11 Enstatite
173(1)
7.12 Pigeonite
173(2)
7.13 Augite
175(1)
7.14 Aegirine
176(1)
7.15 Hornblende
177(1)
7.16 Muscovite
178(1)
7.17 Phlogopite
179(1)
7.18 Biotite
180(2)
7.19 Olivine
182(1)
7.20 Zircon
182(1)
7.21 Tourmaline
183(1)
7.22 Allanite
184(1)
7.23 Melilite
185(1)
7.24 Magnetite
185(1)
7.25 Chromite
186(1)
7.26 Hematite
187(1)
7.27 Ilmenite
187(2)
7.28 Rutile
189(1)
7.29 Uraninite
189(1)
7.30 Pyrite
190(1)
7.31 Pyrrhotite
191(1)
7.32 Chalcopyrite
192(1)
7.33 Apatite
192(5)
Summary
193(1)
Review Questions
194(1)
Further Reading
195(2)
8 The Direction and Rate of Natural Processes: An Introduction to Thermodynamics and Kinetics
197(44)
8.1 Basic Thermodynamic Terms
198(2)
8.2 Heat, Work, and the First Law of Thermodynamics
200(2)
8.3 Entropy and the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
202(1)
8.4 Gibbs Free Energy
203(2)
8.5 Variation of Gibbs Free Energy with Temperature and Pressure
205(1)
8.6 Variation of Gibbs Free Energy with Composition
206(1)
8.7 Thermodynamic Equilibrium
207(1)
8.8 Thermodynamic Phase Diagrams
207(1)
8.9 Multicomponent Phase Diagrams
208(17)
8.9.1 A Simple Two-component System H2O-NaCl
208(2)
8.9.2 Melting of a Pair of Minerals: the Eutectic
210(4)
8.9.3 Congruent Melting and the Granite and Nepheline Syenite Eutectics
214(1)
8.9.4 Incongruent Melting and the Peritectic
214(3)
8.9.5 Melting Relations of Solid Solutions
217(3)
8.9.6 A Simple Ternary Phase Diagram
220(3)
8.9.7 The Ternary Quartz-Albite-Orthoclase "Granite" System
223(1)
8.9.8 A Simple Ternary Basalt System: Diopside--Albite--Anorthite
224(1)
8.9.9 More Complex Phase Diagrams
225(1)
8.10 Rates of Geologic Processes
225(4)
8.10.1 Transport Laws
226(1)
8.10.2 Rates of Activated Processes and the Arrhenius Relation
227(2)
8.11 Radioactive Decay
229(12)
8.11.1 Rate of Radioactive Decay
230(1)
8.11.2 Calculation of Absolute Age Based on Radioactive Decay
230(1)
8.11.3 Absolute Dating by the 87Rb to 87Sr Decay
231(1)
8.11.4 Absolute Dating by the 40K to 40Ar Decay
232(1)
8.11.5 Absolute Dating Using Uranium and Lead
233(1)
8.11.6 Absolute Dating by the 147Sm to 143Nd Decay
234(1)
8.11.7 Blocking Temperature
234(1)
8.11.8 Absolute Dating by the Fission-track Method
234(1)
Summary
235(2)
Review Questions
237(1)
Online Resources
238(1)
Further Reading
238(3)
9 How Do Igneous Rocks Form?
241(38)
