EU Law: Text, Cases, and Materials: Text, Cases, and Materials 5th edition [Pehme köide]

  • Formaat: Paperback / softback, 1304 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 246x191x45 mm, kaal: 2176 g, map
  • Sari: Text, Cases and Materials
  • Ilmumisaeg: 18-Aug-2011
  • Kirjastus: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN-10: 0199576998
  • ISBN-13: 9780199576999
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  • Formaat: Paperback / softback, 1304 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 246x191x45 mm, kaal: 2176 g, map
  • Sari: Text, Cases and Materials
  • Ilmumisaeg: 18-Aug-2011
  • Kirjastus: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN-10: 0199576998
  • ISBN-13: 9780199576999
Teised raamatud teemal:
The fifth edition of Craig & de Burca EU Law: Text, Cases, and Materials provides clear and insightful analysis of all aspects of European Law in the post Lisbon era. Building on its unrivalled reputation as the definitive EU Text, Cases, and materials book, this edition looks in detail at the way in which the Treaty of Lisbon has radically changed both the institutional and substantive law of the European Union.

Paul Craig and Grainne de Burca are noted scholars on European Law who have a wealth of experience of both teaching and writing in this subject area. Working closely as an author team for nearly twenty years, they succeed in bringing together a unique mix of illuminating commentary and well-chosen extracts from a wide range of primary and secondary materials.

Many of the chapters have been substantially or wholly rewritten, including those on key areas such as Institutions, Legal Instruments and the Hierarchy of Norms, Competencies, and Legislation and Decision-Making. All of the chapters have been revised to take account of developments in case law and legislation, and to make students aware of cutting edge academic debates. There is in addition a new chapter on EU Criminal Law. The new edition therefore gives readers a clear understanding of the changes made by the Lisbon Treaty and the way in which the legal and political landscape has developed since it came into force. A revised table of contents facilitates navigation through the book.

The Online Resource Centre will contain information about the book and sample chapters.

Arvustused

The cases make it an interesting and enriching book for scholars because it offers depth and new insights, but the clear structure and the pedagogical genius of both authors make the book very suitable to students studying EU law for the first time...We strongly recommend this book to every EU law student. Chris Thomale, Juristische Schulung By combining an impressive selection of cases, commentary and legislation, EU Law: Text, Cases, and Materials has obtained (and kept) an almost biblical status. This accolade is well-deserved; the material remains accessible whilst providing wonderful academic scholarship. Russell J Kelsall, The Student Law Journal

