ESC Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine 3rd Revised edition [Multiple copy pack]

Edited by , Edited by (St George's Hospital, University of London, UK), Edited by (Medical University of Vienna, Gener), Edited by (Royal Brompton & Harefield Hospital Trust and Imperial College, London, UK and Center for Molecular Cardiology, University of Zurich, Switzerland)
  • Formaat: Multiple copy pack, 3408 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 310x250x150 mm, kaal: 8162 g
  • Sari: The European Society of Cardiology Series
  • Ilmumisaeg: 13-Dec-2018
  • Kirjastus: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN-10: 0198784902
  • ISBN-13: 9780198784906
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  • Multiple copy pack
  • Hind: 320,30 EUR
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  • Formaat: Multiple copy pack, 3408 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 310x250x150 mm, kaal: 8162 g
  • Sari: The European Society of Cardiology Series
  • Ilmumisaeg: 13-Dec-2018
  • Kirjastus: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN-10: 0198784902
  • ISBN-13: 9780198784906
Teised raamatud teemal:
  • Provides the background information behind clinical practice through in-depth, peer-reviewed chapters, and broad coverage of the field
  • Includes contributions from more than 1000 of the world's leading specialists in cardiology
  • Accompanied by free access to the digital publication, ESC CardioMed, which will be continually updated by the author team
  • Highly illustrated with multi-media features, including over 350 videos, embedded in the text
  • Cross-referenced links to ESC Clinical Practice Guidelines, related content, and primary research data in European Heart Journal via ESC CardioMed

New to this Edition:

  • Completely revamped table of contents covering over 63 disciplines within cardiology
  • Now split into six key parts: Introduction to the cardiovascular system; Investigations; Heart diseases; Vascular disease; Specific populations - gender and race; and Other aspects of cardiology
This new, third edition of The ESC Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine is a ground-breaking initiative from the European Society of Cardiology that transforms reference publishing in cardiovascular medicine to better serve the changing needs of the global cardiology community. Providing the background information behind clinical practice and the ESC Clinical Practice Guidelines, this publication is an invaluable resource for cardiologists across the world.

Overseen by Professors A. John Camm, Thomas F. Lüscher, Gerald Maurer, and Patrick W. Serruys, supported by an editorial board of subject experts, and with more than 1000 of the world's leading specialists - from researchers to clinicians - contributing, this dynamic encyclopaedic resource covers more than 63 disciplines within cardiology. Split into six parts: Introduction to the cardiovascular system; Investigations; Heart diseases; Vascular disease; Specific populations - gender and race; and Other aspects of Cardiology, The ESC Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine gives readers a trustworthy insight into all aspects of cardiovascular medicine.

To respond nimbly to the rapid evolution of the field, the textbook is also published online in an innovative digital version, titled ESC CardioMed. This digital resource is continually updated by the author teams. With expert editors and authors, and stringent peer-review, it combines the discoverability of digital with the higest standards of academic publishing. Highly illustrated, with embedded multi-media features, along with cross-referenced links to the ESC Clinical Practice Guidelines, related content, and primary research in the European Heart Journal, ESC CardioMed provides users with a dynamic, forward-thinking resource, at the heart of cardiology.

As a continually evolving knowledge base, The ESC Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, together with the online counterpart ESC CardioMed, equips all cardiologists - from trainees and consultants, to device specialists and allied healthcare professionals - with a powerful, multi-faceted resource covering all aspects of cardiovsacular medicine.

Arvustused

[ Praise for Previous Editions] This excellent and comprehensive resource is an essential book for cardiologists. * BMA Medical Book Competition 2010 * [ Praise for Previous Editions] The figures are all beautifully rendered in colour, and can each be downloaded into a PowerPoint slide - which is very helpful for academic physicians or residents giving presentations...The chapters...provide excellent, comphrensive information, together with concise descriptions of key studies with the emphasis on the practical care of patients. * Lancet * [ Praise for Previous Editions] The bible for trainees and trained cardiologists alike. * Cardiology News * [ Praise for Previous Editions] It is a tour the force, to which everyone in cardiology, Europe-wide, should either possess or readily have access. * British Journal of Cardiology *

PART 1. Introduction to the cardiovascular system
Section 1. Cardiovascular history and physical examination
Section editor: Nicholas Boon
1.1: Approach to cardiovascular assessment, Andrew Elder, Nicholas A. Boon, and Alan G. Japp
1.2: Cardiovascular symptoms, Alan G. Japp, Iain Simpson, Stephen Pettit, Arthur Yue, and Junaid Zaman
1.3: Cardiovascular signs, Stuart Pringle, Samantha Fitzsimmons, Ingibjorg Gudmundsdottir, and Joseph B. Esterson
Section 2. Developmental biology of the heart
Section editor: Miguel Torres
2.1: Cardiac embryogenesis, Robert G. Kelly
2.2: The molecular basis of cardiac embryogenesis, Miguel Torres
2.3: From heart-forming region to ballooning chambers, Maurice J. B. van den Hoff and Antoon F. M. Moorman
2.4: Development of the ventricles and valves, José M. Pérez-Pomares and José L. de la Pompa
2.5: Development of the cardiac conduction system, Jan Hendrik van Weerd and Vincent M. Christoffels
2.6: Epicardial and coronary vascular development, Thomas J. Cahill and Paul R. Riley
2.7: Cardiomyocyte development from mid-gestation through preadolescence, Mark H. Soonpaa and Loren J. Field
Section 3. Functional anatomy of the heart
Section editor: Siew Yen Ho
3.1: Introduction, Sabine Ernst and Siew Yen Ho
3.2: Cardiac anatomy in the interventional era: an overview, Ammar M. Killu and Samuel J. Asirvatham
3.3: Normal conduction system, coronary arteries, and coronary veins, Taka-aki Matsuyama and Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda
3.4: Normal atrial and ventricular myocardial structures, Damian Sanchez-Quintana and José Angel Cabrera
3.5: The heart as a functional unit, Philip J. Kilner and Sonya V. Babu-Narayan
3.6: Ventricular structure and function, Philip J. Kilner and Sonya V. Babu-Narayan
3.7: Functional anatomy of atria, Luigi Badano and Denisa Muraru
3.8: Functional anatomy of left heart valves, Fahd Makhdom, Pascal Thériault-Lauzier, Siew Yen Ho, and Nicolo Piazza
3.9: Functional anatomy of right heart valves, Christine Selton-Suty, Olivier Huttin, Clément Venner, and Yves Juillière
3.10: Functional anatomy of myocardial perfusion, Robert Manka and Sabrina Oebel
Section 4. Cardiovascular physiology
Section editor: Guido Grassi
4.1: The heart as a pump: governing principles, Sándor J. Kovács
4.2: Cardiac electrophysiology, Marek Malik
4.3: Cardiovascular physiology: regulation of coronary circulation, Christian Seiler
4.4: Regulation of blood pressure, Gino Seravalle and Guido Grassi
4.5: Heart/kidney interactions, Markus P. Schlaich
4.6: Cardiovascular response to exercise, Ross Arena, Dejana Popovic, Marco Guazzi, Amy McNeil, and Michael Sagner
4.7: Cardiovascular response to mental stress, Jens Barthelmes and Isabella Sudano
4.8: The cardiovascular system during sleep, Naima Covassin and Virend K. Somers
4.9: The ageing heart, Magnus Bäck, Laure Joly, Nicolas Sadoul, and Athanase Benetos
4.10: Alterations in cardiovascular physiology in pathological states, Sebastian Ewen, Saarraaken Kulenthiran, and Felix Mahfoud
Section 5. Cardiovascular pharmacology
Section editor: Faiez Zannad
5.1: Renin-angiotensin system and neprilysin, João Pedro Ferreira and Patrick Rossignol
5.2: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, Faiez Zannad and João Pedro Ferreira
5.3: Autonomic nervous system drugs, Atul Pathak
5.4: Pharmacology of vasodilators, Stéphane Laurent
5.5: Positive inotropes, Mattia Arrigo and Alexandre Mebazaa
5.6: Antiarrhythmics, Federico Guerra and Alessandro Capucci
5.7: Pharmacology of oral antiplatelet drugs, Tabassome Simon
5.8: Fibrinolytic therapy, Freek W. A. Verheugt
5.9: Lipid-lowering drugs, Cesare R. Sirtori and Massimiliano Ruscica
5.10: Oral diabetes treatments and cardiovascular disease, Pierre-Jean Saulnier and Samy Hadjadj
5.11: Renal pharmacology for the cardiologist, Kevin Damman
5.12: Potassium binders, Keld P. Kjeldsen, Juan Tamargo, and Thomas Andersen Schmidt
5.13: Cardiovascular effects of non-cardiovascular drugs, Pauline Bosco-Levy, Julien Bezin, Francesco Salvo, and Nicholas Moore
5.14: Drug-drug interactions, Jeffrey K. Aronson
5.15: Local drugs in interventional cardiology pharmacology, Jonathan Michel and Robert A. Byrne
Section 6. Anticoagulation
Section editor: Raffaele DeCaterina
6.1: An overview of haemostasis, in relation to atherothrombotic, thromboembolic, and venous cardiovascular disease, Pier Mannuccio Mannucci
6.2: Current targets of anticoagulants, Fedor Bachmann
6.3: Epidemiology of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in heart disease, Renate Schnabel, Dipak Kotecha, and Paulus Kirchhof
6.4: Unfractionated heparin, Freek W. A. Verheugt
6.5: Low-molecular-weight heparin, Paul Guedeney, Mathieu Kerneis, Johanne Silvain, Gilles Montalescot, and Jean-Philippe Collet
6.6: Fondaparinux and its derivatives, Michiel Coppens
6.7: Bivalirudin and argatroban, Davide Capodanno
6.8: Reversal of parenteral anticoagulants, Marcel Levi
6.9: Vitamin K antagonists, J¸rgen Jespersen and Jane Skov
6.10: The NOACs: pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, Thomas Vanassche and Peter Verhamme
6.11: The NOACs: clinical pharmacology, Jeffrey Weitz
6.12: The NOACs in special situations: the elderly, renal impairment, and combination with antiplatelet agents or thrombolysis, Felicita Andreotti, Eliano Pio Navarese, and Filippo Crea
6.13: Reversal of oral anticoagulants, Joanne van Ryn
6.14: Epidemiological data on the use of traditional anticoagulants in cardiovascular disease, Christina Reith and Colin Baigent
Section 7. Epidemiology and global burden
Section editor: Sumeet Chugh
7.1: Strategies for assessment of global disease burden, Sumeet S. Chugh
7.2: Epidemiology and global burden of hypertension, George A. Mensah
7.3: Epidemiology and global burden of ischaemic heart disease, Andrew E. Moran
7.4: Epidemiology and global burden of cardiomyopathy, James D. Wilkinson, Ashwin Kumar, Joslyn A. Westphal, Jason D. Czachor, Hiedy Razoky, and Steven E. Lipshultz
7.5: Epidemiology and global burden of arrhythmias, Aapo L. Aro and Sumeet S. Chugh
7.6: Epidemiology and global burden of rheumatic heart disease, Dianne Sika-Paotonu, Andrea Beaton , and Jonathan Carapetis
7.7: Epidemiology and global burden of myocarditis and pericarditis, Siva Ketha and Leslie T. Cooper
7.8: Epidemiology and global burden of infective endocarditis, Imad M. Tleyjeh and Aref A. Bin Abdulhak
7.9: Epidemiology and global burden of peripheral arterial disease and aortic aneurysms, Holger Reinecke
PART 2. Investigations
Section 8. Electrocardiogram
Section editor: Antonio Bayes de Luna
8.1: Introduction, Antonio Bayes de Luna
8.2: Atrial abnormalities, Adrian Baranchuk and Bryce Alexander
8.3: Ventricular hypertrophy, Ljuba Bacharova and Harvey Estes
8.4: Intraventricular conduction disturbances, Antonio Bayes de Luna and Marcelo Elizari
8.5: ECG patterns of ischemia and necrosis, Miguel Fiol and Antonio Bayes de Luna
8.6: ECG patterns related to arrhythmias and sudden death: channelopathies, early repolarization, and preexcitiation, Wojciech Zareba and Pyotr Platonov
8.7: ECG in syncope, palpitations, dyspnea and chest pain, Angel Moya
8.8: The ECG abnormal in patients without heart disease and the ECG normal in presence of evident structural heart disease, Antonio Bayes de Luna and Günter Breithardt
Section 9. Chest radiography
Section editor: Christian Herold
9.1: Normal anatomy with a focus on the cardiac silhouette and the great vessels, Christian Loewe and Dietrich Beitzke
9.2: Pulmonary venous hypertension, Massimo Pistolesi and Mariaelena Occhipinti
9.3: Pulmonary arterial hypertension and acute and chronic thromboembolism, Thomas Henzler
9.4: Pulmonary infections, Tomas Franquet
9.5: Focal abnormalities, Nicola Sverzellati, Gianluca Milanese, and Mario Silva
9.6: Lines, tubes, and implantable devices, Nicholas Screaton and Gianluca Milanese, and Mario Silva
Section 10. Cardiac ultrasound
Frank Flachskampf
10.1: Principles of echocardiographic imaging and velocity assessment by Doppler and speckle tracking, Jens-Uwe Voigt
10.2: Technical equipment for echocardiography, Thomas Binder
10.3: Transthoracic echocardiography and the standard examination of specific cardiac structures, Thomas Binder
10.4: Stress echocardiography, Roxy Senior and Nikolaos Karogiannis
10.5: Contrast echocardiography, Anastasia Vamvakidou and Roxy Senior
10.6: Three-dimensional echocardiography, Francesco F. Faletra, Laura A. Leo, Tiziano Moccetti, and Mark J. Monaghan
10.7: Coronary heart disease, Thomas H. Marwick
10.8: Hypertension and diabetes, Laura Ernande
10.9: Transoesophageal echocardiography, Ruxandra Beyer and Frank A. Flachskampf
10.10: Left ventricular function, heart failure, and resynchronization therapy, Jens-Uwe Voigt
10.11: Assist devices, Satoshi Nakatani
10.12: Cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, and the transplanted heart, Thor Edvardsen
10.13: Cardiac valves, Damien Voilliot and Patrizio Lancellotti
10.14: Echocardiography in transcatheter aortic valve implantation, Mehdi Eskandari and Mark J. Monaghan
10.15: Transcatheter mitral valve repair: from edge-to-edge to annuloplasty, Mehdi Eskandari and Mark J. Monaghan
10.16: Prosthetic valve evaluation, Felix C. Tanner and Rolf Jenni
10.17: Pulmonary hypertension and the right ventricle, Petros Nihoyannopoulos and Julia Grapsa
10.18: Echocardiographic assessment: diseases of the aorta, Arturo Evangelista and José Rodríguez-Palomares
10.19: Atrial fibrillation, Bogdan Popescu, Maria-Magdalena Gurzun, and Carmen Ginghina
10.20: Emergency echocardiography, Aleksandar N. Neskovic, Ivan Stankovic and Predrag Milicevic
Section 11. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance
Section editor: Dudley Pennell
11.1: Normal anatomy and function, Alicia Maceira
11.2: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance physics, techniques, and contrast agents, Sonia Nielles-Vallespin
11.3: Coronary artery disease, Jurg Schwitter
11.4: Cardiomyopathies, Matthias Friedrich and Fabian Siepen
11.5: Congenital heart disease, Sonya Babu-Narayan
11.6: Valvular heart disease, Saul Myerson
11.7: Atherosclerosis imaging, Chun Yuan, Zach Miller, and Jianming Cai
11.8: Angiography, Jan Bogaert
11.9: Less common pathologies, Massimo Lombardi and Antonia Camporeale
Section 12. Cardiovascular computed tomography
Section editor: Stephan Achenbach
12.1: Technology of cardiac computed tomography, Stephan Achenbach
12.2: Coronary calcium, Todd C. Villines, Joshua Mitchell, and Michael K. Cheezum
12.3: Coronary computed tomography angiography: detection of coronary artery stenosis, Koen Nieman
12.4: Coronary computed tomography angiography: imaging of coronary atherosclerotic plaque, Pál Maurovich-Horvat
12.5: Computed tomography myocardial perfusion, Amita Singh, Noreen Nazir, Victor Mor-Avi, and Amit R. Patel
12.6: Computed tomography for cardiac morphology, function, and valve disease, Victoria Delgado
12.7: Computed tomography for cardiac interventions, Mohamed Marwan and Stephan Achenbach
Section 13. Nuclear cardiology and positron emission tomography
Section editor: Philipp Kaufmann
13.1: Basic principles and technological state of the art: SPECT, Alessia Gimelli and Riccardo Liga
13.2: Basic principles and technological state of the art: PET, Frank Bengel
13.3: Basic principles and technological state of the art: hybrid imaging, Ronny R. Buechel and Aju P. Pazhenkottil
13.4: Assessment of coronary artery disease: chronic stable angina, Juhani Knuuti, S. Richard Underwood, and Antti Saraste
13.5: Assessment of coronary artery disease: imaging-guided management and therapy, Juhani Knuuti, S. Richard Underwood, and Antti Saraste
13.6: Integration of stress nuclear imaging in the diagnostic and management algorithms of stable coronary artery disease, Danilo Neglia and Juhani Knuuti
13.7: Assessment of coronary artery disease: nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging in specific patient populations, Danilo Neglia and Juhani Knuuti
13.8: Heart failure, Danilo Neglia and Oliver Gaemperli
13.9: Endocarditis and device infection, Fabien Hyafil, Dominique Le Guludec, and Oliver Gaemperli
13.10: Infiltrative disease (amyloidosis/sarcoidosis), Tobias A. Fuchs and Oliver Gaemperli
13.11: Future potential, Philipp A. Kaufmann, Oliver Gaemperli, and Juhani Knuuti
Section 14. Invasive imaging haemodynamics
Section editor: Carlo Di Mario
14.1: Invasive Imaging and Haemodynamics, Guy Heyndrickx and Carlo Di Mario
14.2: Coronary Angiography and Ventriculography, Carlo Di Mario, Serafina Valente, and Carlotta Sorini Dini
14.3: Intravascular ultrasound imaging, Philip Dingli, Nicola Ryan, Nieves Gonzalo, and Javier Escaned
14.4: Optical coherence tomography, Francesco Prati, Laura Gatto, Enrico Romagnoli, and Luca Di Vito
14.5: Near InfraRed Spectroscopy, Carlo Di Mario, Carlotta Sorini Dini, and Serafina Valente
14.6: Functional coronary assessment: FFR, Emanuele Barbato and Fabio Mangiacapra
14.7: Functional coronary assessment: iFRand other indices, Justin Davies and Christopher Cook
Section 15. Selection of imaging techniques
Section editor: Jeroen Bax
15.1: Choice of imaging techniques, Jeroen J. Bax, Alexander R. van Rosendael, Laurens F. Tops, Nina Ajmone Marsan, and Victoria Delgado
PART 3. Heart Diseases
Section 16. Genetics of CV diseases
Section editor: Heribert Schunkert
16.1: Introduction, Heribert Schunkert
16.2: Genetic counselling, Jodie Ingles, Charlotte Burns, and Laura Yeates
16.3: Principles of cascade screening, Eric Sijbrands