9.1 Why, and How, Does Solid Rock Become Molten?
242(3)
9.1.1 Composition of the Upper Mantle
243(1)
9.1.2 Melting Range of Upper Mantle Peridotite
244(1)
9.1.3 Latent Heat of Fusion
245(1)
9.1.4 Geothermal Gradient and the Geotherm
245(1)
9.2 Three Primary Causes of Melting and their Plate Tectonic Settings
245(3)
9.2.1 Raising the Temperature of Mantle Peridotite to the Melting Range over Hot Spots
246(1)
9.2.2 Decompression Melting at Divergent Plate Boundaries
246(1)
9.2.3 Fluxing with Water at Convergent Plate Boundaries (Subduction Zones)
246(2)
9.3 Effect of Pressure on Melting
248(8)
9.3.1 Pressure in the Earth
249(1)
9.3.2 Effect of Pressure on the Anhydrous Melting of Rock
249(1)
9.3.3 Hydrous Melting of Rock and the Solubility of Water in Magma
250(1)
9.3.4 Effect of Water Undersaturation on the Melting of Rocks
251(1)
9.3.5 Solubility of Other Gases in Magma
251(1)
9.3.6 Exsolution of Magmatic Gases and Explosive Volcanism
251(5)
9.4 Physical Properties of Magma
256(4)
9.4.1 Magma Density
256(1)
9.4.2 Magma Viscosity
256(2)
9.4.3 Diffusion in Magma, Crystal Growth, and Grain Size of Igneous Rocks
258(2)
9.5 Magma Ascent
260(2)
9.5.1 Buoyancy
260(1)
9.5.2 Buoyant Rise of Magma
261(1)
9.6 Processes Associated with the Solidification of Magma in the Crust
262(10)
9.6.1 Cooling of Bodies of Magma by Heat Conduction
262(4)
9.6.2 Cooling of Bodies of Magma by Convection and Radiation
266(1)
9.6.3 Magmatic Differentiation by Crystal Settling
266(4)
9.6.4 Compaction of Crystal Mush
270(1)
9.6.5 Assimilation and Fractional Crystallization
270(1)
9.6.6 Liquid Immiscibility
271(1)
9.7 Evolution of Isotopic Reservoirs in the Earth and the Source of Magma
272(7)
9.7.1 Evolution of 143Nd/144Nd Reservoirs in the Bulk Earth, Mantle, and Crust
272(1)
9.7.2 Evolution of 87Sr/86Sr Reservoirs in the Bulk Earth, Mantle, and Crust
273(1)
Summary
274(1)
Review Questions
275(1)
Online Resources
276(1)
Further Reading
277(2)
10 Igneous Rocks: Their Mode of Occurrence, Classification, and Plate Tectonic Setting
279(54)
10.1 Why an Igneous Rock Classification Is Necessary
280(1)
10.2 Mode of Occurrence of Igneous Rocks
280(21)
10.2.1 Shallow Intrusive Igneous Bodies: Dikes, Sills, Laccoliths, Cone Sheets, Ring Dikes, and Diatremes
280(4)
10.2.2 Plutonic Igneous Bodies: Lopoliths, Batholiths, and Stocks
284(4)
10.2.3 Extrusive Igneous Bodies: Flood Basalts, Shield Volcanoes, Composite Volcanoes, Domes, Calderas, Ash-fall and Ash-flow Deposits
288(13)
10.3 International Union of Geological Sciences Classification of Igneous Rocks
301(9)
10.3.1 Mode and Norm
301(1)
10.3.2 IUGS Classification of Igneous Rocks
301(4)
10.3.3 Composition of Common Plutonic Igneous Rocks
305(3)
10.3.4 IUGS Classification of Volcanic Igneous Rocks
308(1)
10.3.5 Irvine-Baragar Classification of Volcanic Rocks
308(2)
10.4 Igneous Rocks and their Plate Tectonic Setting
310(13)
10.4.1 Igneous Rocks Formed at Midocean-ridge Divergent Plate Boundaries
310(3)
10.4.2 Igneous Rocks of Oceanic Islands Formed above Hot Spots
313(1)
10.4.3 Continental Flood Basalts and Large Igneous Provinces
314(1)
10.4.4 Alkaline Igneous Rocks Associated with Continental Rift Valleys
315(3)
10.4.5 Igneous Rocks Formed near Convergent Plate Boundaries
318(5)
10.5 Special Precambrian Associations
323(10)
10.5.1 Komatiites
324(1)
10.5.2 Massif-type Anorthosites
324(2)
10.5.3 Rocks Associated with Large Meteorite Impacts
326(3)
Summary
329(1)
Review Questions
330(1)
Online Resources
331(1)
Further Reading
331(2)
11 Sedimentary Rock-forming Minerals and Materials
333(20)
11.1 The Interaction of the Earth's Atmosphere with Minerals