Table of Abbreviations xxxiii
Acknowledgements xxxvi
Table of Cases xxxviii
Table of Treaties, Instruments, and Legislation cxxi
Lisbon Table of Equivalences cxxxix
1 The Development Of European Integration 1(30)
1 Central Issues
2 European Integration: Theories
2(2)
3 European Integration: Background
4(1)
4 EEC and Euratom Treaties
5(5)
a EEC: Founding and Objectives
5(2)
b Geographical Reach of the Community: Enlargement
7(1)
c Community Decision-Making: Intergoyernmentalism and Supranationalism
7(3)
5 Single European Act
10(3)
a Institutional Changes
11(1)
b Substantive Changes
11(1)
c Reaction and Assessment
12(1)
6 Maastricht Treaty
13(4)
a The Three-Pillar Structure
13(1)
b The Common Provisions
14(1)
c Changes to the Community Treaties
14(1)
d Common Foreign and Security Policy
15(1)
e Justice and Home Affairs
15(1)
f Reaction and Assessment
15(1)
g Further Enlargement
16(1)
7 Treaty of Amsterdam
17(2)
a Common Provisions
17(1)
b The Community Pillar
17(1)
c Common Foreign and Security Policy
18(1)
d Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters (PJCC)
18(1)
e Reaction and Assessment
19(1)
8 Nice Treaty
19(2)
a The IGC
19(1)
b The Community Pillar
20(1)
c CFSP and PJCC
20(1)
d Enhanced Cooperation
20(1)
e The Charter of Rights
20(1)
f Enlargement
21(1)
g Reaction and Assessment
21(1)
9 Constitutional Treaty
21(3)
a From Nice to Laeken
21(1)
b Convention on the Future of Europe
22(1)
c IGC and (Non-)Ratification
23(1)
d Reaction and Assessment
24(1)
10 Lisbon Treaty
24(4)
a IGC
24(2)
b Formal Architecture
26(1)
c Substantive Architecture: General
26(1)
d Substantive Architecture: The Pillar Structure and the CFSP
27(1)
e Reaction and Assessment
28(1)
11 Conclusions
28(1)
12 Further Reading
29(2)
2 The Institutions 31(42)
1 Central Issues
31(1)
2 The Commission
32(9)
a President of the Commission
32(1)
b College of Commissioners
33(2)
c Commission Bureaucracy
35(1)
d Powers of the Commission
36(3)
e of the Santer Commission and Subsequent Reform
39(1)
f Role of the Commission
40(1)
3 The Council
41(6)
a Composition
41(1)
b Presidency of the Council
42(1)
c Committee of Permanent Representatives
43(1)
d Council Secretariat
44(1)
e Powers of the Council
44(1)
f Role of the Council
45(2)
4 The European Council
47(3)
a Composition
47(1)
b Presidency of the European Council
47(1)
c Rationale
48(1)
d Role
48(1)
e Role of the European Council
49(1)
5 High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
50(1)
a Powers
50(1)
b Role of the High Representative
50(1)
6 European Parliament
51(7)
a Composition and Functioning
52(2)
b Powers
54(3)
c Role of the European Parliament
57(1)
7 Courts
58(9)
a European Court of Justice
58(1)
b General Court
59(1)
c Specialized Courts
60(1)
d Reform of the Court System
61(1)
e Advocate General
62(1)
f Procedure Before the Court
62(1)
g Style of the Court's Judgments
63(1)
h Role of the Court
63(4)
8 The Court of Auditors
67(1)
9 EU Advisory Bodies
68(1)
a Economic and Social Committee
68(1)
b Committee of the Regions
68(1)
10 Agencies
69(1)
11 Conclusions
70(1)
12 Further Reading
71(2)
3 Competence 73(30)
1 Central Issues
73(1)
2 Impetus for Reform
74(1)
3 Lisbon Strategy
75(3)
a Categories and Consequences
75(1)
b Express and Implied Power
75(3)
4 Exclusive Competence
78(5)
a Basic Principles
78(1)
b Area Exclusivity
78(1)
c Conditional Exclusivity
79(4)
5 Shared Competence
83(2)
a Basic Principles
83(1)
b Pre-Emption
84(1)
c Scope and Variation
85(1)
6 Supporting, Coordinating, or Supplementary action
85(3)
a Basic Principles
85(1)
b Scope and Variation
86(1)
c Legal Acts, Harmonization, and Member State Competence
87(1)
7 Economic, Employment, and Social Policy
88(1)
a Basic Principles
88(1)
b Category and Legal Consequence
88(1)
8 Common Foreign and Security Policy and Defence
89(1)
9 Broad Treaty Provisions: The 'Flexibility' Clause
89(3)
a Article 308 EC
90(1)
b Article 352 TFEU
91(1)
10 Broad Treaty Provisions: The Harmonization Clause
92(2)
11 Subsidiarity
94(6)
a Pre-Lisbon
94(1)
b Post-Lisbon
95(5)
12 Conclusion
100(1)
13 Further Reading
101(2)
4 Instruments And The Hierarchy Of Norms 103(18)
1 Central Issues
103(1)
2 Instruments
104(4)
a Introduction
104(1)
b Regulations
105(1)
c Directives
106(1)
d Decisions
106(1)
e Inter-Institutional Agreements
107(1)
f Recommendations, Opinions, and Soft Law
107(1)
3 Hierarchy of Norms
108(11)
a Rationale
108(1)
b Treaties and Charter
109(1)
c General Principles
109(3)
d Legislative Acts