16.4: Principles of molecular testing, Eric Schulze-Bahr
16.5: Basic principles of genetic disease, Eric Schulze-Bahr
16.6: The Genetics of Long QT Syndrome, Andrea Mazzanti, Riccardo Maragna, and Sylvia Priori
16.7: Monogenic and oligogenic CV diseases - Genetics of arrhythmias - short QT Syndrome, Erol Tülümen and Martin Borggrefe
16.8: Monogenic and oligogenic CV diseases - Genetics of arrhythmias - Brugada Syndrome, Sonia Van Dooren, Dorien Daneels, Gudrun Pappaert, Maryse Bonduelle, and Pedro Brugada Terradellas
16.9: Monogenic and oligogenic CV diseases - Genetics of arrhythmias - catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, Peter Schwartz and Lia Crotti
16.10: Post-mortem genetic testing in sudden death cases, Najim Lahrouchi, Elijah Behr, and Connie Bezzina
16.11: Genetics of cardiomyopathies - Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Philippe Charron and Carole Maupain
16.12: Genetics of cardiomyopathies - Dilated cardiomyopathy, Daniel Oehler, Benjamin Meder, and Hugo Katus
16.13: Left Ventricular Noncompaction, Eloisa Arbustini, Alessandro Di Toro, Lorenzo Giuliani, Nupoor Narula, Valentina Favalli
16.14: Genetics of cardiomyopathies - Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy, Kalliopi Pilichou, Cristina Basso, Rudy Celeghin, and Gaetano Thiene
16.15: Genetics of cardiomyopathies -Cardiac manifestations of mitochondrial diseases, Abdallah Fayssoil
16.16: Genetics of cardiomyopathies - Myocardial infiltration, Frank Weidemann
16.17: Genetics of vascular diseases - Marfan syndrome and aortic diseases, Dorien Schepers and Bart Loeys
16.18: Structural diseases of the heart - Genetics of congenital heart diseases, Daniela Barge-Schaapveld, Marco DeRuiter, Conny van Munsteren, and Monique Jongbloed
16.19: Structural diseases of the heart- Syndromes affecting the CV System, Sabine Klaassen
16.20: Complex Cardiovascular Diseases - Atherosclerosis - genetic factors, Heribert Schunkert
16.21: Complex Cardiovascular Diseases - Dyslipidaemias - genetic factors, Daniel Swerdlow, Steve Humphries, and Michael Holmes
16.22: Genetic Determinants of Atrial Fibrillation, Patrick Ellinor and Steven Lubitz
16.23: The genetics of arterial hypertension, Georg Ehert
Section 17. Congenital heart disease (GUCH)
Section editor: John Deanfield
17.1: Introduction, John Deanfield
17.2: Nomenclature, John Deanfield and Robert Andersen
17.3: Epidemiology and incidence, John Deanfield and Bernard Keavney
17.4: Genetics, Bernard Keavney and Elisavet Fotiou
17.5: Fetal circulation & perinatal programming, Marietta Charakida
17.6: Clinical Presentations & Initial Investigations, John Deanfield
17.7: Echocardiography in Congenital Heart Disease, Jan Marek, Folkert Meijboom, and Luc Mertens
17.8: Cross-Sectional imaging/modelling, Giovanni Biglino, Silvia Schievano, and Andrew Taylor
17.9: Functional Testing, Alessandro Giardini
17.10: Arrhythmias in Childhood and Patients with Congenital Heart Disease, Henry Chubb and Martin Lowe
17.11: Interventional catheterization, Shakeel Qureshi
17.12: Long term Outcomes, Michiel Winter, Berto Bouma, Barbara Mulder
17.13: Arterial Disease in the Young, Marietta Charakida
17.14: Contraception and pregnancy, Jolien Roos-Hesselink and Lucia Baris
17.15: Pulmonary Hypertension, Shahin Moledina
17.16: Heart Failure, Marc Gewillig
17.17: Support/Transplant, Dilveer Panesar and Mike Burch
17.18: Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Marc Gewillig
17.19: Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD), Michelle Carr
17.20: Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), Orla Franklin
17.21: Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA), Robert Yates
17.22: Pulmonary Valve (PV) Stenosis, Robert Yates
17.23: Vascular Rings, Robert Yates
17.24: Aortic Stenosis (AS) and Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction (LVOTO), David Anderson
17.25: Coarctation, Marietta Charakida
17.26: Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF), Robert Yates
17.27: Ebstein's Anomaly, Sachin Khambadkone
17.28: Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS), Alessandro Giardini
17.29: Single Ventricle/Total Cavopulmonary Connection (TCPC) (Fontan Circulation), Marc Gewillig
17.30: Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection (TAPVC), Marietta Charakida and John Deanfield
17.31: Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA), John Deanfield and Marietta Charakida
17.32: Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, Robert Yates and Marietta Charakida
Section 18. Prevention in cardiovascular disease and rehabilitation
Section editor: Massimo Piepoli
18.1: Introduction, Massimo Piepoli
18.2: Cardiovascular risk estimation at the individual level, Yvo M. Smulders, Marie-Therese Cooney, and Ian Graham
18.3: Risk factor management at the level of the individual using lifestyle changes, Guy De Backer, Johan De Sutter, and Ian M. Graham
18.4: Risk factor intervention at the population level, Eva Prescott, Torben J¸rgensen, Maja-Lisa L¸chen, Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard, Simon Capewell, and Maja Lisa L¸chen
18.5: Cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training, Ugo Corrà
18.6: Prevention in cardiovascular disease and rehabilitation, Ugo Corrà
18.7: Settings and stakeholders, Christi Deaton, Margaret Cupples, and Kornelia Kotseva
Section 19. Diabetes mellitus metabolics syndrome
Section editor: Lars Ryden
19.1: Introduction, Lars Ryden
19.2: Dysglycaemia - Definition, classification and diagnosis, Jaakko Tuomilehto and Lars Ryden
19.3: Vascular complications to dysglycaemia, Francesco Cosentino
19.4: Cardiovascular risk assessment in dysglycaemic patients, Nikolaus Marx
19.5: Preventing cardiovascular complications in patients with dysglycemia, Linda Mellbin and Lars Ryden
19.6: Special conditions - Acute coronary syndromes, Baris Gencer and Marco Roffi
19.7: Special conditions - Revascularisation, Miguel Sousa Uva
19.8: Special conditions - Heart failure, Karl Swedberg
19.9: Diabetes and Arrhythmia, Heikki Huikuri and Lars Ryden
19.10: Diabetes and lower extremity arterial disease, Lucia Mazzolai, Marianne Brodmann, and Victor Aboyans
19.11: Kidney disease, Henrik Per Groop and Drazenka Pongrac Barlovic
19.12: Person centred care, Asa Hornsten
Section 20. Heart and the brain
Section editor: Hans-Christoph Diener
20.1: Acute ischaemic stroke: classification and diagnosis, Hans-Christoph Diener
20.2: Impact of stroke on heart function, Christoph Kleinschnitz
20.3: Causes of cardioembolic stroke, Stefan Hohnloser
20.4: Embolic stroke of undetermined source, Hans-Christoph Diener
20.5: Treatment of acute stroke, Heinrich P. Mattle and Simon Jung
20.6: Closure of a patent foramen ovale for the prevention of stroke, David R. Holmes Jr, Guy S. Reeder, and Heinrich Mattle
20.7: Secondary stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, Hans-Christoph Diener
20.8: Management of vascular risk factors and co-morbidities in secondary stroke prevention, Martin O'Donnell and Cliona Small
20.9: Intracranial haemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation on anticoagulants, Heinrich Mattle, Marcel Arnold, and Urs Fischer
20.10: Atrial Fibrillation and dementia, Hans-Christoph Diener and John Camm
Section 21. Cardiovascular problems in chronic kidney disease
Section editor: Christoph Wanner
21.1: Epidemiology and chronic kidney disease as a cardiovascular risk factor, Stephan Segerer and Harald Seeger
21.2: Causes of death in renal disease, Thomas F. Mueller and Valerie Luyckx
21.3: Pathophysiology, Christoph Wanner
21.4: Cardiovascular imaging in chronic kidney disease, Victoria Delgado
21.5: Prevention and drug therapy in chronic kidney disease, Stephan Segerer and Harald Seeger
21.6: Device therapy in chronic kidney disease (implantable cardioverter defibrillator, cardiac resynchronization therapy), Petra Nijst and Wilfried Mullens
21.7: Special considerations in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy and kidney transplant patients, Thomas F. Mueller and Valerie Luyckx
Section 22. Erectile dysfunction
Section editor: Charalambos Vlachopoulos
22.1: Sex and the heart, Piero Montorsi
22.2: Erectile dysfunction: definition and size of the problem, Michael Doumas and Chrysoula Boutari
22.3: Asking, Tiny Jaarsma
22.4: Erectile dysfunction as a marker and predictor of cardiovascular disease, Charalambos Vlachopoulos and Nikolaos Ioakeimidis
22.5: Testosterone, erectile dysfunction, and the heart, Geoffrey Hackett
22.6: Sexual function and dysfunction in women (and the effect for the couple), Kevan R. Wylie
22.7: Lifestyle issues, Michael Kirby
22.8: Drugs, Mike Kirby and Jonny Coxon
22.9: Surgery, Odunayo Kalejaiye, Amr Abdel Raheem, and David Ralph
22.10: Management of a patient with erectile dysfunction with or without known cardiovascular disease, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos Ioakeimidis, and Dimitris Tousoulis
Section 23. Lung Disease
Section editor: Martin Cowie
23.1: Epidemiological relationships between respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, Kieran Rothnie and Jennifer Quint
23.2: Long Term Oxygen Therapy/Ventilation and Cardiovascular outcomes in chronic lung and respiratory disease, Antia Simonds
23.3: Effect of COPD treatment on CV outcome, Jennifer Quint
23.4: Muscle Weakness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (and heart failure), Michael Polkey
23.5: Pulmonary rehabilitation in Chronic Lung Disease and Heart Failure, William Man and Rachael Evans
23.6: Sleep apnoea: definition, prevalence and role in cardiovascular diseases, Olaf Oldenburg
23.7: Sleep Related Breathing Disorders - Classification and diagnosis, Melissa Lipford and Virend Somers
23.8: Diabetes and Arrhythmia, Holger Woehrle and Michael Arzt
23.9: Sleep apnoea - Treatment options and sleep/CV, Bernardo Selim
23.10: Diabetes and lower extremity arterial disease, Mark Miller, Anoop Shah, Nicholas Mills, and Dave Newby
23.11: Kidney disease, Samuel Verges and Patrick Levy
Section 24. Gastrointestinal disease
Section editor: Gerhard Rogler
24.1: Introduction, Gerhard Rogler
24.2: Gut microbiome, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis, Eduard F. Stange
24.3: Gut microbiota and coronary artery disease, Slayman Obeid, Melroy Miranda, and Thomas F. Lüscher
24.4: The gut and cardiovascular diseases, Giuseppe Rosano
24.5: Intestinal absorption and drug levels, Gerd A. Kullak-Ublick and Regina Krattinger
24.6: Chronic heart failure and liver function, Felix Stickel, Matteo Montani, and Christian Datz
24.7: Protein-losing enteropathy associated with heart disease, Conall Morgan and Luc Mertens
Section 25. Rheumatoid arthritis and the heart
Section editor: Thomas Lüscher
25.1: Introduction, Thomas F. Lüscher
25.2: Mechanisms of inflammation, Roland Klingenberg and Ulf Müller-Ladner
25.3: Inflammatory diseases: inflammation and cardiovascular disease, Luigi Marzio Biasucci and Giovanna Liuzzo
25.4: Rheumatoid arthritis: basic mechanisms in joints, Oliver Distler and Caroline Ospelt
25.5: Anti-inflammatory therapies for cardiovascular disease, Thomas F. Lüscher and Paul M. Ridker
25.6: Treatment aims in rheumatoid arthritis, Oliver Distler and Adrian Ciurea
25.7: Inflammatory bowel disease: basic mechanisms, Gerhard Rogler
25.8: Inflammatory bowel disease and the heart, Christian M. Matter, Stephan Winnik, and Gerhard Rogler
25.9: Psoriasis, Alexander A. Navarini
Section 26. Rheumatic heart disease
Section editor: Ferande Peters
26.1: Introduction, Ferande Peters
26.2: Epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, Liesl Zühlke
26.3: Pathogenesis: from acute rheumatic fever to rheumatic heart disease, Liesl Zühlke
26.4: Clinical features and diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever, Antoinette Cilliers
26.5: Echocardiography in acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, Ferande Peters, Ruchika Meel, and Mohammed R. Essop
26.6: Prevention and definitive therapy of acute rheumatic fever, Liesl Zühlke
26.7: Chronic rheumatic disease, Ferande Peters, Mpiko Ntsekhe, and Mohammed Essop
26.8: Clinical scenarios in chronic rheumatic heart disease, Mohammed Essop, Mpiko Ntsekhe, and Ferande Peters
26.9: Therapeutic options in chronic rheumatic heart disease, Mohammed Essop
Section 27. Cardio-oncology
Section editor: John Groarke
27.1: Introduction, John Groarke
27.2: Radiation-induced heart disease: surveillance and management, Ersilia M. DeFilippis and Anju Nohria
27.3: Surveillance for cardiotoxicity in patients receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy, Cian P. McCarthy, Michael T. Osborne, and Tomas G. Neilan
27.4: Anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity: epidemiology, surveillance, prophylaxis, management, and prognosis, Daniela Cardinale and Carlo Maria Cipolla
27.5: Trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity: epidemiology, surveillance, management, prophylaxis, and prognosis, Torbj¸rn Omland
27.6: Cardiovascular complications of novel kinase inhibitors, Mark Sweeney and Alexander Lyon
27.7: Cardiovascular complications of novel multiple myeloma treatments, Daniel J. Lenihan
27.8: Cardiovascular risk in men with prostate cancer, Daniel Perry, Megan Caram, and Monika Leja
27.9: Cardiac arrhythmias and cancer therapies, John Keaney
Section 28. HIV
Section editor: Nombulelo P. Magula
28.1: Introduction, Nombulelo P. Magula and Akira Singh
28.2: Epidemiology of HIV-associated cardiovascular complications, Giuseppe Barbaro
28.3: HIV-associated cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, Ntobeko A. B. Ntusi
28.4: Pericarditis and myopericarditis in HIV, Rubeshan Perumal and Nombulelo P. Magula
28.5: Vascular disease: coronary, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease, Darrin Ryan Naidoo and Sherlina Kasipersad
28.6: Pulmonary hypertension: definitions, classification, diagnosis, and management, Anastase Dzudie and Friedrich Thienemann
28.7: Antiretroviral treatment, Nombulelo P. Magula, Rubeshan Perumal, and Ruffin Apalata
Section 29. Acute coronary syndromes
Section editor: Stefan James
29.1: Introduction, Stefan James and Marco Roffi
29.2: The plaque, Michael Joner and Philipp Nicol
29.3: Epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes, Héctor Bueno
29.4: General risk factors of acute coronary syndromes, Lene R¸rholm Pedersen and Eva Prescott
29.5: Pathophysiology of acute coronary syndromes, Giovanna Liuzzo, Daniela Pedicino, and Filippo Crea
29.6: Thrombotic response, Robert Storey and William Parker
29.7: Development of myocardial infarction, Pascal Vranckx
29.8: Diagnosis and risk stratification of acute coronary syndromes, Christian Mueller
29.9: Treatment of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes, Marco Valgimigli and Marco Angelillis
29.10: Treatment of ST elevation acute coronary syndromes, Borja Ibanez and Sigrun Halvorsen
Section 30. Takotsubo syndrome
Section editor: Christian Templin
30.1: Introduction, Christian Templin
30.2: Incidence and definition of takotsubo syndrome, Abhiram Prasad
30.3: Mechanisms of takotsubo syndrome, Leonarda Galiuto and Filippo Crea
30.4: Signal transduction pathways initiated by catecholamines in takotsubo syndrome: focus on nitrosative stress and energetic impairment, John D. Horowitz, Thanh Ha Nguyen, Sven Y. Surikow, Gao Jing Ong, Cher-Rin Chong, Dana K. Dawson, and Michael P. Frenneaux
30.5: Triggers of takotsubo syndrome, Jelena R. Ghadri
30.6: Clinical presentation of takotsubo syndrome, Ilan Wittstein
30.7: Diagnostic testing in takotsubo syndrome, Rodolfo Citro and Eduardo Bossone
30.8: ECG features and arrhythmias in takotsubo syndrome, Federico Migliore, Sebastiano Gili, and Domenico Corrado
30.9: Co-morbidities in takotsubo syndrome, Ken Kato, Sebastiano Gili, Fabio Fabbian, and Roberto Manfredini
30.10: Management of takotsubo syndrome, John E. Madias
30.11: Takotsubo syndrome complications, outcome, and prognosis, Scott W. Sharkey
Section 31. Genetics of CV diseases
Section editor: William Wijns
31.1: Introduction, William Wijns
31.2: Pathology of Stable Coronary Artery Disease, Michael Joner, Kristin Steigerwald, and Anna Bulin
31.3: Pathophysiology of coronary circulation, Nils Johnson and K. Gould
31.4: Myocardial ischemia: definition and causes, Filippo Crea and Gaetano Lanza
31.5: Importance of the Coronary Collateral Circulation, Christian Seiler
31.6: Coronary artery disease: from atherosclerosis to obstructive disease, inducible ischemia and the ischemic cascade, Jeroen Bax
31.7: Clinical symptoms of stable ischemic heart disease, Ulrich Fischer-Rasokat and Christian Hamm
31.8: Non invasive functional evaluation, Juhani Knuuti and Antti Saraste
31.9: Non invasive (CT) and invasive angiography, Stephan Achenbach
31.10: Invasive Functional Evaluation of Patients with Chronic Ischaemic Heart Disease, Keith Oldroyd and Colin Berry
31.11: Intracoronary imaging, Nicola Ryan, Nieves Gonzalo, and Javier Escaned
31.12: Risk stratification and risk scores, Vasim Farooq, Patrick Serruys, and Ply Chichareon
31.13: Medical management: lifestyle and behavioural changes, Nicolas Danchin, Etienne Puymirat, and Nadia Aissaoui
31.14: Medical management: pharmacological therapy, Aviv Shaul and David Hasdai
31.15: Myocardial revascularization: symptomatic and prognostic indications, Jean Claude Tardif, Philippe L?Allier, and Fabien Picard
31.16: Cost Effectiveness, Ruben Osnabrugge and Pieter Kappetein
31.17: Patient Reported Outcome Measures in Cardiovascular Disease, Ran Kornowski and Eli Lev
31.18: IHD and Diabetes, Ruben Osnabrugge and Pieter Kappetein
31.19: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention vs. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Daniele Giacoppo and Robert Byrne
31.20: Refractory angina, Alessia Azzano and Stefan Verheye
31.21: Chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, Ward Heggermont, Marc Vanderheyden, and Jozef Bartunek
31.22: Microvascular angina, Paolo Camici and Ornella Rimoldi
31.23: Vasospastic angina, Peter Ong and Udo Sechtem
Section 32. Myocardial disease
Section editor: Perry Elliott
32.1: Introduction, Perry Elliott
32.2: Classification of cardiomyopathies, Eloisa Arbustini, Valentina Favalli, Alessandro Di Toro, Alessandra Serio, and Jagat Narula
32.3: General approach to diagnosis of cardiomyopathies, Claudio Rapezzi and Massimiliano Lorenzini
32.4: Hypertrophic Cardiomyapathy - Genetics of HCM, Mohammed Akhtar and Luis Lopes
32.5: Hypertrophic Cardiomyapathy - HCM: Diagnosis and assessment of symptoms, Albert Hagege