334(1)
11.2 Ice
335(1)
11.3 Goethite
336(1)
11.4 Kaolinite
337(1)
11.5 Calcite
338(1)
11.6 Aragonite
339(2)
11.7 Dolomite
341(1)
11.8 Magnesite
341(2)
11.9 Siderite
343(1)
11.10 Rhodochrosite
343(1)
11.11 Halite
343(1)
11.12 Sylvite
344(1)
11.13 Gypsum
344(1)
11.14 Anhydrite
345(1)
11.15 Chert and agate
346(1)
11.16 Phosphorite
346(2)
11.17 Soil
348(5)
Summary
350(1)
Review Questions
351(1)
Further Reading
351(2)
12 Formation, Transport, and Lithification of Sediment
353(32)
12.1 Importance of Sediments in Understanding the History of the Earth
354(1)
12.2 Sediment Formed from Weathering of Rock
355(5)
12.2.1 Role of Carbon Dioxide in Weathering
355(1)
12.2.2 Weathering Products of Rock
356(2)
12.2.3 Detrital Grain Size
358(1)
12.2.4 Detrital Grain Roundness and Resistance to Abrasion
358(2)
12.3 Organically Produced Sediment
360(3)
12.3.1 Formation of Carbonate and Siliceous Sediment
360(3)
12.3.2 Formation of Hydrocarbons in Sediment
363(1)
12.4 Chemically Produced Sediment
363(1)
12.5 Sediment Produced by Glacial Erosion
364(2)
12.6 Transport of Sediment
366(6)
12.6.1 Laminar and Turbulent Flow
366(1)
12.6.2 Movement of Particles by Fluid Flow
367(3)
12.6.3 Movement of Particles in Turbidity Currents
370(1)
12.6.4 Movement of Sediment in Debris Flows
371(1)
12.7 Layering in Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks
372(3)
12.7.1 Law of Superposition
372(1)
12.7.2 Milankovitch Cycles
373(1)
12.7.3 Sediments Related to Tectonic Processes
374(1)
12.8 Sites of Deposition and Tectonic Significance
375(2)
12.8.1 Convergent Plate Boundaries
375(1)
12.8.2 Passive Continental Margins
376(1)
12.8.3 Rift and Pull-apart Basins
376(1)
12.9 Conversion of Unconsolidated Sediment to Sedimentary Rock: Lithification
377(8)
12.9.1 Porosity and Compaction
378(1)
12.9.2 Cementation of Sediment
378(1)
12.9.3 Pressure Solution
378(2)
12.9.4 Recrystallization, Replacement, Dolomitization
380(1)
Summary
380(1)
Review Questions
381(1)
Online Resources
382(1)
Further Reading
383(2)
13 Sedimentary Rock Classification, Occurrence, and Plate Tectonic Significance
385(30)
13.1 Siliciclastic Sedimentary Rocks
386(13)
13.1.1 Mudrocks (Includes Shales)
386(4)
13.1.2 Sandstones
390(6)
13.1.3 Conglomerates and Breccias
396(3)
13.2 Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks
399(9)
13.2.1 Limestones
399(8)
13.2.2 Dolostones
407(1)
13.2.3 Tectonic Settings of Carbonate Rocks
407(1)
13.3 Coals
408(1)
13.4 Oil and Natural Gas
409(1)
13.5 Evaporites
410(1)
13.6 Phosphorites
410(1)
13.7 Iron-formations
410(5)
Summary
411(1)
Review Questions
412(1)
Online Resources
413(1)
Further Reading
413(2)
14 Metamorphic Rock-forming Minerals
415(24)
14.1 Systematic Mineralogical Descriptions of Common Metamorphic Minerals
416(1)
14.2 Garnet
416(2)
14.3 Andalusite
418(1)
14.4 Sillimanite
419(1)
14.5 Kyanite
419(1)
14.6 Staurolite
419(1)
14.7 Diopside
420(1)
14.8 Anthophyllite
420(1)
14.9 Cummingtonite--Grunerite
421(1)
14.10 Tremolite--Ferroactinolite
422(1)
14.11 Glaucophane
422(1)
14.12 Wollastonite
423(1)
14.13 Rhodonite
424(1)
14.14 Talc
424(1)
14.15 Chlorite
425(1)
14.16 Antigorite
425(1)
14.17 Chrysotile
426(2)
14.18 Graphite
428(1)
14.19 Epidote and Clinozoisite
429(1)
14.20 Cordierite
429(1)
14.21 Vesuvianite
430(1)
14.22 Titanite (Sphene)
431(1)
14.23 Scapolite
431(1)
14.24 Lawsonite
432(1)
14.25 Pumpellyite
432(1)
14.26 Topaz
433(1)
14.27 Corundum
433(2)
14.28 Chabazite
435(4)
Summary
436(1)
Review Questions
437(1)
Further Reading
437(2)
15 Metamorphic Rocks
439(38)
15.1 What Changes Occur during Metamorphism?
440(2)
15.1.1 An Example of Metamorphic Change
440(2)