112(1)
e Delegated Acts
113(2)
f Implementing Acts
115(3)
g Incomplete Categorization
118(1)
4 Conclusions
119(1)
5 Further Reading
120(1)
5 Legislation And Decision-Making 121(37)
1 Central Issues
121(1)
2 Legislative initiative: Principle and Practice
121(52)
3 Legislative Acts: The Ordinary Legislative Procedure
173
a Pre-Lisbon
123(1)
b Ordinary Legislative Procedure
123(3)
c Ordinary Legislative Procedure: Stages in the Process
126(1)
d Ordinary Legislative Procedure: Practical Operation
127(1)
e Ordinary Legislative Procedure: Power Dynamics
128(1)
f Ordinary Legislative Procedure: Normative Foundations
129(1)
4 Legislative Acts: Special Legislative Procedure
130(1)
5 Legislative Acts: Council Voting Requirements
131(3)
a Pre-Lisbon
131(1)
b Post-Lisbon
132(2)
6 Delegated Acts: Enactment and Control
134(5)
a Pre-Lisbon: The Rationale For Comitology
134(1)
b Post-Lisbon Delegated Acts: Demise of Comitology
135(1)
c Evaluation
136(3)
7 implementing Acts: Enactment and Control
139(3)
a The Lisbon Schema
139(2)
b Evaluation
141(1)
8 Enhanced Cooperation: Conditions and Use
142(1)
9 EU Decision-Making: Process and Reality
143(6)
a The Temporal Dimension
143(1)
b The Inter-Institutional Dimension
144(5)
10 EU Democracy: Argument and Evaluation
149(6)
a The Nature of the Argument
150(1)
b Evaluation: The Empirical Frame of Reference
150(2)
c Evaluation: The Normative Frame of Reference
152(3)
11 Conclusions
155(1)
12 Further Reading
156(2)
6 New Forms Of Governance 158(22)
1 Central Issues
158(1)
2 Introduction
158(4)
3 The New Approach to (Technical) Harmonization
162(1)
4 The Lisbon Agenda and the Open Method of Coordination
163(4)
5 General EU Governance Reform Initiatives
167(8)
a Subsidiarity and Proportionality
168(2)
b Better Regulation and the Commission's White Paper on Governance
170(5)
6 Appraising the Move Towards New Forms of Governance
175(3)
7 conclusions
178(1)
8 Further Reading
178(2)
7 The nature and effect of EU Law: Direct Effect And Beyond 180(38)
1 Central Issues
180(1)
2 Direct Effect: A Guide
181(2)
3 Direct Effect: Treaty Provisions
183(7)
a Foundations: Van Gend en Loos
183(3)
b The Conditions for Direct Effect: Broadening the Conditions
186(3)
c Treaty Articles: Vertical and Horizontal Direct Effect
189(1)
4 Direct Effect: Regulations and Decisions
190(1)
a Regulations
190(1)
b Decisions
191(1)
5 Directives: Direct Effect
191(9)
a Direct Effect of Directives
191(3)
b The Vertical/Horizontal Distinction
194(2)
c Expanding Vertical Direct Effect: A Broad Concept of the State
196(3)
d Vertical Direct Effect: Triangular Situations
199(1)
6 Directives: Legal Effects
200(16)
a 'Indirect Effect': Principle of Harmonious Interpretation
200(7)
b Incidental Horizontal Effects
207(4)
c General Principles of Law
211(3)
d Regulations Conditional on Compliance with Directives
214(1)
e State Liability in Damages
215(1)
7 Conclusions
216(1)
8 Further Reading
216(2)
8 The Application Of EU Law: Remedies In National Courts 218(38)
1 Central Issues
318
2 The Principles of National Procedural Autonomy, Equivalence, and Practical Possibility
219(3)
a Where No Relevant EU Rules Exist: National Law Determines the Conditions For Enforcement of EU Rights
219(1)
b The Principles of Equivalence and Practical Possibility
220(1)
c No Obligation to Create New Remedies (Unless...)
220(2)
3 Emergence of Requirements of Proportionality, Adequacy, and Effective Judicial Protection
222(1)
4 Development of the 'Effectiveness' Requirement
223(8)
a A Strong Initial Requirement
223(4)
b A More Cautious Approach
227(2)
c When Specific Remedies Must be Made Available
229(2)
5 The Current Approach: Balancing Effective Judicial Protection and National Procedural Autonomy 23i
a Effectiveness
231(6)
b Equivalence
237(3)
c The Effect of the Plaintiff's Conduct on the Right to an Effective Remedy
240(1)
6 Summary
241(1)
7 The Principle of (State) Liability for Breach of Law
241(13)
a Origins of the Principle
241(2)
b Clarifying and Extending the Principle
243(4)
c The Conditions for State Liability
247(4)
d State Liability and the National Remedial Framework
251(1)
e State Liability as a Residual Remedy?
252(2)
8 Conclusions
254(1)
9 Further Reading
254(2)
9 The Relationship Between EU Law And National Law: Supremacy 256(46)
1 Central issues
256(1)
2 First Dimension: Supremacy from the ECJ's Perspective
256(12)
a Foundations
256(2)
b Relation with Direct Effect
258(2)
c Ambit
260(2)