32.6: Hypertrophic Cardiomyapathy - HCM: Medical management of heart failure symptoms and arrythmia, Iacopo Olivotto
32.7: Hypertrophic Cardiomyapathy - HCM: Invasive management of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, Steve Omen
32.8: Hypertrophic Cardiomyapathy - HCM: Prevention of sudden cardiac death, Constantinos O'Mahony
32.9: Dilated Cardiomyopathy - DM: Genetics, Luis Lopes
32.10: Dilated Cardiomyopathy - Clinical diagnosis and medical management, Gianfranco Sinagra, Marco Merlo, and Davide Stolfo
32.11: Dilated Cardiomyopathy - DCM: Management of arrythmia and prevention of sudden cardiac death, Pier Lambiase and Rui Providencia
32.12: Restrictive cardiomyopathy, Jens Mogensen
32.13: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomypathy - ARVC: Genetics, Petros Syrris and Alexandros Protonotarios
32.14: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomypathy - ARVC: Diagnosis, Cristina Basso, Barbara Bauce, and Gaetano Thiene
32.15: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomypathy - ARVC: Management of symptoms and prevention of sudden cardiac death, Perry Elliott and Alexandros Protonotarios
32.16: Left Ventricular non-compaction - LVNC: GENETICSand embryology, Pablo Garcia-Pavia and Fernando Dominguez
32.17: Left ventricular non-compaction: diagnosis and clinical management, Jens Mogensen and Torsten B. Rasmussen
32.18: Myocarditis - Aetiology & histopathological diagnosis, Sabine Pankuweit
32.19: Myocarditis - Clinical presentation, Alida Caforio, Renzo Marcolongo, and Sabino Iliceto
32.20: Myocarditis - Imaging (Echo, CMR, nuclear), Ali Yilmaz and Anca Florian
32.21: Myocarditis - Treatment of myocarditis, Peter Heinz Schultheiss and Felicitas Escher
32.22: The Heart in Nueromuscular disease - Mitochondrial Disease, Denis Duboc
32.23: The Heart in Nueromuscular disease - Myotonic Dystrophy, Henning Bundgaard, Anna Axelsson, Alex Christensen, and Helle Petri
32.24: The Heart in Neuromuscular disease - Duchenne and Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophies, Karim Wahbi
32.25: The Heart Inherited Metabolic disorders - Lysomal and glycogen storage diseases, Ales Linhart
32.26: Cardiac Amyloidosis, Martha Grogan
32.27: Peripartum Cardiomyopathy, Karen Sliwa and Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner
32.28: Cardiomyopathies in Children and Adolescents, Juan Kaski and Gabrielle Norrish
Section 33. Pericardial disease
Section editor: Yehuda Adler
33.1: Overview of pericardial syndromes, Michael Arad and Yehuda Adler
33.2: Acute and recurrent pericarditis, Massimo Imazio, Fiorenzo Gaita, and Yehuda Adler
33.3: Pericardial effusion, Antonio Brucato and Stefano Maggiolini
33.4: Cardiac tamponade, Arsen D. Ristic, Petar M. Seferovic, Bernhard Maisch, and Vladimir Kanjuh
33.5: Constrictive pericarditis, Antonis Pantazis, Karin Klingel, and Yishay Wasserstrum
33.6: Pericardial masses and congenital abnormalities, Angelos G. Rigopoulos and Hubert Seggewiss
33.7: Pericardial involvement in neoplastic disease, Dor Lotan and Yehuda Adler
33.8: Multimodality imaging of pericardial diseases, Massimo Imazio and Fiorenzo Gaita
33.9: Interventional therapies for pericardial diseases, Bernhard Maisch, Arsen Ristic, Sabine Pankuweit, and Peter Seferovic
33.10: Surgical therapies for pericardial disease, George Krasopoulos
33.11: What next?, Yehuda Adler and Dor Lotan
Section 34. Tumours of the heart
Section editor: Gaetano Thiene
34.1: Masses and cardiac tumours: classification and diagnosis, Gaetano Thiene, Stefania Rizzo, Martina Perazzolo Marra, Marialuisa Valente, and Cristina Basso
34.2: Benign cardiac tumours, Cristina Basso, Stefania Rizzo, Martina Perazzolo Marra, Marialuisa Valente, and Gaetano Thiene
34.3: Malignant tumours, pericardial tumours, and therapy, Cristina Basso, Stefania Rizzo, Marialuisa Valente, Martina Perazzolo Marra, and Gaetano Thiene
Section 35. Valvular heart disease
Section editor: Helmut Baumgartner
35.1: Introduction and general comments, Bernard Lung and Pieter Kappetein
35.2: Aortic regurgitation, Pilar Tornos Mas and Emmanuel Lansac
35.3: Aortic stenosis, Helmut Baumgartner and Thomas Walther
35.4: Mitral regurgitation, Raphael Rosenhek and Michele de Bonis
35.5: Mitral stenosis, Alec Vahanian
35.6: Tricuspid regurgitation, Patrizio Lancellotti and Michele de Bonis
35.7: Tricuspid stenosis, Michele DeBonis
35.8: Combined and multiple valve diseases, Michele DeBonis
35.9: Prosthetic valves, Bernard Iung and Johan Sjögren
35.10: Management during non-cardiac surgery, Johan Holm and Bernard Iung
35.11: Management during pregnancy, Johan Holm and Bernard Iung
Section 36. Infective endocarditis
Section editor: Gilbert Habib
36.1: Epidemiology and physiopathology, Bernard Iung
36.2: Diagnosis, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, María Nazarena Pizzi, and Pilar Tornos
36.3: Prognosis and complications, Isidre Vilacosta and Carmen Olmos
36.4: Prosthetic valve endocarditis, José A. San Román and Javier López
36.5: Cardiac device-related endocarditis, Maria Grazia Bongiorni and Andrea Di Cori
36.6: Right-sided infective endocarditis, José A. San Román and Javier López
36.7: Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis, Patrizio Lancellotti and Stella Marchetta
36.8: Specific situations: congenital heart disease, Joey M. Kuijpers, Berto J. Bouma, and Barbara J. M. Mulder
36.9: Indications for surgery: guidelines, Gilbert Habib
36.10: Surgical techniques, Jean-François Obadia, Benoit Cosset, and Matteo Pozzi
36.11: Antibiotic prophylaxis and prevention of infective endocarditis, Bruno Hoen and Xavier Duval
36.12: Conclusion and future directions, Gilbert Habib
Section 37. Heart failure
Section editor: John McMurray
37.1: Epidemiology of Heart Failure, Theresa McDonagh and Kaushik Guha
37.2: Definition, epidemiology/burden of disease - HFrEF, Pietro Aldo Maggioni and Ovidiu Chioncel
37.3: Definition, epidemiology/burden of disease - HFpEF, Lars Lund and Gianluigi Savarese
37.4: Health related quality of life - Definition, epidemiology, burden of disease, interventions, Anna Stromberg and Tiny Jaarsma
37.5: Heart Failure: Symptoms, signs and the ECG, Pardeep Jhund
37.6: Chronic Heart Failure Diagnosis a Heart Failure with preserved Ejection Fraction
37.7: Chronic heart failure diagnosis - Imaging echocardiography, Thomas Marwick
37.8: Chronic heart failure diagnosis - Imaging - cardiac MRI, Robert Manka and Sabrina Oebel
37.9: Chronic heart failure diagnosis - Biomarkers, Christian Mueller
37.10: Chronic heart failure diagnosis - Genetics, Perry Elliott
37.11: Estimating prognosis - Prognostic scores, Vasiliki Bistola, John Parissis, and Gerasimos Filippatos
37.12: Estimating prognosis - Biomarkers, Arthur Richards
37.13: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Atrial fibrillation, Dipak Kotecha and Mitja Lainscak
37.14: Heart failure and diabetes mellitus, Mark Petrie and Kieran Doherty
37.15: Hypertension and Heart Failure, Francesco Paneni and Massimo Volpe
37.16: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Renal dysfunction, Kevin Damman
37.17: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Anaemia/iron deficiency, Piotr Ponikowski
37.18: Comorbidities: Obesity, cachexia, sarcopenia, and the impact of nutrition, Stefan Anker and Stephan von Haeling
37.19: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) a Lung disease
37.20: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Sleep disordered breathing, Martin Cowie
37.21: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Cancer, Thomas Suter
37.22: Heart failure due to valvular heart disease, Luc Pierard
37.23: Diuretic Use in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction, Rhondalyn Forde-McLean and Mariell Jessup
37.24: ACEI and or ARBs in Heart Failure and reduced Ejection Fraction, Marc Pfeffer
37.25: Angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors, John McMurray
37.26: Beta blockers in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, Simon Beggs and Roy Gardner
37.27: HFrEF pharmacological treatment - Ivabradine, Michel Komajda
37.28: Heart Failure with a Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) Pharmacological Treatment; Digitalis Glycosides, John Cleland and Yura Mareev
37.29: HFrEF pharmacological treatment - Hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate, Faraz Ahmad and Clyde Yancy
37.30: HFrEF other treatment - CRT/ICD, Valentina Kutyifa
37.31: HFrEF other treatment - Revascularization, Eric Velazquez and Mark Petrie
37.32: HFrEF other treatment - VADs, Randall Starling and Emer Joyce
37.33: Advanced Heart Failure other treatment - Transplantation, Peter MacDonald and Kumud Dhital
37.34: HFrEF treatment - nurse led heart failure management programmes, Anna Stromberg and Tiny Jaarsma
37.35: HFpEF treatment - Pharmacological therapy, Maja Cikes and Scott Solomon
37.36: Patient monitoring, Dirk van Veldhuisen
37.37: Exercise Rehabilitation in Heart Failure with reduced and preserved Ejection Fraction, Alan Cohen-Solal
37.38: Palliative care in heart failure, James Beattie
37.39: Acute heart failure - Diagnosis, Adriaan Voors and Piotr Ponikowski
37.40: Acute heart failure - Immediate management/stabilization, Javier Martin-Sanchez, Oscar Miro, and Hector Bueno
37.41: Acute heart failure - Treatment, Dimitrios Farmakis, John Parissis, and Gerasimos Filippatos
Section 38. Bradycardia
Section editor: Giuseppe Boriani
38.1: Introduction, Giuseppe Boriani
38.2: Aetiology and epidemiology of bradyarrhythmias, Fredrik Gadler and Cinzia Valzania
38.3: Classification of bradyarrhythmias, Bulent Gorenek and Gulmira Kudaiberdieva
38.4: Methods and tools for the diagnosis of intermittent and persistent bradycardia, Georges H. Mairesse
38.5: Anatomy and physiology of the sinus node, Antonio Zaza
38.6: The sinus node: normal and abnormal chronotropic response and drug effects, Bruce Wilkoff and Corey Coleman
38.7: Sinus node disease: pathophysiology and natural history, Jonathan M. Kalman and Gwilym M. Morris
38.8: Sinus node disease: ECG patterns and diagnosis, Tatjana Potpara
38.9: Sinus node disease: the role of electrophysiological testing, Dominic A. M. J. Theuns
38.10: Atrial tachyarrhythmias in bradycardiaatachycardia syndrome: characterization and evolution
38.11: Anatomy and physiology of the atrioventricular node, M. J. Pekka Raatikainen
38.12: Atrioventricular conduction abnormalities and atrioventricular blocks: ECG patterns and diagnosis, S. Serge Barold
38.13: Atrioventricular conduction abnormalities and atrioventricular blocks: role of electrophysiology testing, Demosthenes G. Katritsis and Mark E. Josephson
38.14: Congenital atrioventricular blocks: clinical presentation, clinical evaluation, and management, Drago Fabrizio and Battipaglia Irma
38.15: Carotid sinus syndrome: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management, Richard Sutton
38.16: Bradycardia in athletes: clinical evaluation and management, Hein Heidbuchel
38.17: Cardiac pacing: basic concepts, Renato Pietro Ricci
38.18: Temporary pacing, Alexander Bauer
38.19: Permanent cardiac pacing in bradyarrhythmias: device coding, Béla Merkely
38.20: Pacing for bradycardia: device features and algorithms and clinical impact, Jens Cosedis Nielsen and Jens Kristensen
38.21: Electrocardiographic patterns of cardiac pacemakers: normal and abnormal findings, Carsten Israel
38.22: Follow-up of pacemaker patients with bradyarrhythmias: scope of follow-up and organizational issues, Anne M. Gillis
38.23: Pacemakers in children and adolescents, Johannes Sperzel
38.24: Lead management, Jean Claude Deharo
38.25: Electromagnetic interference in pacemaker patients, Jan Steffel
38.26: Pacemaker syndrome, Giuseppe Boriani and Igor Diemberger
Section 39. Syncope
Section editor: Michele Brignole
39.1: Definition, epidemiology, classification, and pathophysiology, J. Gert van Dijk and Roland D. Thijs
39.2: Diagnostic evaluation, Frederik J. de Lange and J. Gert van Dijk
39.3: Reflex syncope, Jean-Claude Deharo
39.4: Cardiac syncope, Richard Sutton
39.5: Orthostatic intolerance: orthostatic hypotension and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, Artur Fedorowski
39.6: Unexplained syncope in patients with high risk of sudden cardiac death, Vincent Probst and Jean-Baptiste Gourraud
39.7: Recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope (version 2018), Michele Brignole
Section 40. Supraventricular tachycardias
Section editor: Carina Blomstorm-Lundqvist
40.1: Introduction, Carina Blomström-Lundqvist
40.2: Epidemiology of supraventricular tachycardias, Gregory Y. H. Lip
40.3: Atrial premature beats, Tatjana Potpara
40.4: Definitions, clinical presentation, symptoms, quality of life, and patient preferences, Tatjana Potpara
40.5: Differential diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardias, Haran Burri
40.6: Acute management of supraventricular tachycardias with and without established diagnosis (termination and/or rate regulation of tachycardia), Isabel Deisenhofer
40.7: Management of rapid heartbeats/tachycardias with rhythm or rate control in the absence of ECG-verified diagnosis, Isabel Deisenhofer
40.8: Management of specific supraventricular tachycardias, Isabel Deisenhofer
40.9: Sinus node-related tachycardias: physiological sinus tachycardia, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, sinus node reentrant tachycardia, and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, Brian Olshansky
40.10: Atrial tachycardias: focal and multifocal atrial tachycardias, Pierre Jaïs and Nicolas Derval
40.11: Atrial tachycardias: macroreentrant atrial tachycardias, CTI-dependent atrial flutter (clockwise, anticlockwise), and non-CTI-dependent macroreentrant atrial tachycardia, Jose L. Merino
40.12: Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, Demosthenes G. Katritsis
40.13: Accessory pathways-related tachycardias: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and atrioventricular reentrant tachycardias, Jonathan Chrispin and Hugh Calkins
40.14: Concealed accessory pathways and related tachycardias, Carlo Pappone and Vincenzo Santinelli
40.15: Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia, Hildegard Tanner
40.16: Pre-excitation related to Mahaim physiology, Carlo Pappone and Vincenzo Santinelli
40.17: Asymptomatic pre-excitation, Jonathan Chrispin and Hugh Calkins
40.18: Non-reentrant junctional tachycardias, Demosthenes G. Katritsis
40.19: Health economy, Giuseppe Boriani
Section 41. Atrial fibrillation
Section editor: John Camm
41.1: Introduction, A. John Camm
41.2: Epidemiology, Emelia Benjamin and Darae Ko
41.3: Mechanisms of atrial fibrillation: electrophysiological basis, Ulrich Schotten
41.4: Mechanisms of atrial fibrillation: genetics, David O. Arnar and Hilma Holm
41.5: Mechanisms of atrial remodelling, David R. Van Wagoner
41.6: Types of atrial fibrillation, Larissa Fabritz, Ulrich Schotten, and Paulus Kirchhof
41.7: Silent atrial fibrillation, Ben Freedman and Nicole Lowres
41.8: Atrial fibrillation progression and prevention, Justin G. L. M. Luermans, Jordi Heijman, Isabelle C. Van Gelder, and Harry J. G. M. Crijns
41.9: Clinical investigation of patients presenting with atrial fibrillation, Hein Heidbuchel
41.10: Management of acute presentation with atrial fibrillation rate control, Christian Sticherling and Michael Kuehne
41.11: Restoration of sinus rhythm: direct current cardioversion, Riccardo Cappato
41.12: Pharmacological cardioversion for atrial fibrillation, Irina Savelieva
41.13: Rate control: medical therapy, Isabelle C. Van Gelder, Michiel Rienstra, Laurent Pison, and Harry J. G. M. Crijns
41.14: Rate control: ablation and device therapy (ablate and pace), Maurizio Gasparini and Paola Galimberti
41.15: Rhythm control: antiarrhythmic drugs, Juan Tamargo
41.16: Development of atrial fibrillation catheter ablation and ablation strategies, Gerhard Hindricks, Nikolaos Dagres, Philipp Sommer, and Andreas Bollmann
41.17: Rhythm control: surgical ablation, Chawannuch Ruaengsri, Matthew R. Schill, Richard B. Schuessler, and Ralph J. Damiano, Jr
41.18: Rate versus rhythm control therapy for atrial fibrillation: a perspective, Albert L. Waldo
41.19: Follow-up of patients with atrial fibrillation, Jeroen Hendriks
41.20: Stroke risk factors and risk stratification in atrial fibrillation, Gregory Y. H. Lip
41.21: Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation, Michael D. Ezekowitz and Amanulla N. Khaji
41.22: Bleeding risk in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation, Margaret C. Fang
41.23: Thromboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation: device therapy and surgical techniques, Thorsten Lewalter, Clemens Jilek, and Peter Sick
41.24: Classification and mechanisms of atrial flutter, Eric M. Riles and Melvin Scheinman
41.25: Atrial flutter: clinical presentation, Bhupesh Pathik and Jonathan M. Kalman
41.26: Atrial flutter: management, Tilman Maurer, Christine Lemes, and Karl-Heinz Kuck
41.27: Atrial fibrillation and heart failure, Johannes Brachmann
41.28: Atrial fibrillation and athletes, Eduard Guasch and Lluís Mont
41.29: Atrial fibrillation in the elderly, David Hirsh and Nanette Wenger
41.30: Atrial fibrillation after cardiopulmonary surgery, Rohan S. Wijesurendra and Barbara Casadei
41.31: Atrial fibrillation and hypertension, Hung-Fat Tse and Jo-Jo Hai
41.32: Atrial fibrillation and hyperthyroidism, Bernadette Biondi
41.33: Atrial fibrillation and obesity, Rajiv Mahajan, Dennis H. Lau, and Prashanthan Sanders
41.34: Atrial fibrillation and sleep apnoea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Jared D. Miller and Hugh G. Calkins
41.35: Atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease, Ken Okumura and Hirofumi Tomita
41.36: Atrial fibrillation in pregnancy, Jamie Conti, Mark Panna, and Michael Kaufmann
41.37: Atrial fibrillation associated with adult congenital heart disease, Sunil Kapur and Saurabh Kumar
41.38: Integrated care management in atrial fibrillation, Jeroen Hendriks
41.39: Patient education, Deirdre A. Lane
Section 42. Ventricular tachycardia
Section editor: Brian Olshansky
42.1: Classification of ventricular tachycardias, Nishant Verma and Bradley P. Knight
42.2: Evaluation and acute management of wide QRScomplex tachycardia, Sei Iwai and Jason Jacobson
42.3: Classification and treatment of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, Alfred E. Buxton
42.4: Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia associated with structural heart disease: classification, assessment, and initial treatment, Fernando M. Contreras-Valdes and Peter J. Zimetbaum
42.5: Bundle branch reentry tachycardia, Akihiko Nogami