15.2 Why Do Rocks Change?
442(2)
15.2.1 The Gibbs Free Energy, the Driving Force for Metamorphic Change
442(1)
15.2.2 Rates of Metamorphic Reactions
443(1)
15.2.3 Gibbs Phase Rule and the Number of Minerals a Metamorphic Rock Can Contain
443(1)
15.3 Metamorphic Grade and Facies
444(2)
15.4 Textures of Metamorphic Rocks
446(9)
15.4.1 Textures of Contact Metamorphic Rocks
448(1)
15.4.2 Deformation and Textures of Regional Metamorphic Rocks
448(7)
15.5 Simple Descriptive Classification of Metamorphic Rocks
455(1)
15.6 Metamorphism of Mudrock
455(7)
15.6.1 Graphical Representation of a Simple Metamorphic Reaction
456(1)
15.6.2 A Simple Pressure--Temperature Petrogenetic Grid
457(1)
15.6.3 Metamorphic Field Gradients
458(1)
15.6.4 Graphical Representation of Mineral Assemblages in Metapelites
458(2)
15.6.5 Mineral Assemblages in Barrow's Metamorphic Zones and Part of the Petrogenetic Grid for Metapelites
460(2)
15.7 Metamorphism of Impure Dolomitic Limestone
462(4)
15.8 Metamorphism and Partial Melting: Migmatites
466(1)
15.9 Geothermometers and Geobarometers
467(1)
15.10 Plate Tectonic Significance of Metamorphism
468(9)
15.10.1 Pressure--Temperature--Time (P-T-t) Paths
469(1)
15.10.2 Plate Tectonic Setting of Metamorphic Facies
470(2)
Summary
472(2)
Review Questions
474(1)
Further Reading
475(2)
16 Some Economic Minerals, Mainly from Veins and Pegmatites
477(22)
16.1 Gold
478(1)
16.2 Silver
479(1)
16.3 Copper
480(1)
16.4 Diamond
480(1)
16.5 Sulfur
481(1)
16.6 Galena
482(1)
16.7 Sphalerite
483(1)
16.8 Bornite
484(1)
16.9 Chalcocite
485(1)
16.10 Marcasite
485(1)
16.11 Molybdenite
486(1)
16.12 Arsenopyrite
487(1)
16.13 Bauxite
488(1)
16.14 Fluorite
489(1)
16.15 Barite
489(1)
16.16 Spodumene
490(1)
16.17 Lepidolite
491(1)
16.18 Several Gem Minerals
491(8)
Summary
494(2)
Review Questions
496(1)
Further Reading
497(2)
17 Some Selected Earth Materials Resources
499(24)
17.1 Construction Materials
500(4)
17.1.1 Building Stones
501(1)
17.1.2 Bricks, Cement, and Concrete
502(2)
17.1.3 Crushed Stone, Sand, and Gravel
504(1)
17.2 Iron Ore
504(1)
17.3 Clay Minerals
505(2)
17.4 Copper Ore
507(2)
17.5 Lithium Ore
509(1)
17.6 Rare Earth Elements
509(1)
17.7 Zeolites
510(1)
17.8 Energy Resources
510(13)
17.8.1 Oil, Natural Gas, and Coal Reserves
511(1)
17.8.2 Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing
512(4)
17.8.3 Nuclear Energy
516(1)
17.8.4 Geothermal Energy
516(1)
Summary
517(2)
Review Questions
519(1)
Online Resources
520(1)
Further Reading
520(3)
18 Earth Materials and Human Health
523(20)
18.1 The Human Body's Need for Earth Materials
524(1)
18.2 Soils and Human Health
524(4)
18.2.1 What Constitutes a Fertile Soil?
524(1)
18.2.2 Increasing Crop Production from Agricultural Land, and Soil Depletion
525(1)
18.2.3 The Need for Fertilizers
526(2)
18.3 Carcinogenic and Chemical Hazards Posed by Earth Materials
528(5)
18.3.1 Erionite
528(1)
18.3.2 Asbestos Minerals
528(2)
18.3.3 Silica Minerals
530(1)
18.3.4 Arsenic, an Example of a Chemically Hazardous Earth Material
530(1)
18.3.5 Health Hazards Due to Radioactivity
531(2)
18.3.6 Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change
533(1)
18.4 Hazards from Volcanic Eruptions
533(3)
18.4.1 Monitoring Active Volcanoes
535(1)
18.4.2 Lahars
536(1)
18.5 Tsunamis
536(1)
18.6 Ejecta from Meteorite Impacts
537(6)
Summary
538(2)
Review Questions
540(1)
Online Resources
541(1)
Further Reading
541(2)
Glossary 543(28)
Minerals and Varieties 571(2)
Common Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks 573(2)
Common Units of Measure 575(2)
Index 577
Cornelis ('Kase') Klein is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. He received his BSc and MSc in geology from McGill University, Canada, and his PhD from Harvard University, Massachusetts, also in geology. He has been a member of the geology faculty at Harvard University, Indiana University, Bloomington, and the University of New Mexico, and has taught courses in mineralogy at all these universities. His published books include Manual of Mineralogy (19th-21st editions), Manual of Mineral Science (22nd-23rd editions) and Minerals and Rocks: Exercises in Crystal and Mineral Chemistry, Crystallography, X-Ray Powder Diffraction, Mineral and Rock Identification, and Ore Mineralogy, 3rd edition (2007). He has received two awards for excellence in teaching from the University of New Mexico. Anthony R. Philpotts is Emeritus Professor of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Connecticut, a Visiting Fellow in the Department of Geology and Geophysics at Yale University, Connecticut and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts. He received his BSc and MSc in geology from McGill University, Canada, and his PhD from the University of Cambridge. He has taught igneous and metamorphic petrology courses at McGill University and the University of Connecticut for more than forty years. His published books include Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology, 2nd edition (Cambridge, 2009) and Petrography of Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks (1989, 2003).