42.6: Electrical storm, Len Ganz
42.7: Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia: the role of catheter ablation, Tilman Maurer,William G. Stevenson, and Karl-Heinz Kuck
42.8: Sustained and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia and no associated heart disease (idiopathic ventricular tachycardia), Victor Bazan, Enrique Rodriguez-Font, and Francis E. Marchlinski
42.9: Polymorphic ventricular tachycardias including torsade de pointes, L. Brent Mitchell
Section 43. Sudden Cardiac Death
Section editor: Gerhard Hindricks
43.1: Epidemiology, underlying substrates, Harry Rakowski and Arnon Adler
43.2: Arrhythmic mechanisms (bradycardia and tachycardia), Pedro Brugada Terradellas and Juan Sieira
43.3: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death - in the general population, Efstathios Iliodromitis and Dimitrios Farmaksis
43.4: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death - in ischemic cardiomyopathy, Nikolaos Dagres and Gerhard Hindricks
43.5: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death - in dilated cardiomyopathy, Dietmar Baensch
43.6: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death - in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Wilhelm Haverkamp and Philipp Attanasi
43.7: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death - in right ventricular cardiomyopathy, Firat Duru and Corinna Brunckhorst
43.8: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death - in primary electrical disorders, Peter J. Schwartz and Lia Crotti
43.9: New techniques for risk assessment, Juan Fernandez-Armenta, Antonio Berruezo, Juan Acosta, and Diego Penela
43.10: Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in the general population, Efstathios Iliodromitis and Dimitrios Farmaksis
43.11: Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in ischemic cardiomyopathy, Luigi Di Biase, Jorge Romero, Andrea Natale, Ricardo Avendano, and Mario Garcia
43.12: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death (in ischemic cardiomyopathy, Jens Cosedis Nielsen and Jens Kristensen
43.13: Primary prevention of sudden death - in Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, Riccardo Cappato
43.14: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in dilatedcardiomyopathy, Riccardo Cappato
43.15: Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in hypertrophiccardiomyopathy, Barry Maron
43.16: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in hypertrophiccardiomyopathy, Wilhelm Haverkamp and Philipp Attanasio
43.17: Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in right ventricular cardiomyopathy, Katja Zeppenfeld and Sebastiaan Piers
43.18: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in right ventricular cardiomyopathy, Katja Zeppenfeld and Sebastiaan Piers
43.19: Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in primary electrical disorders, Josep Brugada and Elena Arbelo
43.20: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in primary electrical disorders, Josep Brugada and Elena Arbelo
43.21: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death - after catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia, Arash Arya
43.22: The implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Conclusions on sudden cardiac death and future perspective, Gerhard Hindricks, Michael Kühl, and Nikolaos Dagres
PART 4. Vascular disease
Section 44. Systemic hypertension
Section editor: Bryan Williams
44.1: Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Hypertension, Stefano Taddei, Rosa Bruno, Masi Stefano, and Anna Solini
44.2: Classification of blood pressure and blood pressure measurement, Gianfranco Parati
44.3: Target organ damage and CVD risk and clinical evaluation of the hypertensive patient, Giovanni De Simone
44.4: Secondary causes of hypertension, Isabella Sudano
44.5: Blood pressure Thresholds for treatment and blood pressure treatment targets in hypertension, Bryan Williams
44.6: Sodium and potassium intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular prevention, Francesco P Cappuccio
44.7: Drug treatment of hypertension, Michel Burnier, Sverre Kjeldsen, Anthony Heagerty, and Bryan Williams
44.8: Device based treatment for hypertension, Felix Mahfoud
44.9: Hypertension in Specific conditions / comorbidities, Enrico Agabiti Rosei, Maria Lorenza Muiesan, and Massimo Salvetti
44.10: Hypertension in Special situations, Thomas Kahan
Section 45. Pulmonary Hypertension
Section editor: Marc Humbert
45.1: Introduction, Marc Humbert
45.2: Definition, Stephan Rosenkranz
45.3: Epidemiology, Rogerio Souza, Jose Leonidas Alves, and Susana Hoette
45.4: Pathophysiologic Mechanisms in Pulmonary Hypertension, Christophe Guignabert, Ly Tu, Alice Huertas, and Marc Humbert
45.5: Genes of pulmonary hypertension as major diagnostic tools, Florent Soubrier, Melanie Eyries, Barbara Girerd, David Montani, David Tregouet, and Marc Humbert
45.6: Mechanisms of right ventricular failure, Joanne Groeneveldt, Anton Vonk Noordegraaf, and Frances de Man
45.7: Clinical Presentation of Pulmonary Hypertension, Marion Delcroix and Catharina Belge
45.8: Life-threatening complications of pulmonary hypertension, Marion Delcroix and Catharina Belge
45.9: Clinical classification, Rogerio Souza, Francisca Oleas, and Caio Fernandes
45.10: Echocardiographic findings in pulmonary hypertension, Adam Torbicki
45.11: Screening for pulmonary hypertension, John Coghlan
45.12: Diagnosis and clinical Investigation of patients presenting with pulmonary hypertension, Rogerio Souza, Daniela Calderaro, and Luis Felipe Prada
45.13: Management of pulmonary hypertension - Basic treatment, Stephan Rosenkranz
45.14: Management of pulmonary hypertension: targeted therapies, Nazzareno Galie, Alessandra Manes, and Massimiliano Palazzini
45.15: Management of pulmonary hypertension - Treatment algorithm, Nazzareno Galie, Alessandra Manes, and Massimiliano Palazzini
45.16: Lung transplantation in pulmonary arterial hypertension, Laurent Savale
45.17: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial Hypertension, Rogerio Souza, Carlos Jardim, and Luciana Morinaga
45.18: Heritable pulmonary arterial Hypertension, Nicholas Morrell and Charaka Hadinnapola
45.19: Pulmonary arterial Hypertension induced by drugs and toxins, Irene Lang and Meinhard Kneussl
45.20: Pulmonary arterial Hypertension associated with connective tissue disease, Chris Denton
45.21: Portopulmonary Hypertension, Olivier Sitbon and Laurent Savale
45.22: Pulmonary arterial Hypertension associated with congenital heart diseases, Michael Gatzoulis, Margarita Brida, and Michel Gatzoulis
45.23: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension associated with HIV infection, Olivier Sitbon
45.24: Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and/or pulmonary capillary haemangiomatois, David Montani, Barbara Girerd, Edmund Lau, and Marc Humbert
45.25: Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases, Jean-Luc Vachiery
45.26: Pulmonary hypertension due to chronic lung diseases, Ari Chaouat, Anne Guillaumot, Emmanuel Gomez, Olivier Huttin, Christine Suty-Selton, and Francois Chabot
45.27: Chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension, Gerald Simonneau
45.28: Hypertension due to multiple and/or unclear mechanisms, Andrew Peacock
45.29: Referral centres and patient education, Simon Gibbs
45.30: Genetic counselling in pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension, David Montani, Barbara Girerd, and Marc Humbert
45.31: Risk assessment and treatment goals in patients presenting with pulmonary arterial hypertension, Marius Hoeper
45.32: Conclusion, Marc Humbert
Section 46. Disease of the aorta
Section editor: Raimund Erbel
46.1: Introduction, Raimund Erbel
46.2: The normal aorta, Raimund Erbel
46.3: Aortic aneurysm - Thoracic aortic aneurysm - Diagnostic approach, Oliver Gaemperli and Udo Sechtem
46.4: Aortic aneurysm - Thoracic aortic aneurysm - Therapeutic options, Axel Haverich and Andreas Martens
46.5: Aortic aneurysm - Aortic arch aneurysms, Roberto Bartolomeo, Alessandro Leone, Luca Di Marco, and Davide Pacini
46.6: Aortic aneurysm - Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Diagnostic Approach, Regula von Allmen
46.7: Aortic aneurysm - Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Therapeutic options, Regula von Allmen
46.8: Aortic sclerosis - Clinical signs and diagnosis, Yuvrajsinh Parmar and I. Kronzon
46.9: Aortic sclerosis - Therapy, Raimund Erbel
46.10: Acute aortic syndrome - Diagnostic strategy and clinical features, Riccardo Gorla, Eduardo Bossone, and Raimund Erbel
46.11: Acute aortic syndrome - Emerging role of biomarker, Toru Suzuki, Riccardo Gorla, and Eduardo Bossone
46.12: Acute aortic syndrome - Aortic dissection - Ascending aortic dissection, Christoph Starck, Robert Hammerschmidt, and Volkmar Falk
46.13: Acute aortic syndrome - Aortic dissection - Descending aortic dissection, Rachel Clough, Xun Yuan, and Chirstoph Nienaber
46.14: Acute aortic syndrome - Intramural Haematoma, Jae-Kwan Song
46.15: Acute aortic syndrome - Penetrating aortic ulcer, Arturo Evangelista and Jose Rodriguez-Palomares
46.16: Acute aortic syndrome - Traumatic aortic injury, Johnny Steuer and Mario Lachat
46.17: Acute aortic syndrome - latrogenic aortic trauma, Ivan Nunez-Gil and Gisela Feltes
46.18: Genetic diseases of the aorta - Chromosomal and inherited diseases, Dorien Schepers and Bart Loeys
46.19: Genetic diseases of the aorta - Aortic diseases associated with bicuspid aortic valves, Bernard Lung
46.20: Genetic diseases of the aorta - Aortic diseases associated with bicuspid aortic valves, Folkert Meijboom and Gertjan Sieswerda
46.21: Aortitis - infectious and non-infectious diseases, Rosangela Cocchia, Riccardo Gorla, and Eduardo Bossone
46.22: Aortic tumor, Francesca Urgnani and Vicente Riambau
46.23: Long-term follow-up in patients with aortic diseases, Udo Sechtem and Oliver Gaemperli
46.24: Role of aortic centers and aortic teams, Raimund Erbel
Section 47. Trauma to the cardiovascular system
Section editor: Christoph Nienaber
47.1: Trauma to the cardiovascular system, Ibrahim Akin and Christoph A. Nienaber
Section 48. Non-cardiac surgery
Section editor: Steen Kristensen
48.1: Introduction and epidemiology, Hans Erik Botker
48.2: Preoperative evaluation - Surgical risk for cardiac events Functional capacity Risk indexes, Jose Gonzalez-Juanatey
48.3: Preoperative evaluation - Biomarkers, Emmanuelle Duceppe and P.J. Devereaux
48.4: Preoperative evaluation - Non Invasive testing, Juhani Knuuti and Antti Saraste
48.5: Preoperative evaluation - Angiography, Hans Erik Botker
48.6: Risk reduction strategies - Perioperative management of cardiovascular medication, Beta-blockers, Ivabradine, a2 receptor agonists, ACE-inhibitors, ATII-antagonists, Calcium antagonists, Emmanuelle Duceppe and P.J. Devereaux
48.7: Risk reduction strategies - Antiplatelet therapy; aspirin, P2Y12 inhibitors Anticoagulants: including NOACs,Withdrawal - continuation, Steen Kristensen, Michael Maeng, and Kurt Huber
48.8: Coronary revascularization before non-cardiac surgery, Marco Roffi and Fabio Rigamonti
48.9: Chronic Heart Failure / Hypertension, Rodrigo Modolo and Ana Paula de Faria
48.10: Non-cardiac surgery Valvular heart disease, Bernard Iung and Luc Pierard
48.11: Specific diseases - Arrhythmias,VA, SupraVA, Bradyarrhythmias, Susanna Price and Evi Christodoulou
48.12: Specific diseases - Renal, Susanna Price
48.13: Specific diseases - Neurological, Marco Roffi
48.14: Specific diseases - Pulmonary, Susanna Price
48.15: Peri-operative monitoring - TOE, Luc Pierard
48.16: Perioperative Monitoring - Right Heart catherization, Susanna Price
48.17: Perioperative Monitoring - Glucose, Susanna Price
48.18: Perioperative Monitoring - Anesthesiology, Stefan De Hert
48.19: Conclusions and recommendations, Juhani Knuuti and Antti Saraste
Section 49. Peripheral arterial diseases
Section editor: Victor Aboyans
49.1: Introduction, V Aboyans
49.2: Epidemiology and risk factors, Marie-Louise Bartelink
49.3: General aspects, Lucia Mazzolai
49.4: Antithrombotic drugs in peripheral arterial diseases, Jean Philippe Collet
49.5: Extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease, Ross Naylor
49.6: Upper extremity artery disease, Tina Conhert
49.7: Mesenteric artery disease, Martin Björck
49.8: Renal artery disease, Charalambos Vlachopoulos
49.9: Lower extremity artery disease, Marianne Brodmann
49.10: Multisite artery disease, Marco DeCarlo
49.11: Cardiac conditions in peripheral arterial diseases, Michal Tendera
49.12: Gaps in evidence, JB Ricco
Section 50. Venous thromboembolism
Section editor: Stavros Konstantinides
50.1: Introduction, Stavros Konstantinides
50.2: Epidemiology and socio-economic consequences of VTE, Alexander Cohen, Marjolein Brekelmans, and Carlos Martinez
50.3: Predisposing factors for first and recurrent venous thrombosis, Willem Lijfering and Suzanne Cannegieter
50.4: Pathophysiology, Dieuwertje Ruigrok and Anton Vonk Noordegraaf
50.5: Diagnosis - clinical prediction rules and laboratory tests, Piotr Pruszczyk
50.6: Diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism and evolving imaging modalities, Helia Robert-Ebadi, Gregoire Le Gal, and Marc Righini
50.7: Prognostic assessment, Cecilia Becattini and Giancarlo Agnelli
50.8: Treatment - haemodynamic and respiratory support, Thomas Vanassche and Peter Verhamme
50.9: Treatment - anticoagulation, Cecilia Becattini and Giancarlo Agnelli
50.10: Treatment - thrombolysis, Guy Meyer
50.11: Venous thromboembolism; Catheter Based Intervention and Inferior Vena Cava Filters, Ronald Winokur and Akhilesh Sista
50.12: Management of PEin pregnancy, Thijs van Mens and Saskia Middeldrop
50.13: Management of PEin patients with cancer, Cihan Ay and Florian Posch
50.14: Venous thrombosis: Risk of recurrence and optimal duration of anticoagulation, Marc Rodger, Lisa Duffett, and Faizan Khan
50.15: Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH), Irene Lang,Walter Klepetko, and Hiromi Matsubara
Section 51. Venous disease
Section editor: Sebastien Schellong
51.1: Epidemiology and classification of venous disease, Eberhard Rabe and Felizitas Pannier
51.2: Venous imaging, Frederikus Klok, Charlotte Dronkers, and Menno Huisman
51.3: Venous recanalisation, Jochen Grommes
51.4: Varicose veins, Roshan Bootun, Tristan Lane, and Alun H. Davies
51.5: Chronic veous insufficiency/postthrombotic syndrome, Robert Eberhardt and Joseph Raffetto
PART 5. Specific Populations - gender and race
Section 52. Cardiovascular disease in women
Section editor: Noel Bairey Merz
52.1: Background, JoAnn E. Manson and Mariana Garcia
52.2: Sex and gender difference overview, Eva Prescott
52.3: Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, Karin Schenck-Gustafsson
52.4: Non-traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors unique to or predominant in women, Angela H. E. M. Maas
52.5: Cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines, Janet Wei
52.6: Ischaemic heart disease in women, Martha Gulati
52.7: Heart failure in women, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
52.8: Valvular heart disease, Sharon Mulvagh
52.9: Cardiac rehabilitation, Puja K. Mehta
52.10: Peripheral arterial disease in women, Mariana Garcia
52.11: Future directions, C. Noel Bairey Merz
Section 53. Pregnancy and heart disease
Section editor: Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
53.1a: General considerations, Janet Wei and C. Noel Bairey Merz
53.1b: Pregnancy risk assessment, Petronella Pieper
53.2: Gynaecological, obstetric, and neonatological aspects, Lisa-Antonia Droege and Wolfgang Henrich
53.3a: Congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension, Jolien Roos-Hesselink and Annemien van den Bosch
53.3b: Aortic diseases, Bernard Iung
53.4: Valvular heart disease, Petronella G. Pieper and Bernard Iung
53.5: Ischaemic heart disease in pregnancy, Angela H. E. M. Maas
53.6: Arrhythmias in pregnancy, Bozena Ostrowska, Barbara Kommata, Helena Malmborg, and Carina Blomström Lundqvist
53.7: Cardiomyopathies and heart failure, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
53.8: Hypertensive disorders, Renata Cifkova
53.9: Venous thromboembolism in the peripartum period, Karen Sliwa and Mark R. Johnson
53.10: Drugs during pregnancy and breastfeeding, Stefan Verlohren
Section 54. Ethnicity
Section editor: Gregory H. Y. Lip
54.1: Global perspectives of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, Amitava Banerjee
54.2: Ethnicity and cardiovascular risk factors, Nizal Sarrafzadegan and Farzad Masoudkabir
54.3: Ethnicity and coronary artery disease, Adam Timmis
54.4: Ethnicity and hypertension, Bert-Jan van den Born and Charles Agyemang
54.5: Ethnicity and cardiac arrhythmias, Tatjana Potpara
54.6: Ethnicity and heart failure, Amitava Banerjee
54.7: Ethnicity and inherited cardiac disease, Larissa Fabritz
54.8: Ethnic differences in responses to cardiovascular drugs, Bernard M. Y. Cheung and Esther W. Chan
PART 6. Other aspects
Section 55. Sports and heart disease
Section editor: Antonio Pelliccia
55.1: Cardiovascular adaptation to exercise and sport (according to type of sport, gender, and ethnicity), Michael Papadakis and Sanjay Sharma
55.2: Clinical assessment of the athleteas heart: normal and abnormal ECGs in athletes
55.3: Imaging testing for differential diagnosis of the athlete's heart from structural cardiac diseases, Antonio Pelliccia and Stefano Caselli
55.4: Sudden cardiac death in athletes: implications for pre-participation evaluation and safety in sport arenas, Eduard Guasch, Hein Heidbuchel, and Lluís Mont
55.5: Exercise and sport in the management of cardiovascular diseases (ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, and hypertension), Massimo Piepoli
Section 56. Elderly
Section editor: Franz Messerli and Tomasz Grodzicki
56.1: Multimorbidity and polypharmacy in the elderly with cardiovascular diseases, Tomasz Grodzicki, Karolina Piotrowicz, and Jonna Sulicka
56.2: Palliative and end-of-life care in elderly subjects with CVD, Piotr Sobanski
56.3: Dementia and CVD, Timo Strandberg and Tuomo Nieminen
56.4: Frailty, Sarcopenia and Falls and CVD, Antonio Cherubini and Massimiliano Fedecostante
56.5: Socio-economic issues and CVD (with emphasis on the caregivers), Nicola Veronese, Ludovico Carrino, and Stefania Maggi
56.6: Comprehensive geriatric assessment in CVD, Andreas Schoenenberger
56.7: Degenerative cardiovascular disease in elderly, Edgar Argulian
56.8: Lessons from ESCGuidelines, Stefano Rimoldi
56.9: Arterial Stiffness. From Isolated Systolic Hypertension to Syncope, Jerzy Gasowski, Chirag Bavishi, and Franz Messerli
56.10: Elderly. Special situations (sport, physical activity, travel), Joanna Kostka, Malgorzata Koziarska-Rosciszewska, and Tomasz Kostka
56.11: Interventional Cardiology for the Elderly, Adrian Messerli and Khaled Ziada
Section 57. Precision medicine
Section editor: Paulus Kirchhof
57.1: Foundations of personalised medicine, Paulus Kirchhof
57.2: Personalized management of coronary artery disease, T. Kessler and Heribert Schunkert
57.3: Disease mechanisms guiding therapy, Karin Sipido and Tom Guzik
57.4: Personalised management of atrial fibrillation, Larissa Fabritz, Eduard Guasch, Moritz Sinner, and Paulus Kirchhof
57.5: Individualized valve therapy, Stephan Baldus and Henrik ten Freyhaus
57.6: Genetically-modified animals as tools to personalize the study of arrhythmia mechanisms and treatment, Marina Cerrone, Morten Schak Nielsen, and Mario Delmar
57.7: Opportunities for personalized approaches in heart failure, Simon de Denus, Marie-Pierre Dubé, and Jean-Claude Tardif
57.8: Personalized Therapies for Cardiac Channelopathies, Andrea Mazzanti and Silvia Priori
Section 58. Decision making and the heart team
Section editor: Patrick Serruys
58.1: The Heart Team: introduction, Vasim Farooq and Patrick W. Serruys
58.2: Heart Teams in coronary artery disease, Vasim Farooq
58.3: Decision-making and Heart Teams in valvular heart disease: the transcatheter aortic valve implantation team model, Mohammad Abdelghani, Fahd Makhdom, and Nicolo Piazza
58.4: Heart Teams in atrial fibrillation, Manuel Castella, Hans-Christoph Diener, Gerhard Hindricks, and Paulus Kirchhof
58.5: Heart Teams in grown-up congenital heart disease, Mohammad Abdelghani, Martina Nassif, Nico A. Blom, David R. Koolbergen, Barbara J. M. Mulder, and Robbert J. de Winter
58.6: The Heart Team: conclusions and future perspectives, Andras P. Durko, Stuart J. Head, and David P. Taggart
Section 59. Psychological factors and heart disease
Sectione editor: Susanne Pedersen
59.1: Introduction, Susanne Pedersen
59.2: Psychological factors and incident heart disease, Susanne Pedersen
59.3: Psychological impact of heart disease, Frank Doyle
59.4: Impact of psychological factors on outcomes, Nina Kupper and Johan Denollet
59.5: Mechanisms: psychological factors and outcomes, Roland von Kaenel and Christian Albus
59.6: The wider psychosocial context, Johan Denollet
59.7: Interventions: what works for whoma
59.8: Clinical implications and future perspectives, Kim Smolderen
59.9: Conclusions, Susanne Pedersen
59.10: Likely developments over the next 5a10 years
59.11: Personal perspective, Susanne Pedersen
Section 60. Interpretation of clinical trials
Section editor: John Cleland
60.1: Trial Design from a Clinical Perspective, John Cleland
60.2: Clinical Trial Design: Statistical Issues, Tim Friede
60.3: Reporting Cardiovascular Clinical Trials, Muthiah Vaduganathan and Scott Solomon
60.4: Principles and methods of intervention research, Jan Tijssen
60.5: Interpretation-2, Pardeep Jhund and John McMurray
60.6: Meta-analysis, Colin Baigent and Natalie Staplin
Section 61. Environment
Section editor: Thomas Münzel
61.1: Summary, Thomas Münzel, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Mette S¸rensen, Dave Newby, and Robert D. Brook
61.2: Introduction, Thomas Münzel, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Mette S¸rensen, Dave Newby, and Robert D. Brook
61.3: Pathophysiology of noise-induced cardiovascular diseases, Thomas Münzel and Mette S¸rensen
61.4: Pathophysiology of air pollution-mediated cardiovascular events, Robert D. Brook, David Newby, and Sanjay Rajagopalan
61.5: Epidemiology of traffic noise and cardiometabolic disease, Mette S¸rensen and Thomas Münzel
61.6: Epidemiology of air pollution and cardiometabolic diseases, Robert D. Brook, David Newby, and Sanjay Rajagopalan
61.7: Strategies to mitigate cardiovascular effects of noise and air pollution, Thomas Münzel, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Mette S¸rensen, Dave Newby, and Robert D. Brook
61.8: Future perspectives, Thomas Münzel, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Mette S¸rensen, Dave Newby, and Robert D. Brook
61.9: Conclusions, Thomas Münzel, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Mette S¸rensen, Dave Newby, and Robert D. Brook
61.10: Development and challenges over the next decade, Thomas Münzel, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Mette S¸rensen, Dave Newby, and Robert D. Brook
Section 62. Occupational and regulatory aspects
Section editor: Demosthenes Katritsis
62.1: Occupational risk factors for heart disease, Demosthenes G. Katritsis, Mark Anderson, and Michael M. Webb-Peploe
62.2: Regulations concerning individual risk and public safety, Demosthenes G. Katritsis, Mark Anderson, and Michael M. Webb-Peploe
Section 63. Economics and cost-effectiveness
Section editor: Lorenzo Mantovani
63.1: Introduction to health economics and cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular prevention, Lorenzo Mantovani
63.2: Health and economic impact of non-adherence to preventative cardiovascular medicines, Dyfrig Hughes
63.3: Economics of new therapies in electrophysiology, Giuseppe Boriani, Lucia D'Angiolella, and Fabiana Madotto
63.4: Medical economics and interventional cardiology, Zaher Fanari, Sandra Weiss, and William S. Weintraub
63.5: Economics of new therapies for heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and hypercholesterolaemia, Lorenzo Mantovani and Lucia S. D'Angiolella
PART 7. Appendices
A.1: Cardiovascular disease risk estimation, Ian Graham, Marie Therese Cooney, Dirk De Bacquer, and Maryam Kavousi
A.2: Patient reported outcome measures, Polly Mitchell, Andrew Wragg, and Adam Timmis

PART
1. Introduction to the cardiovascular system Section
1. Cardiovascular history and physical examination Section editor: Nicholas Boon 1.1: Andrew Elder, Nicholas A. Boon, and Alan G. Japp: Approach to cardiovascular assessment 1.2: Alan G. Japp, Iain Simpson, Stephen Pettit, Arthur Yue, and Junaid Zaman: Cardiovascular symptoms 1.3: Stuart Pringle, Samantha Fitzsimmons, Ingibjorg Gudmundsdottir, and Joseph B. Esterson: Cardiovascular signs Section
2. Developmental biology of the heart Section editor: Miguel Torres 2.1: Robert G. Kelly: Cardiac embryogenesis 2.2: Miguel Torres: The molecular basis of cardiac embryogenesis 2.3: Maurice J. B. van den Hoff and Antoon F. M. Moorman: From heart-forming region to ballooning chambers 2.4: Jose M. Perez-Pomares and Jose L. de la Pompa: Development of the ventricles and valves 2.5: Jan Hendrik van Weerd and Vincent M. Christoffels: Development of the cardiac conduction system 2.6: Thomas J. Cahill and Paul R. Riley: Epicardial and coronary vascular development 2.7: Mark H. Soonpaa and Loren J. Field: Cardiomyocyte development from mid-gestation through preadolescence Section
3. Functional anatomy of the heart Section editor: Siew Yen Ho 3.1: Sabine Ernst and Siew Yen Ho: Introduction 3.2: Ammar M. Killu and Samuel J. Asirvatham: Cardiac anatomy in the interventional era: an overview 3.3: Taka-aki Matsuyama and Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda: Normal conduction system, coronary arteries, and coronary veins 3.4: Damian Sanchez-Quintana and Jose Angel Cabrera: Normal atrial and ventricular myocardial structures 3.5: Philip J. Kilner and Sonya V. Babu-Narayan: The heart as a functional unit 3.6: Philip J. Kilner and Sonya V. Babu-Narayan: Ventricular structure and function 3.7: Luigi Badano and Denisa Muraru: Functional anatomy of atria 3.8: Fahd Makhdom, Pascal Theriault-Lauzier, Siew Yen Ho, and Nicolo Piazza: Functional anatomy of left heart valves 3.9: Christine Selton-Suty, Olivier Huttin, Clement Venner, and Yves Juilliere: Functional anatomy of right heart valves 3.10: Robert Manka and Sabrina Oebel: Functional anatomy of myocardial perfusion Section
4. Cardiovascular physiology Section editor: Guido Grassi 4.1: Sandor J. Kovacs: The heart as a pump: governing principles 4.2: Marek Malik: Cardiac electrophysiology 4.3: Christian Seiler: Cardiovascular physiology: regulation of coronary circulation 4.4: Gino Seravalle and Guido Grassi: Regulation of blood pressure 4.5: Markus P. Schlaich: Heart/kidney interactions 4.6: Ross Arena, Dejana Popovic, Marco Guazzi, Amy McNeil, and Michael Sagner: Cardiovascular response to exercise 4.7: Jens Barthelmes and Isabella Sudano: Cardiovascular response to mental stress 4.8: Naima Covassin and Virend K. Somers: The cardiovascular system during sleep 4.9: Magnus Back, Laure Joly, Nicolas Sadoul, and Athanase Benetos: The ageing heart 4.10: Sebastian Ewen, Saarraaken Kulenthiran, and Felix Mahfoud: Alterations in cardiovascular physiology in pathological states Section
5. Cardiovascular pharmacology Section editor: Faiez Zannad 5.1: Joao Pedro Ferreira and Patrick Rossignol: Renin-angiotensin system and neprilysin 5.2: Faiez Zannad and Joao Pedro Ferreira: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists 5.3: Atul Pathak: Autonomic nervous system drugs 5.4: Stephane Laurent: Pharmacology of vasodilators 5.5: Mattia Arrigo and Alexandre Mebazaa: Positive inotropes 5.6: Federico Guerra and Alessandro Capucci: Antiarrhythmics 5.7: Tabassome Simon: Pharmacology of oral antiplatelet drugs 5.8: Freek W. A. Verheugt: Fibrinolytic therapy 5.9: Cesare R. Sirtori and Massimiliano Ruscica: Lipid-lowering drugs 5.10: Pierre-Jean Saulnier and Samy Hadjadj: Oral diabetes treatments and cardiovascular disease 5.11: Kevin Damman: Renal pharmacology for the cardiologist 5.12: Keld P. Kjeldsen, Juan Tamargo, and Thomas Andersen Schmidt: Potassium binders 5.13: Pauline Bosco-Levy, Julien Bezin, Francesco Salvo, and Nicholas Moore: Cardiovascular effects of non-cardiovascular drugs 5.14: Jeffrey K. Aronson: Drug-drug interactions 5.15: Jonathan Michel and Robert A. Byrne: Local drugs in interventional cardiology pharmacology Section
6. Anticoagulation Section editor: Raffaele DeCaterina 6.1: Pier Mannuccio Mannucci: An overview of haemostasis, in relation to atherothrombotic, thromboembolic, and venous cardiovascular disease 6.2: Fedor Bachmann: Current targets of anticoagulants 6.3: Renate Schnabel, Dipak Kotecha, and Paulus Kirchhof: Epidemiology of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in heart disease 6.4: Freek W. A. Verheugt: Unfractionated heparin 6.5: Paul Guedeney, Mathieu Kerneis, Johanne Silvain, Gilles Montalescot, and Jean-Philippe Collet: Low-molecular-weight heparin 6.6: Michiel Coppens: Fondaparinux and its derivatives 6.7: Davide Capodanno: Bivalirudin and argatroban 6.8: Marcel Levi: Reversal of parenteral anticoagulants 6.9: Jorgen Jespersen and Jane Skov: Vitamin K antagonists 6.10: Thomas Vanassche and Peter Verhamme: The NOACs: pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics 6.11: Jeffrey Weitz: The NOACs: clinical pharmacology 6.12: Felicita Andreotti, Eliano Pio Navarese, and Filippo Crea: The NOACs in special situations: the elderly, renal impairment, and combination with antiplatelet agents or thrombolysis 6.13: Joanne van Ryn: Reversal of oral anticoagulants 6.14: Christina Reith and Colin Baigent: Epidemiological data on the use of traditional anticoagulants in cardiovascular disease Section
7. Epidemiology and global burden Section editor: Sumeet Chugh 7.1: Sumeet S. Chugh: Strategies for assessment of global disease burden 7.2: George A. Mensah: Epidemiology and global burden of hypertension 7.3: Andrew E. Moran: Epidemiology and global burden of ischaemic heart disease 7.4: James D. Wilkinson, Ashwin Kumar, Joslyn A. Westphal, Jason D. Czachor, Hiedy Razoky, and Steven E. Lipshultz: Epidemiology and global burden of cardiomyopathy 7.5: Aapo L. Aro and Sumeet S. Chugh: Epidemiology and global burden of arrhythmias 7.6: Dianne Sika-Paotonu, Andrea Beaton , and Jonathan Carapetis: Epidemiology and global burden of rheumatic heart disease 7.7: Siva Ketha and Leslie T. Cooper: Epidemiology and global burden of myocarditis and pericarditis 7.8: Imad M. Tleyjeh and Aref A. Bin Abdulhak: Epidemiology and global burden of infective endocarditis 7.9: Holger Reinecke: Epidemiology and global burden of peripheral arterial disease and aortic aneurysms PART
2. Investigations Section
8. Electrocardiogram Section editor: Antonio Bayes de Luna 8.1: Antonio Bayes de Luna: Introduction 8.2: Adrian Baranchuk and Bryce Alexander: Atrial abnormalities 8.3: Ljuba Bacharova and Harvey Estes: Ventricular hypertrophy 8.4: Antonio Bayes de Luna and Marcelo Elizari: Intraventricular conduction disturbances 8.5: Miguel Fiol and Antonio Bayes de Luna: ECG patterns of ischemia and necrosis 8.6: Wojciech Zareba and Pyotr Platonov: ECG patterns related to arrhythmias and sudden death: channelopathies, early repolarization, and preexcitiation 8.7: Angel Moya: ECG in syncope, palpitations, dyspnea and chest pain 8.8: Antonio Bayes de Luna and Gunter Breithardt: The ECG abnormal in patients without heart disease and the ECG normal in presence of evident structural heart disease Section
9. Chest radiography Section editor: Christian Herold 9.1: Christian Loewe and Dietrich Beitzke: Normal anatomy with a focus on the cardiac silhouette and the great vessels 9.2: Massimo Pistolesi and Mariaelena Occhipinti: Pulmonary venous hypertension 9.3: Thomas Henzler: Pulmonary arterial hypertension and acute and chronic thromboembolism 9.4: Tomas Franquet: Pulmonary infections 9.5: Nicola Sverzellati, Gianluca Milanese, and Mario Silva: Focal abnormalities 9.6: Nicholas Screaton and Gianluca Milanese, and Mario Silva: Lines, tubes, and implantable devices Section
10. Cardiac ultrasound Frank Flachskampf 10.1: Jens-Uwe Voigt: Principles of echocardiographic imaging and velocity assessment by Doppler and speckle tracking 10.2: Thomas Binder: Technical equipment for echocardiography 10.3: Thomas Binder: Transthoracic echocardiography and the standard examination of specific cardiac structures 10.4: Roxy Senior and Nikolaos Karogiannis: Stress echocardiography 10.5: Anastasia Vamvakidou and Roxy Senior: Contrast echocardiography 10.6: Francesco F. Faletra, Laura A. Leo, Tiziano Moccetti, and Mark J. Monaghan: Three-dimensional echocardiography 10.7: Thomas H. Marwick: Coronary heart disease 10.8: Laura Ernande: Hypertension and diabetes 10.9: Ruxandra Beyer and Frank A. Flachskampf: Transoesophageal echocardiography 10.10: Jens-Uwe Voigt: Left ventricular function, heart failure, and resynchronization therapy 10.11: Satoshi Nakatani: Assist devices 10.12: Thor Edvardsen: Cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, and the transplanted heart 10.13: Damien Voilliot and Patrizio Lancellotti: Cardiac valves 10.14: Mehdi Eskandari and Mark J. Monaghan: Echocardiography in transcatheter aortic valve implantation 10.15: Mehdi Eskandari and Mark J. Monaghan: Transcatheter mitral valve repair: from edge-to-edge to annuloplasty 10.16: Felix C. Tanner and Rolf Jenni: Prosthetic valve evaluation 10.17: Petros Nihoyannopoulos and Julia Grapsa: Pulmonary hypertension and the right ventricle 10.18: Arturo Evangelista and Jose Rodriguez-Palomares: Echocardiographic assessment: diseases of the aorta 10.19: Bogdan Popescu, Maria-Magdalena Gurzun, and Carmen Ginghina: Atrial fibrillation 10.20: Aleksandar N. Neskovic, Ivan Stankovic and Predrag Milicevic: Emergency echocardiography Section
11. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance Section editor: Dudley Pennell 11.1: Alicia Maceira: Normal anatomy and function 11.2: Sonia Nielles-Vallespin: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance physics, techniques, and contrast agents 11.3: Jurg Schwitter: Coronary artery disease 11.4: Matthias Friedrich and Fabian Siepen: Cardiomyopathies 11.5: Sonya Babu-Narayan: Congenital heart disease 11.6: Saul Myerson: Valvular heart disease 11.7: Chun Yuan, Zach Miller, and Jianming Cai: Atherosclerosis imaging 11.8: Jan Bogaert: Angiography 11.9: Massimo Lombardi and Antonia Camporeale: Less common pathologies Section
12. Cardiovascular computed tomography Section editor: Stephan Achenbach 12.1: Stephan Achenbach: Technology of cardiac computed tomography 12.2: Todd C. Villines, Joshua Mitchell, and Michael K. Cheezum: Coronary calcium 12.3: Koen Nieman: Coronary computed tomography angiography: detection of coronary artery stenosis 12.4: Pal Maurovich-Horvat: Coronary computed tomography angiography: imaging of coronary atherosclerotic plaque 12.5: Amita Singh, Noreen Nazir, Victor Mor-Avi, and Amit R. Patel: Computed tomography myocardial perfusion 12.6: Victoria Delgado: Computed tomography for cardiac morphology, function, and valve disease 12.7: Mohamed Marwan and Stephan Achenbach: Computed tomography for cardiac interventions Section
13. Nuclear cardiology and positron emission tomography Section editor: Philipp Kaufmann 13.1: Alessia Gimelli and Riccardo Liga: Basic principles and technological state of the art: SPECT 13.2: Frank Bengel: Basic principles and technological state of the art: PET 13.3: Ronny R. Buechel and Aju P. Pazhenkottil: Basic principles and technological state of the art: hybrid imaging 13.4: Juhani Knuuti, S. Richard Underwood, and Antti Saraste: Assessment of coronary artery disease: chronic stable angina 13.5: Juhani Knuuti, S. Richard Underwood, and Antti Saraste: Assessment of coronary artery disease: imaging-guided management and therapy 13.6: Danilo Neglia and Juhani Knuuti: Integration of stress nuclear imaging in the diagnostic and management algorithms of stable coronary artery disease 13.7: Danilo Neglia and Juhani Knuuti: Assessment of coronary artery disease: nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging in specific patient populations 13.8: Danilo Neglia and Oliver Gaemperli: Heart failure 13.9: Fabien Hyafil, Dominique Le Guludec, and Oliver Gaemperli: Endocarditis and device infection 13.10: Tobias A. Fuchs and Oliver Gaemperli: Infiltrative disease (amyloidosis/sarcoidosis) 13.11: Philipp A. Kaufmann, Oliver Gaemperli, and Juhani Knuuti: Future potential Section
14. Invasive imaging haemodynamics Section editor: Carlo Di Mario 14.1: Guy Heyndrickx and Carlo Di Mario: Invasive Imaging and Haemodynamics 14.2: Carlo Di Mario, Serafina Valente, and Carlotta Sorini Dini: Coronary Angiography and Ventriculography 14.3: Philip Dingli, Nicola Ryan, Nieves Gonzalo, and Javier Escaned: Intravascular ultrasound imaging 14.4: Francesco Prati, Laura Gatto, Enrico Romagnoli, and Luca Di Vito: Optical coherence tomography 14.5: Carlo Di Mario, Carlotta Sorini Dini, and Serafina Valente: Near InfraRed Spectroscopy 14.6: Emanuele Barbato and Fabio Mangiacapra: Functional coronary assessment: FFR 14.7: Justin Davies and Christopher Cook: Functional coronary assessment: iFRand other indices Section
15. Selection of imaging techniques Section editor: Jeroen Bax 15.1: Jeroen J. Bax, Alexander R. van Rosendael, Laurens F. Tops, Nina Ajmone Marsan, and Victoria Delgado: Choice of imaging techniques PART
3. Heart Diseases Section
16. Genetics of CV diseases Section editor: Heribert Schunkert 16.1: Heribert Schunkert: Introduction 16.2: Jodie Ingles, Charlotte Burns, and Laura Yeates: Genetic counselling 16.3: Eric Sijbrands: Principles of cascade screening 16.4: Eric Schulze-Bahr: Principles of molecular testing 16.5: Eric Schulze-Bahr: Basic principles of genetic disease 16.6: Andrea Mazzanti, Riccardo Maragna, and Sylvia Priori: The Genetics of Long QT Syndrome 16.7: Erol Tulumen and Martin Borggrefe: Monogenic and oligogenic CV diseases - Genetics of arrhythmias - short QT Syndrome 16.8: Sonia Van Dooren, Dorien Daneels, Gudrun Pappaert, Maryse Bonduelle, and Pedro Brugada Terradellas: Monogenic and oligogenic CV diseases - Genetics of arrhythmias - Brugada Syndrome 16.9: Peter Schwartz and Lia Crotti: Monogenic and oligogenic CV diseases - Genetics of arrhythmias - catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 16.10: Najim Lahrouchi, Elijah Behr, and Connie Bezzina: Post-mortem genetic testing in sudden death cases 16.11: Philippe Charron and Carole Maupain: Genetics of cardiomyopathies - Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 16.12: Daniel Oehler, Benjamin Meder, and Hugo Katus: Genetics of cardiomyopathies - Dilated cardiomyopathy 16.13: Eloisa Arbustini, Alessandro Di Toro, Lorenzo Giuliani, Nupoor Narula, Valentina Favalli: Left Ventricular Noncompaction 16.14: Kalliopi Pilichou, Cristina Basso, Rudy Celeghin, and Gaetano Thiene: Genetics of cardiomyopathies - Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy 16.15: Abdallah Fayssoil: Genetics of cardiomyopathies -Cardiac manifestations of mitochondrial diseases 16.16: Frank Weidemann: Genetics of cardiomyopathies - Myocardial infiltration 16.17: Dorien Schepers and Bart Loeys: Genetics of vascular diseases - Marfan syndrome and aortic diseases 16.18: Daniela Barge-Schaapveld, Marco DeRuiter, Conny van Munsteren, and Monique Jongbloed: Structural diseases of the heart - Genetics of congenital heart diseases 16.19: Sabine Klaassen: Structural diseases of the heart- Syndromes affecting the CV System 16.20: Heribert Schunkert: Complex Cardiovascular Diseases - Atherosclerosis - genetic factors 16.21: Daniel Swerdlow, Steve Humphries, and Michael Holmes: Complex Cardiovascular Diseases - Dyslipidaemias - genetic factors 16.22: Patrick Ellinor and Steven Lubitz: Genetic Determinants of Atrial Fibrillation 16.23: Georg Ehert: The genetics of arterial hypertension Section
17. Congenital heart disease (GUCH) Section editor: John Deanfield 17.1: John Deanfield: Introduction 17.2: John Deanfield and Robert Andersen: Nomenclature 17.3: John Deanfield and Bernard Keavney: Epidemiology and incidence 17.4: Bernard Keavney and Elisavet Fotiou: Genetics 17.5: Marietta Charakida: Fetal circulation & perinatal programming 17.6: John Deanfield: Clinical Presentations & Initial Investigations 17.7: Jan Marek, Folkert Meijboom, and Luc Mertens: Echocardiography in Congenital Heart Disease 17.8: Giovanni Biglino, Silvia Schievano, and Andrew Taylor: Cross-Sectional imaging/modelling 17.9: Alessandro Giardini: Functional Testing 17.10: Henry Chubb and Martin Lowe: Arrhythmias in Childhood and Patients with Congenital Heart Disease 17.11: Shakeel Qureshi: Interventional catheterization 17.12: Michiel Winter, Berto Bouma, Barbara Mulder: Long term Outcomes 17.13: Marietta Charakida: Arterial Disease in the Young 17.14: Jolien Roos-Hesselink and Lucia Baris: Contraception and pregnancy 17.15: Shahin Moledina: Pulmonary Hypertension 17.16: Marc Gewillig: Heart Failure 17.17: Dilveer Panesar and Mike Burch: Support/Transplant 17.18: Marc Gewillig: Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) 17.19: Michelle Carr: Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD) 17.20: Orla Franklin: Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) 17.21: Robert Yates: Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) 17.22: Robert Yates: Pulmonary Valve (PV) Stenosis 17.23: Robert Yates: Vascular Rings 17.24: David Anderson: Aortic Stenosis (AS) and Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction (LVOTO) 17.25: Marietta Charakida: Coarctation 17.26: Robert Yates: Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) 17.27: Sachin Khambadkone: Ebstein's Anomaly 17.28: Alessandro Giardini: Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) 17.29: Marc Gewillig: Single Ventricle/Total Cavopulmonary Connection (TCPC) (Fontan Circulation) 17.30: Marietta Charakida and John Deanfield: Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection (TAPVC) 17.31: John Deanfield and Marietta Charakida: Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA) 17.32: Robert Yates and Marietta Charakida: Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries Section
18. Prevention in cardiovascular disease and rehabilitation Section editor: Massimo Piepoli 18.1: Massimo Piepoli: Introduction 18.2: Yvo M. Smulders, Marie-Therese Cooney, and Ian Graham: Cardiovascular risk estimation at the individual level 18.3: Guy De Backer, Johan De Sutter, and Ian M. Graham: Risk factor management at the level of the individual using lifestyle changes 18.4: Eva Prescott, Torben Jorgensen, Maja-Lisa Lochen, Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard, Simon Capewell, and Maja Lisa Lochen: Risk factor intervention at the population level 18.5: Ugo Corra: Cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training 18.6: Ugo Corra: Prevention in cardiovascular disease and rehabilitation 18.7: Christi Deaton, Margaret Cupples, and Kornelia Kotseva: Settings and stakeholders Section
19. Diabetes mellitus metabolics syndrome Section editor: Lars Ryden 19.1: Lars Ryden: Introduction 19.2: Jaakko Tuomilehto and Lars Ryden: Dysglycaemia - Definition, classification and diagnosis 19.3: Francesco Cosentino: Vascular complications to dysglycaemia 19.4: Nikolaus Marx: Cardiovascular risk assessment in dysglycaemic patients 19.5: Linda Mellbin and Lars Ryden: Preventing cardiovascular complications in patients with dysglycemia 19.6: Baris Gencer and Marco Roffi: Special conditions - Acute coronary syndromes 19.7: Miguel Sousa Uva: Special conditions - Revascularisation 19.8: Karl Swedberg: Special conditions - Heart failure 19.9: Heikki Huikuri and Lars Ryden: Diabetes and Arrhythmia 19.10: Lucia Mazzolai, Marianne Brodmann, and Victor Aboyans: Diabetes and lower extremity arterial disease 19.11: Henrik Per Groop and Drazenka Pongrac Barlovic: Kidney disease 19.12: Asa Hornsten: Person centred care Section
20. Heart and the brain Section editor: Hans-Christoph Diener 20.1: Hans-Christoph Diener: Acute ischaemic stroke: classification and diagnosis 20.2: Christoph Kleinschnitz: Impact of stroke on heart function 20.3: Stefan Hohnloser: Causes of cardioembolic stroke 20.4: Hans-Christoph Diener: Embolic stroke of undetermined source 20.5: Heinrich P. Mattle and Simon Jung: Treatment of acute stroke 20.6: David R. Holmes Jr, Guy S. Reeder, and Heinrich Mattle: Closure of a patent foramen ovale for the prevention of stroke 20.7: Hans-Christoph Diener: Secondary stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation 20.8: Martin O'Donnell and Cliona Small: Management of vascular risk factors and co-morbidities in secondary stroke prevention 20.9: Heinrich Mattle, Marcel Arnold, and Urs Fischer: Intracranial haemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation on anticoagulants 20.10: Hans-Christoph Diener and John Camm: Atrial Fibrillation and dementia Section
21. Cardiovascular problems in chronic kidney disease Section editor: Christoph Wanner 21.1: Stephan Segerer and Harald Seeger: Epidemiology and chronic kidney disease as a cardiovascular risk factor 21.2: Thomas F. Mueller and Valerie Luyckx: Causes of death in renal disease 21.3: Christoph Wanner: Pathophysiology 21.4: Victoria Delgado: Cardiovascular imaging in chronic kidney disease 21.5: Stephan Segerer and Harald Seeger: Prevention and drug therapy in chronic kidney disease 21.6: Petra Nijst and Wilfried Mullens: Device therapy in chronic kidney disease (implantable cardioverter defibrillator, cardiac resynchronization therapy) 21.7: Thomas F. Mueller and Valerie Luyckx: Special considerations in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy and kidney transplant patients Section
22. Erectile dysfunction Section editor: Charalambos Vlachopoulos 22.1: Piero Montorsi: Sex and the heart 22.2: Michael Doumas and Chrysoula Boutari: Erectile dysfunction: definition and size of the problem 22.3: Tiny Jaarsma: Asking 22.4: Charalambos Vlachopoulos and Nikolaos Ioakeimidis: Erectile dysfunction as a marker and predictor of cardiovascular disease 22.5: Geoffrey Hackett: Testosterone, erectile dysfunction, and the heart 22.6: Kevan R. Wylie: Sexual function and dysfunction in women (and the effect for the couple) 22.7: Michael Kirby: Lifestyle issues 22.8: Mike Kirby and Jonny Coxon: Drugs 22.9: Odunayo Kalejaiye, Amr Abdel Raheem, and David Ralph: Surgery 22.10: Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos Ioakeimidis, and Dimitris Tousoulis: Management of a patient with erectile dysfunction with or without known cardiovascular disease Section
23. Lung Disease Section editor: Martin Cowie 23.1: Kieran Rothnie and Jennifer Quint: Epidemiological relationships between respiratory and cardiovascular diseases 23.2: Antia Simonds: Long Term Oxygen Therapy/Ventilation and Cardiovascular outcomes in chronic lung and respiratory disease 23.3: Jennifer Quint: Effect of COPD treatment on CV outcome 23.4: Michael Polkey: Muscle Weakness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (and heart failure) 23.5: William Man and Rachael Evans: Pulmonary rehabilitation in Chronic Lung Disease and Heart Failure 23.6: Olaf Oldenburg: Sleep apnoea: definition, prevalence and role in cardiovascular diseases 23.7: Melissa Lipford and Virend Somers: Sleep Related Breathing Disorders - Classification and diagnosis 23.8: Holger Woehrle and Michael Arzt: Diabetes and Arrhythmia 23.9: Bernardo Selim: Sleep apnoea - Treatment options and sleep/CV 23.10: Mark Miller, Anoop Shah, Nicholas Mills, and Dave Newby: Diabetes and lower extremity arterial disease 23.11: Samuel Verges and Patrick Levy: Kidney disease Section
24. Gastrointestinal disease Section editor: Gerhard Rogler 24.1: Gerhard Rogler: Introduction 24.2: Eduard F. Stange: Gut microbiome, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis 24.3: Slayman Obeid, Melroy Miranda, and Thomas F. Luscher: Gut microbiota and coronary artery disease 24.4: Giuseppe Rosano: The gut and cardiovascular diseases 24.5: Gerd A. Kullak-Ublick and Regina Krattinger: Intestinal absorption and drug levels 24.6: Felix Stickel, Matteo Montani, and Christian Datz: Chronic heart failure and liver function 24.7: Conall Morgan and Luc Mertens: Protein-losing enteropathy associated with heart disease Section
25. Rheumatoid arthritis and the heart Section editor: Thomas Luscher 25.1: Thomas F. Luscher: Introduction 25.2: Roland Klingenberg and Ulf Muller-Ladner: Mechanisms of inflammation 25.3: Luigi Marzio Biasucci and Giovanna Liuzzo: Inflammatory diseases: inflammation and cardiovascular disease 25.4: Oliver Distler and Caroline Ospelt: Rheumatoid arthritis: basic mechanisms in joints 25.5: Thomas F. Luscher and Paul M. Ridker: Anti-inflammatory therapies for cardiovascular disease 25.6: Oliver Distler and Adrian Ciurea: Treatment aims in rheumatoid arthritis 25.7: Gerhard Rogler: Inflammatory bowel disease: basic mechanisms 25.8: Christian M. Matter, Stephan Winnik, and Gerhard Rogler: Inflammatory bowel disease and the heart 25.9: Alexander A. Navarini: Psoriasis Section
26. Rheumatic heart disease Section editor: Ferande Peters 26.1: Ferande Peters: Introduction 26.2: Liesl Zuhlke: Epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease 26.3: Liesl Zuhlke: Pathogenesis: from acute rheumatic fever to rheumatic heart disease 26.4: Antoinette Cilliers: Clinical features and diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever 26.5: Ferande Peters, Ruchika Meel, and Mohammed R. Essop: Echocardiography in acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease 26.6: Liesl Zuhlke: Prevention and definitive therapy of acute rheumatic fever 26.7: Ferande Peters, Mpiko Ntsekhe, and Mohammed Essop: Chronic rheumatic disease 26.8: Mohammed Essop, Mpiko Ntsekhe, and Ferande Peters: Clinical scenarios in chronic rheumatic heart disease 26.9: Mohammed Essop: Therapeutic options in chronic rheumatic heart disease Section
27. Cardio-oncology Section editor: John Groarke 27.1: John Groarke: Introduction 27.2: Ersilia M. DeFilippis and Anju Nohria: Radiation-induced heart disease: surveillance and management 27.3: Cian P. McCarthy, Michael T. Osborne, and Tomas G. Neilan: Surveillance for cardiotoxicity in patients receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy 27.4: Daniela Cardinale and Carlo Maria Cipolla: Anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity: epidemiology, surveillance, prophylaxis, management, and prognosis 27.5: Torbjorn Omland: Trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity: epidemiology, surveillance, management, prophylaxis, and prognosis 27.6: Mark Sweeney and Alexander Lyon: Cardiovascular complications of novel kinase inhibitors 27.7: Daniel J. Lenihan: Cardiovascular complications of novel multiple myeloma treatments 27.8: Daniel Perry, Megan Caram, and Monika Leja: Cardiovascular risk in men with prostate cancer 27.9: John Keaney: Cardiac arrhythmias and cancer therapies Section
28. HIV Section editor: Nombulelo P. Magula 28.1: Nombulelo P. Magula and Akira Singh: Introduction 28.2: Giuseppe Barbaro: Epidemiology of HIV-associated cardiovascular complications 28.3: Ntobeko A. B. Ntusi: HIV-associated cardiomyopathy and myocarditis 28.4: Rubeshan Perumal and Nombulelo P. Magula: Pericarditis and myopericarditis in HIV 28.5: Darrin Ryan Naidoo and Sherlina Kasipersad: Vascular disease: coronary, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease 28.6: Anastase Dzudie and Friedrich Thienemann: Pulmonary hypertension: definitions, classification, diagnosis, and management 28.7: Nombulelo P. Magula, Rubeshan Perumal, and Ruffin Apalata: Antiretroviral treatment Section
29. Acute coronary syndromes Section editor: Stefan James 29.1: Stefan James and Marco Roffi: Introduction 29.2: Michael Joner and Philipp Nicol: The plaque 29.3: Hector Bueno: Epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes 29.4: Lene Rorholm Pedersen and Eva Prescott: General risk factors of acute coronary syndromes 29.5: Giovanna Liuzzo, Daniela Pedicino, and Filippo Crea: Pathophysiology of acute coronary syndromes 29.6: Robert Storey and William Parker: Thrombotic response 29.7: Pascal Vranckx: Development of myocardial infarction 29.8: Christian Mueller: Diagnosis and risk stratification of acute coronary syndromes 29.9: Marco Valgimigli and Marco Angelillis: Treatment of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes 29.10: Borja Ibanez and Sigrun Halvorsen: Treatment of ST elevation acute coronary syndromes Section
30. Takotsubo syndrome Section editor: Christian Templin 30.1: Christian Templin: Introduction 30.2: Abhiram Prasad: Incidence and definition of takotsubo syndrome 30.3: Leonarda Galiuto and Filippo Crea: Mechanisms of takotsubo syndrome 30.4: John D. Horowitz, Thanh Ha Nguyen, Sven Y. Surikow, Gao Jing Ong, Cher-Rin Chong, Dana K. Dawson, and Michael P. Frenneaux: Signal transduction pathways initiated by catecholamines in takotsubo syndrome: focus on nitrosative stress and energetic impairment 30.5: Jelena R. Ghadri: Triggers of takotsubo syndrome 30.6: Ilan Wittstein: Clinical presentation of takotsubo syndrome 30.7: Rodolfo Citro and Eduardo Bossone: Diagnostic testing in takotsubo syndrome 30.8: Federico Migliore, Sebastiano Gili, and Domenico Corrado: ECG features and arrhythmias in takotsubo syndrome 30.9: Ken Kato, Sebastiano Gili, Fabio Fabbian, and Roberto Manfredini: Co-morbidities in takotsubo syndrome 30.10: John E. Madias: Management of takotsubo syndrome 30.11: Scott W. Sharkey: Takotsubo syndrome complications, outcome, and prognosis Section
31. Genetics of CV diseases Section editor: William Wijns 31.1: William Wijns: Introduction 31.2: Michael Joner, Kristin Steigerwald, and Anna Bulin: Pathology of Stable Coronary Artery Disease 31.3: Nils Johnson and K. Gould: Pathophysiology of coronary circulation 31.4: Filippo Crea and Gaetano Lanza: Myocardial ischemia: definition and causes 31.5: Christian Seiler: Importance of the Coronary Collateral Circulation 31.6: Jeroen Bax: Coronary artery disease: from atherosclerosis to obstructive disease, inducible ischemia and the ischemic cascade 31.7: Ulrich Fischer-Rasokat and Christian Hamm: Clinical symptoms of stable ischemic heart disease 31.8: Juhani Knuuti and Antti Saraste: Non invasive functional evaluation 31.9: Stephan Achenbach: Non invasive (CT) and invasive angiography 31.10: Keith Oldroyd and Colin Berry: Invasive Functional Evaluation of Patients with Chronic Ischaemic Heart Disease 31.11: Nicola Ryan, Nieves Gonzalo, and Javier Escaned: Intracoronary imaging 31.12: Vasim Farooq, Patrick Serruys, and Ply Chichareon: Risk stratification and risk scores 31.13: Nicolas Danchin, Etienne Puymirat, and Nadia Aissaoui: Medical management: lifestyle and behavioural changes 31.14: Aviv Shaul and David Hasdai: Medical management: pharmacological therapy 31.15: Jean Claude Tardif, Philippe L?Allier, and Fabien Picard: Myocardial revascularization: symptomatic and prognostic indications 31.16: Ruben Osnabrugge and Pieter Kappetein: Cost Effectiveness 31.17: Ran Kornowski and Eli Lev: Patient Reported Outcome Measures in Cardiovascular Disease 31.18: Ruben Osnabrugge and Pieter Kappetein: IHD and Diabetes 31.19: Daniele Giacoppo and Robert Byrne: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention vs. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting 31.20: Alessia Azzano and Stefan Verheye: Refractory angina 31.21: Ward Heggermont, Marc Vanderheyden, and Jozef Bartunek: Chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy 31.22: Paolo Camici and Ornella Rimoldi: Microvascular angina 31.23: Peter Ong and Udo Sechtem: Vasospastic angina Section
32. Myocardial disease Section editor: Perry Elliott 32.1: Perry Elliott: Introduction 32.2: Eloisa Arbustini, Valentina Favalli, Alessandro Di Toro, Alessandra Serio, and Jagat Narula: Classification of cardiomyopathies 32.3: Claudio Rapezzi and Massimiliano Lorenzini: General approach to diagnosis of cardiomyopathies 32.4: Mohammed Akhtar and Luis Lopes: Hypertrophic Cardiomyapathy - Genetics of HCM 32.5: Albert Hagege: Hypertrophic Cardiomyapathy - HCM: Diagnosis and assessment of symptoms 32.6: Iacopo Olivotto: Hypertrophic Cardiomyapathy - HCM: Medical management of heart failure symptoms and arrythmia 32.7: Steve Omen: Hypertrophic Cardiomyapathy - HCM: Invasive management of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction 32.8: Constantinos O'Mahony: Hypertrophic Cardiomyapathy - HCM: Prevention of sudden cardiac death 32.9: Luis Lopes: Dilated Cardiomyopathy - DM: Genetics 32.10: Gianfranco Sinagra, Marco Merlo, and Davide Stolfo: Dilated Cardiomyopathy - Clinical diagnosis and medical management 32.11: Pier Lambiase and Rui Providencia: Dilated Cardiomyopathy - DCM: Management of arrythmia and prevention of sudden cardiac death 32.12: Jens Mogensen: Restrictive cardiomyopathy 32.13: Petros Syrris and Alexandros Protonotarios: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomypathy - ARVC: Genetics 32.14: Cristina Basso, Barbara Bauce, and Gaetano Thiene: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomypathy - ARVC: Diagnosis 32.15: Perry Elliott and Alexandros Protonotarios: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomypathy - ARVC: Management of symptoms and prevention of sudden cardiac death 32.16: Pablo Garcia-Pavia and Fernando Dominguez: Left Ventricular non-compaction - LVNC: GENETICSand embryology 32.17: Jens Mogensen and Torsten B. Rasmussen: Left ventricular non-compaction: diagnosis and clinical management 32.18: Sabine Pankuweit: Myocarditis - Aetiology & histopathological diagnosis 32.19: Alida Caforio, Renzo Marcolongo, and Sabino Iliceto: Myocarditis - Clinical presentation 32.20: Ali Yilmaz and Anca Florian: Myocarditis - Imaging (Echo, CMR, nuclear) 32.21: Peter Heinz Schultheiss and Felicitas Escher: Myocarditis - Treatment of myocarditis 32.22: Denis Duboc: The Heart in Nueromuscular disease - Mitochondrial Disease 32.23: Henning Bundgaard, Anna Axelsson, Alex Christensen, and Helle Petri: The Heart in Nueromuscular disease - Myotonic Dystrophy 32.24: Karim Wahbi: The Heart in Neuromuscular disease - Duchenne and Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophies 32.25: Ales Linhart: The Heart Inherited Metabolic disorders - Lysomal and glycogen storage diseases 32.26: Martha Grogan: Cardiac Amyloidosis 32.27: Karen Sliwa and Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner: Peripartum Cardiomyopathy 32.28: Juan Kaski and Gabrielle Norrish: Cardiomyopathies in Children and Adolescents Section
33. Pericardial disease Section editor: Yehuda Adler 33.1: Michael Arad and Yehuda Adler: Overview of pericardial syndromes 33.2: Massimo Imazio, Fiorenzo Gaita, and Yehuda Adler: Acute and recurrent pericarditis 33.3: Antonio Brucato and Stefano Maggiolini: Pericardial effusion 33.4: Arsen D. Ristic, Petar M. Seferovic, Bernhard Maisch, and Vladimir Kanjuh: Cardiac tamponade 33.5: Antonis Pantazis, Karin Klingel, and Yishay Wasserstrum: Constrictive pericarditis 33.6: Angelos G. Rigopoulos and Hubert Seggewiss: Pericardial masses and congenital abnormalities 33.7: Dor Lotan and Yehuda Adler: Pericardial involvement in neoplastic disease 33.8: Massimo Imazio and Fiorenzo Gaita: Multimodality imaging of pericardial diseases 33.9: Bernhard Maisch, Arsen Ristic, Sabine Pankuweit, and Peter Seferovic: Interventional therapies for pericardial diseases 33.10: George Krasopoulos: Surgical therapies for pericardial disease 33.11: Yehuda Adler and Dor Lotan: What next? Section
34. Tumours of the heart Section editor: Gaetano Thiene 34.1: Gaetano Thiene, Stefania Rizzo, Martina Perazzolo Marra, Marialuisa Valente, and Cristina Basso: Masses and cardiac tumours: classification and diagnosis 34.2: Cristina Basso, Stefania Rizzo, Martina Perazzolo Marra, Marialuisa Valente, and Gaetano Thiene: Benign cardiac tumours 34.3: Cristina Basso, Stefania Rizzo, Marialuisa Valente, Martina Perazzolo Marra, and Gaetano Thiene: Malignant tumours, pericardial tumours, and therapy Section
35. Valvular heart disease Section editor: Helmut Baumgartner 35.1: Bernard Lung and Pieter Kappetein: Introduction and general comments 35.2: Pilar Tornos Mas and Emmanuel Lansac: Aortic regurgitation 35.3: Helmut Baumgartner and Thomas Walther: Aortic stenosis 35.4: Raphael Rosenhek and Michele de Bonis: Mitral regurgitation 35.5: Alec Vahanian: Mitral stenosis 35.6: Patrizio Lancellotti and Michele de Bonis: Tricuspid regurgitation 35.7: Michele DeBonis: Tricuspid stenosis 35.8: Michele DeBonis: Combined and multiple valve diseases 35.9: Bernard Iung and Johan Sjoegren: Prosthetic valves 35.10: Johan Holm and Bernard Iung: Management during non-cardiac surgery 35.11: Johan Holm and Bernard Iung: Management during pregnancy Section
36. Infective endocarditis Section editor: Gilbert Habib 36.1: Bernard Iung: Epidemiology and physiopathology 36.2: Nuria Fernandez-Hidalgo, Maria Nazarena Pizzi, and Pilar Tornos: Diagnosis 36.3: Isidre Vilacosta and Carmen Olmos: Prognosis and complications 36.4: Jose A. San Roman and Javier Lopez: Prosthetic valve endocarditis 36.5: Maria Grazia Bongiorni and Andrea Di Cori: Cardiac device-related endocarditis 36.6: Jose A. San Roman and Javier Lopez: Right-sided infective endocarditis 36.7: Patrizio Lancellotti and Stella Marchetta: Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis 36.8: Joey M. Kuijpers, Berto J. Bouma, and Barbara J. M. Mulder: Specific situations: congenital heart disease 36.9: Gilbert Habib: Indications for surgery: guidelines 36.10: Jean-Francois Obadia, Benoit Cosset, and Matteo Pozzi: Surgical techniques 36.11: Bruno Hoen and Xavier Duval: Antibiotic prophylaxis and prevention of infective endocarditis 36.12: Gilbert Habib: Conclusion and future directions Section
37. Heart failure Section editor: John McMurray 37.1: Theresa McDonagh and Kaushik Guha: Epidemiology of Heart Failure 37.2: Pietro Aldo Maggioni and Ovidiu Chioncel: Definition, epidemiology/burden of disease - HFrEF 37.3: Lars Lund and Gianluigi Savarese: Definition, epidemiology/burden of disease - HFpEF 37.4: Anna Stromberg and Tiny Jaarsma: Health related quality of life - Definition, epidemiology, burden of disease, interventions 37.5: Pardeep Jhund: Heart Failure: Symptoms, signs and the ECG 37.6: Chronic Heart Failure Diagnosis a Heart Failure with preserved Ejection Fraction 37.7: Thomas Marwick: Chronic heart failure diagnosis - Imaging echocardiography 37.8: Robert Manka and Sabrina Oebel: Chronic heart failure diagnosis - Imaging - cardiac MRI 37.9: Christian Mueller: Chronic heart failure diagnosis - Biomarkers 37.10: Perry Elliott: Chronic heart failure diagnosis - Genetics 37.11: Vasiliki Bistola, John Parissis, and Gerasimos Filippatos: Estimating prognosis - Prognostic scores 37.12: Arthur Richards: Estimating prognosis - Biomarkers 37.13: Dipak Kotecha and Mitja Lainscak: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Atrial fibrillation 37.14: Mark Petrie and Kieran Doherty: Heart failure and diabetes mellitus 37.15: Francesco Paneni and Massimo Volpe: Hypertension and Heart Failure 37.16: Kevin Damman: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Renal dysfunction 37.17: Piotr Ponikowski: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Anaemia/iron deficiency 37.18: Stefan Anker and Stephan von Haeling: Comorbidities: Obesity, cachexia, sarcopenia, and the impact of nutrition 37.19: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) a Lung disease 37.20: Martin Cowie: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Sleep disordered breathing 37.21: Thomas Suter: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Cancer 37.22: Luc Pierard: Heart failure due to valvular heart disease 37.23: Rhondalyn Forde-McLean and Mariell Jessup: Diuretic Use in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction 37.24: Marc Pfeffer: ACEI and or ARBs in Heart Failure and reduced Ejection Fraction 37.25: John McMurray: Angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors 37.26: Simon Beggs and Roy Gardner: Beta blockers in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction 37.27: Michel Komajda: HFrEF pharmacological treatment - Ivabradine 37.28: John Cleland and Yura Mareev: Heart Failure with a Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) Pharmacological Treatment; Digitalis Glycosides 37.29: Faraz Ahmad and Clyde Yancy: HFrEF pharmacological treatment - Hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate 37.30: Valentina Kutyifa: HFrEF other treatment - CRT/ICD 37.31: Eric Velazquez and Mark Petrie: HFrEF other treatment - Revascularization 37.32: Randall Starling and Emer Joyce: HFrEF other treatment - VADs 37.33: Peter MacDonald and Kumud Dhital: Advanced Heart Failure other treatment - Transplantation 37.34: Anna Stromberg and Tiny Jaarsma: HFrEF treatment - nurse led heart failure management programmes 37.35: Maja Cikes and Scott Solomon: HFpEF treatment - Pharmacological therapy 37.36: Dirk van Veldhuisen: Patient monitoring 37.37: Alan Cohen-Solal: Exercise Rehabilitation in Heart Failure with reduced and preserved Ejection Fraction 37.38: James Beattie: Palliative care in heart failure 37.39: Adriaan Voors and Piotr Ponikowski: Acute heart failure - Diagnosis 37.40: Javier Martin-Sanchez, Oscar Miro, and Hector Bueno: Acute heart failure - Immediate management/stabilization 37.41: Dimitrios Farmakis, John Parissis, and Gerasimos Filippatos: Acute heart failure - Treatment Section
38. Bradycardia Section editor: Giuseppe Boriani 38.1: Giuseppe Boriani: Introduction 38.2: Fredrik Gadler and Cinzia Valzania: Aetiology and epidemiology of bradyarrhythmias 38.3: Bulent Gorenek and Gulmira Kudaiberdieva: Classification of bradyarrhythmias 38.4: Georges H. Mairesse: Methods and tools for the diagnosis of intermittent and persistent bradycardia 38.5: Antonio Zaza: Anatomy and physiology of the sinus node 38.6: Bruce Wilkoff and Corey Coleman: The sinus node: normal and abnormal chronotropic response and drug effects 38.7: Jonathan M. Kalman and Gwilym M. Morris: Sinus node disease: pathophysiology and natural history 38.8: Tatjana Potpara: Sinus node disease: ECG patterns and diagnosis 38.9: Dominic A. M. J. Theuns: Sinus node disease: the role of electrophysiological testing 38.10: Atrial tachyarrhythmias in bradycardiaatachycardia syndrome: characterization and evolution 38.11: M. J. Pekka Raatikainen: Anatomy and physiology of the atrioventricular node 38.12: S. Serge Barold: Atrioventricular conduction abnormalities and atrioventricular blocks: ECG patterns and diagnosis 38.13: Demosthenes G. Katritsis and Mark E. Josephson: Atrioventricular conduction abnormalities and atrioventricular blocks: role of electrophysiology testing 38.14: Drago Fabrizio and Battipaglia Irma: Congenital atrioventricular blocks: clinical presentation, clinical evaluation, and management 38.15: Richard Sutton: Carotid sinus syndrome: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management 38.16: Hein Heidbuchel: Bradycardia in athletes: clinical evaluation and management 38.17: Renato Pietro Ricci: Cardiac pacing: basic concepts 38.18: Alexander Bauer: Temporary pacing 38.19: Bela Merkely: Permanent cardiac pacing in bradyarrhythmias: device coding 38.20: Jens Cosedis Nielsen and Jens Kristensen: Pacing for bradycardia: device features and algorithms and clinical impact 38.21: Carsten Israel: Electrocardiographic patterns of cardiac pacemakers: normal and abnormal findings 38.22: Anne M. Gillis: Follow-up of pacemaker patients with bradyarrhythmias: scope of follow-up and organizational issues 38.23: Johannes Sperzel: Pacemakers in children and adolescents 38.24: Jean Claude Deharo: Lead management 38.25: Jan Steffel: Electromagnetic interference in pacemaker patients 38.26: Giuseppe Boriani and Igor Diemberger: Pacemaker syndrome Section
39. Syncope Section editor: Michele Brignole 39.1: J. Gert van Dijk and Roland D. Thijs: Definition, epidemiology, classification, and pathophysiology 39.2: Frederik J. de Lange and J. Gert van Dijk: Diagnostic evaluation 39.3: Jean-Claude Deharo: Reflex syncope 39.4: Richard Sutton: Cardiac syncope 39.5: Artur Fedorowski: Orthostatic intolerance: orthostatic hypotension and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome 39.6: Vincent Probst and Jean-Baptiste Gourraud: Unexplained syncope in patients with high risk of sudden cardiac death 39.7: Michele Brignole: Recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope (version 2018) Section
40. Supraventricular tachycardias Section editor: Carina Blomstorm-Lundqvist 40.1: Carina Blomstroem-Lundqvist: Introduction 40.2: Gregory Y. H. Lip: Epidemiology of supraventricular tachycardias 40.3: Tatjana Potpara: Atrial premature beats 40.4: Tatjana Potpara: Definitions, clinical presentation, symptoms, quality of life, and patient preferences 40.5: Haran Burri: Differential diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardias 40.6: Isabel Deisenhofer: Acute management of supraventricular tachycardias with and without established diagnosis (termination and/or rate regulation of tachycardia) 40.7: Isabel Deisenhofer: Management of rapid heartbeats/tachycardias with rhythm or rate control in the absence of ECG-verified diagnosis 40.8: Isabel Deisenhofer: Management of specific supraventricular tachycardias 40.9: Brian Olshansky: Sinus node-related tachycardias: physiological sinus tachycardia, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, sinus node reentrant tachycardia, and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome 40.10: Pierre Jais and Nicolas Derval: Atrial tachycardias: focal and multifocal atrial tachycardias 40.11: Jose L. Merino: Atrial tachycardias: macroreentrant atrial tachycardias, CTI-dependent atrial flutter (clockwise, anticlockwise), and non-CTI-dependent macroreentrant atrial tachycardia 40.12: Demosthenes G. Katritsis: Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia 40.13: Jonathan Chrispin and Hugh Calkins: Accessory pathways-related tachycardias: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and atrioventricular reentrant tachycardias 40.14: Carlo Pappone and Vincenzo Santinelli: Concealed accessory pathways and related tachycardias 40.15: Hildegard Tanner: Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia 40.16: Carlo Pappone and Vincenzo Santinelli: Pre-excitation related to Mahaim physiology 40.17: Jonathan Chrispin and Hugh Calkins: Asymptomatic pre-excitation 40.18: Demosthenes G. Katritsis: Non-reentrant junctional tachycardias 40.19: Giuseppe Boriani: Health economy Section
41. Atrial fibrillation Section editor: John Camm 41.1: A. John Camm: Introduction 41.2: Emelia Benjamin and Darae Ko: Epidemiology 41.3: Ulrich Schotten: Mechanisms of atrial fibrillation: electrophysiological basis 41.4: David O. Arnar and Hilma Holm: Mechanisms of atrial fibrillation: genetics 41.5: David R. Van Wagoner: Mechanisms of atrial remodelling 41.6: Larissa Fabritz, Ulrich Schotten, and Paulus Kirchhof: Types of atrial fibrillation 41.7: Ben Freedman and Nicole Lowres: Silent atrial fibrillation 41.8: Justin G. L. M. Luermans, Jordi Heijman, Isabelle C. Van Gelder, and Harry J. G. M. Crijns: Atrial fibrillation progression and prevention 41.9: Hein Heidbuchel: Clinical investigation of patients presenting with atrial fibrillation 41.10: Christian Sticherling and Michael Kuehne: Management of acute presentation with atrial fibrillation rate control 41.11: Riccardo Cappato: Restoration of sinus rhythm: direct current cardioversion 41.12: Irina Savelieva: Pharmacological cardioversion for atrial fibrillation 41.13: Isabelle C. Van Gelder, Michiel Rienstra, Laurent Pison, and Harry J. G. M. Crijns: Rate control: medical therapy 41.14: Maurizio Gasparini and Paola Galimberti: Rate control: ablation and device therapy (ablate and pace) 41.15: Juan Tamargo: Rhythm control: antiarrhythmic drugs 41.16: Gerhard Hindricks, Nikolaos Dagres, Philipp Sommer, and Andreas Bollmann: Development of atrial fibrillation catheter ablation and ablation strategies 41.17: Chawannuch Ruaengsri, Matthew R. Schill, Richard B. Schuessler, and Ralph J. Damiano, Jr: Rhythm control: surgical ablation 41.18: Albert L. Waldo: Rate versus rhythm control therapy for atrial fibrillation: a perspective 41.19: Jeroen Hendriks: Follow-up of patients with atrial fibrillation 41.20: Gregory Y. H. Lip: Stroke risk factors and risk stratification in atrial fibrillation 41.21: Michael D. Ezekowitz and Amanulla N. Khaji: Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation 41.22: Margaret C. Fang: Bleeding risk in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation 41.23: Thorsten Lewalter, Clemens Jilek, and Peter Sick: Thromboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation: device therapy and surgical techniques 41.24: Eric M. Riles and Melvin Scheinman: Classification and mechanisms of atrial flutter 41.25: Bhupesh Pathik and Jonathan M. Kalman: Atrial flutter: clinical presentation 41.26: Tilman Maurer, Christine Lemes, and Karl-Heinz Kuck: Atrial flutter: management 41.27: Johannes Brachmann: Atrial fibrillation and heart failure 41.28: Eduard Guasch and Lluis Mont: Atrial fibrillation and athletes 41.29: David Hirsh and Nanette Wenger: Atrial fibrillation in the elderly 41.30: Rohan S. Wijesurendra and Barbara Casadei: Atrial fibrillation after cardiopulmonary surgery 41.31: Hung-Fat Tse and Jo-Jo Hai: Atrial fibrillation and hypertension 41.32: Bernadette Biondi: Atrial fibrillation and hyperthyroidism 41.33: Rajiv Mahajan, Dennis H. Lau, and Prashanthan Sanders: Atrial fibrillation and obesity 41.34: Jared D. Miller and Hugh G. Calkins: Atrial fibrillation and sleep apnoea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 41.35: Ken Okumura and Hirofumi Tomita: Atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease 41.36: Jamie Conti, Mark Panna, and Michael Kaufmann: Atrial fibrillation in pregnancy 41.37: Sunil Kapur and Saurabh Kumar: Atrial fibrillation associated with adult congenital heart disease 41.38: Jeroen Hendriks: Integrated care management in atrial fibrillation 41.39: Deirdre A. Lane: Patient education Section
42. Ventricular tachycardia Section editor: Brian Olshansky 42.1: Nishant Verma and Bradley P. Knight: Classification of ventricular tachycardias 42.2: Sei Iwai and Jason Jacobson: Evaluation and acute management of wide QRScomplex tachycardia 42.3: Alfred E. Buxton: Classification and treatment of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia 42.4: Fernando M. Contreras-Valdes and Peter J. Zimetbaum: Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia associated with structural heart disease: classification, assessment, and initial treatment 42.5: Akihiko Nogami: Bundle branch reentry tachycardia 42.6: Len Ganz: Electrical storm 42.7: Tilman Maurer,William G. Stevenson, and Karl-Heinz Kuck: Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia: the role of catheter ablation 42.8: Victor Bazan, Enrique Rodriguez-Font, and Francis E. Marchlinski: Sustained and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia and no associated heart disease (idiopathic ventricular tachycardia) 42.9: L. Brent Mitchell: Polymorphic ventricular tachycardias including torsade de pointes Section
43. Sudden Cardiac Death Section editor: Gerhard Hindricks 43.1: Harry Rakowski and Arnon Adler: Epidemiology, underlying substrates 43.2: Pedro Brugada Terradellas and Juan Sieira: Arrhythmic mechanisms (bradycardia and tachycardia) 43.3: Efstathios Iliodromitis and Dimitrios Farmaksis: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death - in the general population 43.4: Nikolaos Dagres and Gerhard Hindricks: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death - in ischemic cardiomyopathy 43.5: Dietmar Baensch: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death - in dilated cardiomyopathy 43.6: Wilhelm Haverkamp and Philipp Attanasi: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death - in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 43.7: Firat Duru and Corinna Brunckhorst: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death - in right ventricular cardiomyopathy 43.8: Peter J. Schwartz and Lia Crotti: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death - in primary electrical disorders 43.9: Juan Fernandez-Armenta, Antonio Berruezo, Juan Acosta, and Diego Penela: New techniques for risk assessment 43.10: Efstathios Iliodromitis and Dimitrios Farmaksis: Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in the general population 43.11: Luigi Di Biase, Jorge Romero, Andrea Natale, Ricardo Avendano, and Mario Garcia: Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in ischemic cardiomyopathy 43.12: Jens Cosedis Nielsen and Jens Kristensen: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death (in ischemic cardiomyopathy 43.13: Riccardo Cappato: Primary prevention of sudden death - in Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy 43.14: Riccardo Cappato: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in dilatedcardiomyopathy 43.15: Barry Maron: Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in hypertrophiccardiomyopathy 43.16: Wilhelm Haverkamp and Philipp Attanasio: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in hypertrophiccardiomyopathy 43.17: Katja Zeppenfeld and Sebastiaan Piers: Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in right ventricular cardiomyopathy 43.18: Katja Zeppenfeld and Sebastiaan Piers: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in right ventricular cardiomyopathy 43.19: Josep Brugada and Elena Arbelo: Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in primary electrical disorders 43.20: Josep Brugada and Elena Arbelo: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death - in primary electrical disorders 43.21: Arash Arya: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death - after catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia 43.22: Gerhard Hindricks, Michael Kuhl, and Nikolaos Dagres: The implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Conclusions on sudden cardiac death and future perspective PART
4. Vascular disease Section
44. Systemic hypertension Section editor: Bryan Williams 44.1: Stefano Taddei, Rosa Bruno, Masi Stefano, and Anna Solini: Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Hypertension 44.2: Gianfranco Parati: Classification of blood pressure and blood pressure measurement 44.3: Giovanni De Simone: Target organ damage and CVD risk and clinical evaluation of the hypertensive patient 44.4: Isabella Sudano: Secondary causes of hypertension 44.5: Bryan Williams: Blood pressure Thresholds for treatment and blood pressure treatment targets in hypertension 44.6: Francesco P Cappuccio: Sodium and potassium intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular prevention 44.7: Michel Burnier, Sverre Kjeldsen, Anthony Heagerty, and Bryan Williams: Drug treatment of hypertension 44.8: Felix Mahfoud: Device based treatment for hypertension 44.9: Enrico Agabiti Rosei, Maria Lorenza Muiesan, and Massimo Salvetti: Hypertension in Specific conditions / comorbidities 44.10: Thomas Kahan: Hypertension in Special situations Section
45. Pulmonary Hypertension Section editor: Marc Humbert 45.1: Marc Humbert: Introduction 45.2: Stephan Rosenkranz: Definition 45.3: Rogerio Souza, Jose Leonidas Alves, and Susana Hoette: Epidemiology 45.4: Christophe Guignabert, Ly Tu, Alice Huertas, and Marc Humbert: Pathophysiologic Mechanisms in Pulmonary Hypertension 45.5: Florent Soubrier, Melanie Eyries, Barbara Girerd, David Montani, David Tregouet, and Marc Humbert: Genes of pulmonary hypertension as major diagnostic tools 45.6: Joanne Groeneveldt, Anton Vonk Noordegraaf, and Frances de Man: Mechanisms of right ventricular failure 45.7: Marion Delcroix and Catharina Belge: Clinical Presentation of Pulmonary Hypertension 45.8: Marion Delcroix and Catharina Belge: Life-threatening complications of pulmonary hypertension 45.9: Rogerio Souza, Francisca Oleas, and Caio Fernandes: Clinical classification 45.10: Adam Torbicki: Echocardiographic findings in pulmonary hypertension 45.11: John Coghlan: Screening for pulmonary hypertension 45.12: Rogerio Souza, Daniela Calderaro, and Luis Felipe Prada: Diagnosis and clinical Investigation of patients presenting with pulmonary hypertension 45.13: Stephan Rosenkranz: Management of pulmonary hypertension - Basic treatment 45.14: Nazzareno Galie, Alessandra Manes, and Massimiliano Palazzini: Management of pulmonary hypertension: targeted therapies 45.15: Nazzareno Galie, Alessandra Manes, and Massimiliano Palazzini: Management of pulmonary hypertension - Treatment algorithm 45.16: Laurent Savale: Lung transplantation in pulmonary arterial hypertension 45.17: Rogerio Souza, Carlos Jardim, and Luciana Morinaga: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial Hypertension 45.18: Nicholas Morrell and Charaka Hadinnapola: Heritable pulmonary arterial Hypertension 45.19: Irene Lang and Meinhard Kneussl: Pulmonary arterial Hypertension induced by drugs and toxins 45.20: Chris Denton: Pulmonary arterial Hypertension associated with connective tissue disease 45.21: Olivier Sitbon and Laurent Savale: Portopulmonary Hypertension 45.22: Michael Gatzoulis, Margarita Brida, and Michel Gatzoulis: Pulmonary arterial Hypertension associated with congenital heart diseases 45.23: Olivier Sitbon: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension associated with HIV infection 45.24: David Montani, Barbara Girerd, Edmund Lau, and Marc Humbert: Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and/or pulmonary capillary haemangiomatois 45.25: Jean-Luc Vachiery: Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases 45.26: Ari Chaouat, Anne Guillaumot, Emmanuel Gomez, Olivier Huttin, Christine Suty-Selton, and Francois Chabot: Pulmonary hypertension due to chronic lung diseases 45.27: Gerald Simonneau: Chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension 45.28: Andrew Peacock: Hypertension due to multiple and/or unclear mechanisms 45.29: Simon Gibbs: Referral centres and patient education 45.30: David Montani, Barbara Girerd, and Marc Humbert: Genetic counselling in pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension 45.31: Marius Hoeper: Risk assessment and treatment goals in patients presenting with pulmonary arterial hypertension 45.32: Marc Humbert: Conclusion Section
46. Disease of the aorta Section editor: Raimund Erbel 46.1: Raimund Erbel: Introduction 46.2: Raimund Erbel: The normal aorta 46.3: Oliver Gaemperli and Udo Sechtem: Aortic aneurysm - Thoracic aortic aneurysm - Diagnostic approach 46.4: Axel Haverich and Andreas Martens: Aortic aneurysm - Thoracic aortic aneurysm - Therapeutic options 46.5: Roberto Bartolomeo, Alessandro Leone, Luca Di Marco, and Davide Pacini: Aortic aneurysm - Aortic arch aneurysms 46.6: Regula von Allmen: Aortic aneurysm - Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Diagnostic Approach 46.7: Regula von Allmen: Aortic aneurysm - Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Therapeutic options 46.8: Yuvrajsinh Parmar and I. Kronzon: Aortic sclerosis - Clinical signs and diagnosis 46.9: Raimund Erbel: Aortic sclerosis - Therapy 46.10: Riccardo Gorla, Eduardo Bossone, and Raimund Erbel: Acute aortic syndrome - Diagnostic strategy and clinical features 46.11: Toru Suzuki, Riccardo Gorla, and Eduardo Bossone: Acute aortic syndrome - Emerging role of biomarker 46.12: Christoph Starck, Robert Hammerschmidt, and Volkmar Falk: Acute aortic syndrome - Aortic dissection - Ascending aortic dissection 46.13: Rachel Clough, Xun Yuan, and Chirstoph Nienaber: Acute aortic syndrome - Aortic dissection - Descending aortic dissection 46.14: Jae-Kwan Song: Acute aortic syndrome - Intramural Haematoma 46.15: Arturo Evangelista and Jose Rodriguez-Palomares: Acute aortic syndrome - Penetrating aortic ulcer 46.16: Johnny Steuer and Mario Lachat: Acute aortic syndrome - Traumatic aortic injury 46.17: Ivan Nunez-Gil and Gisela Feltes: Acute aortic syndrome - latrogenic aortic trauma 46.18: Dorien Schepers and Bart Loeys: Genetic diseases of the aorta - Chromosomal and inherited diseases 46.19: Bernard Lung: Genetic diseases of the aorta - Aortic diseases associated with bicuspid aortic valves 46.20: Folkert Meijboom and Gertjan Sieswerda: Genetic diseases of the aorta - Aortic diseases associated with bicuspid aortic valves 46.21: Rosangela Cocchia, Riccardo Gorla, and Eduardo Bossone: Aortitis - infectious and non-infectious diseases 46.22: Francesca Urgnani and Vicente Riambau: Aortic tumor 46.23: Udo Sechtem and Oliver Gaemperli: Long-term follow-up in patients with aortic diseases 46.24: Raimund Erbel: Role of aortic centers and aortic teams Section
47. Trauma to the cardiovascular system Section editor: Christoph Nienaber 47.1: Ibrahim Akin and Christoph A. Nienaber: Trauma to the cardiovascular system Section
48. Non-cardiac surgery Section editor: Steen Kristensen 48.1: Hans Erik Botker: Introduction and epidemiology 48.2: Jose Gonzalez-Juanatey: Preoperative evaluation - Surgical risk for cardiac events Functional capacity Risk indexes 48.3: Emmanuelle Duceppe and P.J. Devereaux: Preoperative evaluation - Biomarkers 48.4: Juhani Knuuti and Antti Saraste: Preoperative evaluation - Non Invasive testing 48.5: Hans Erik Botker: Preoperative evaluation - Angiography 48.6: Emmanuelle Duceppe and P.J. Devereaux: Risk reduction strategies - Perioperative management of cardiovascular medication, Beta-blockers, Ivabradine, a2 receptor agonists, ACE-inhibitors, ATII-antagonists, Calcium antagonists 48.7: Steen Kristensen, Michael Maeng, and Kurt Huber: Risk reduction strategies - Antiplatelet therapy; aspirin, P2Y12 inhibitors Anticoagulants: including NOACs,Withdrawal - continuation 48.8: Marco Roffi and Fabio Rigamonti: Coronary revascularization before non-cardiac surgery 48.9: Rodrigo Modolo and Ana Paula de Faria: Chronic Heart Failure / Hypertension 48.10: Bernard Iung and Luc Pierard: Non-cardiac surgery Valvular heart disease 48.11: Susanna Price and Evi Christodoulou: Specific diseases - Arrhythmias,VA, SupraVA, Bradyarrhythmias 48.12: Susanna Price: Specific diseases - Renal 48.13: Marco Roffi: Specific diseases - Neurological 48.14: Susanna Price: Specific diseases - Pulmonary 48.15: Luc Pierard: Peri-operative monitoring - TOE 48.16: Susanna Price: Perioperative Monitoring - Right Heart catherization 48.17: Susanna Price: Perioperative Monitoring - Glucose 48.18: Stefan De Hert: Perioperative Monitoring - Anesthesiology 48.19: Juhani Knuuti and Antti Saraste: Conclusions and recommendations Section
49. Peripheral arterial diseases Section editor: Victor Aboyans 49.1: V Aboyans: Introduction 49.2: Marie-Louise Bartelink: Epidemiology and risk factors 49.3: Lucia Mazzolai: General aspects 49.4: Jean Philippe Collet: Antithrombotic drugs in peripheral arterial diseases 49.5: Ross Naylor: Extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease 49.6: Tina Conhert: Upper extremity artery disease 49.7: Martin Bjoerck: Mesenteric artery disease 49.8: Charalambos Vlachopoulos: Renal artery disease 49.9: Marianne Brodmann: Lower extremity artery disease 49.10: Marco DeCarlo: Multisite artery disease 49.11: Michal Tendera: Cardiac conditions in peripheral arterial diseases 49.12: JB Ricco: Gaps in evidence Section
50. Venous thromboembolism Section editor: Stavros Konstantinides 50.1: Stavros Konstantinides: Introduction 50.2: Alexander Cohen, Marjolein Brekelmans, and Carlos Martinez: Epidemiology and socio-economic consequences of VTE 50.3: Willem Lijfering and Suzanne Cannegieter: Predisposing factors for first and recurrent venous thrombosis 50.4: Dieuwertje Ruigrok and Anton Vonk Noordegraaf: Pathophysiology 50.5: Piotr Pruszczyk: Diagnosis - clinical prediction rules and laboratory tests 50.6: Helia Robert-Ebadi, Gregoire Le Gal, and Marc Righini: Diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism and evolving imaging modalities 50.7: Cecilia Becattini and Giancarlo Agnelli: Prognostic assessment 50.8: Thomas Vanassche and Peter Verhamme: Treatment - haemodynamic and respiratory support 50.9: Cecilia Becattini and Giancarlo Agnelli: Treatment - anticoagulation 50.10: Guy Meyer: Treatment - thrombolysis 50.11: Ronald Winokur and Akhilesh Sista: Venous thromboembolism; Catheter Based Intervention and Inferior Vena Cava Filters 50.12: Thijs van Mens and Saskia Middeldrop: Management of PEin pregnancy 50.13: Cihan Ay and Florian Posch: Management of PEin patients with cancer 50.14: Marc Rodger, Lisa Duffett, and Faizan Khan: Venous thrombosis: Risk of recurrence and optimal duration of anticoagulation 50.15: Irene Lang,Walter Klepetko, and Hiromi Matsubara: Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) Section
51. Venous disease Section editor: Sebastien Schellong 51.1: Eberhard Rabe and Felizitas Pannier: Epidemiology and classification of venous disease 51.2: Frederikus Klok, Charlotte Dronkers, and Menno Huisman: Venous imaging 51.3: Jochen Grommes: Venous recanalisation 51.4: Roshan Bootun, Tristan Lane, and Alun H. Davies: Varicose veins 51.5: Robert Eberhardt and Joseph Raffetto: Chronic veous insufficiency/postthrombotic syndrome PART
5. Specific Populations - gender and race Section
52. Cardiovascular disease in women Section editor: No
Professor A. John Camm graduated from Guy's Hospital, London and pursued a career in cardiology at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, before moving to St George's in 1986. He was elected Chairman of Medicine in October 1990. He was Chairman of the Division of Cardiological Sciences from 1986 until 2010. He is now Professor Clinical Cardiology at both St George's University of London and Imperial College, London. He has written or edited more than 40 books, predominantly in the field of cardiac arrhythmology. He has authored or co-authored almost 1,300 peer reviewed papers, more than 500 book chapters, and in excess of 2,500 accepted abstracts. He has delivered more than 500 international lectures. Professor Thomas F. Luscher is the Director of Research, Education & Development and Consultant of Cardiology at Royal Brompton & Harefield Hospital Trust and Imperial College in London and Director of the Center for Molecular Cardiology at the University Zurich. Professor Luscher is a board certified internist and cardiologist with training in internal medicine at the University Hospital Zurich, cardiovascular physiology and cardiology at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA and in cardiology and clinical pharmacology at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. Professor Luscher has published over 400 original research articles and review articles. He has been rated as on of the 0.5% most cited scientists worldwise by the Institute for Scientific Information. Further, from 2004 until 2016 he was editor-in-chief of Cardiovascular Medicine and has been Editor-in-Chief of the European Heart Journal as of 2009. Professor Gerald Maurer graduated from the University of Vienna School of Medicine. He trained in Internal Medicine in Vienna and subsequently in Baltimore, at Sinai Hospital. Professor Maurer worked for 12 years in Los Angeles at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, where he became the Director of Noninvasive Cardiology and also held an appointment as Associate Professor of Medicine at UCLA School of Medicine. He served as Director of the Division of Cardiology and as Chair of the Department of Medicine II at the Medical University of Vienna until 2016. Dr. Maurer's research interests are oriented towards cardiovascular imaging, valvular, and ischemic heart disease. He has authored more than 300 peer-reviewed publications, 20 book chapters and 2 books. Professor Patrick W. Serruys has been a senior interventional cardiologist since 1977, Chief of Interventional Research since 1988, the Chief of Interventional Cardiology at the Thorax center from 1997-2012, and was Professor of Medicine at Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands until 2014. Professor Serruys was the first chair of interventional cardiology created by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences and currently he is Professor of Cardiology in the Cardiovascular Science Division of the National Heart and Lung Institute (NHLI) of Imperial College in London (UK). Professor Serruys is the author or coauthor of over 1,400 papers and editor or co-editor of 32 books, and a member of 14 editorial boards of scientific journals. He has been associate editor of Circulation for Europe for five years.

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