d The National Bodies that Must Apply the Supremacy Doctrine
262(2)
e Impact on National Law
264(1)
f Declaration 17 on Primacy
265(2)
g Conclusion
267(1)
3 Second Dimension: Supremacy from the Perspective of the Member States
268(29)
a France
269(3)
b Germany
272(11)
c Italy
283(2)
d The United Kingdom
285(8)
e Poland
293(3)
f Central and East European States
296(1)
4 Constitutional Pluralism
297(3)
5 Conclusions
300(1)
6 Further Reading
300(2)
10 EU International Relations Law 302(60)
1 Central issues
302(1)
2 Introduction: The EU as an International Actor and the General Principles of EU External Action
303(4)
a The EU as an International Actor
303(1)
b The Constitutional Framework and General Principles of EU External Action
304(1)
c The New Institutions of EU International Action
305(2)
3 External Capacity and EU Competence
307(11)
a International Legal Personality
307(1)
b The Need for a Legal Basis and the Limits of External EU Competence
307(1)
c Express and Implied Competence
308(3)
d Exclusive EU Competence
311(5)
e Shared Competence
316(2)
f Summary
318(1)
4 A Survey of the Fields of EU External Action under the Treaties
318(8)
a The Common Commercial Policy (CCP)
319(4)
b Association, Partnership, Cooperation, and Neighbourhood Relations
323(1)
c Development Policy, Technical Cooperation, and Humanitarian Aid
324(1)
d External Dimensions of Other Internal Policies
325(1)
5 The Common Foreign and Security Policy
326(6)
a The Scope of the CFSP
327(2)
b The Constitutional Nature of the CFSP
329(1)
c Interactions Between the CFSP and the Economic Dimensions of Security
330(2)
6 The Conclusion of International Agreements by the EU and Other Forms of EU International Practice
332(6)
a EU Procedures for Concluding International Agreements
332(2)
b Mixed Agreements
334(2)
c The Role of the European Parliament
336(1)
d The Member States' Duty of Sincere Cooperation
337(1)
e Cooperation within International Organizations
337(1)
7 The EU and International Law
338(6)
a International Agreements Concluded by the EU are Binding Upon It and are Part of EU Law
338(1)
b The EU Legal System as an Autonomous Legal Order
339(1)
c The Effect of Other Rules of International Law, and of International Agreements to which the Member States are Party
340(4)
8 The Legal Effect of International Agreements in the EU Legal Order
344(7)
9 The Role of the ECJ in EU International Relations
351(6)
a Pre-Emptive Jurisdiction: The Advisory Opinion Procedure of Article 218(11)
351(2)
b Jurisdiction of the ECJ over International Agreements under Other EU Treaty Procedures
353(1)
c The ECJ and Mixed Agreements
354(2)
d The ECJ and the CFSP
356(1)
10 Coherence, Consistency, and Cooperation in the Governance of EU International Relations
357(3)
a International Representation and the EU
357(1)
b The Requirement of Coherence Across Policies
358(1)
c Coordination Between the Member States and the EU: Cooperation and Compliance
359(1)
11 Conclusions
360(1)
12 Further Reading
361(1)
11 Human Rights In The EU 362(46)
1 Central Issues
362(1)
2 Introduction
363(1)
3 The ECJ Discovers the 'General Principles of EU Law'
364(2)
4 The ECJ Develops the General 'Principles of EU Law
366(6)
a The ECHR as a Source of Special Significance for EU Law
366(1)
b Other International Human Rights Instruments
367(2)
c National Constitutional Traditions
369(3)
5 Human Rights-Based Challenges to EU Action
372(9)
a Challenges to EU Legislation
372(6)
b Challenges to EU Administrative Action
378(3)
c Summary
381(1)
6 Human Rights-Based Challenges to Member State Action
381(8)
a Applying Provisions of EU Legislation Based on Protection for Human Rights
382(1)
b Member States as Agents of the EU
382(2)
c Member States Derogating from EU Rules or Restricting EU Rights
384(4)
d Member States and Situations Outside the Scope of EU Law
388(1)
7 Institutional and Policy Developments
389(5)
a The Inclusion of Human Rights in the Treaty Framework
389(1)
b The Fundamental Rights Agency
390(1)
c EU Human Rights Powers and Policies
391(3)
8 The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights
394(5)
a Introduction
394(1)
b Content
395(1)
c The 'Horizontal' Clauses
396(3)
9 The EU and the ECHR
399(7)
a Accession by the EU to the ECHR
399(1)
b Indirect Review of EU Acts by the ECtHR Prior to Accession
400(4)
c Mutual Influence of the ECJ and the ECtHR Prior to Accession
404(2)
10 Conclusions
406(1)
11 Further Reading
407(1)
12 Enforcement Actions Against Member States 408(34)
1 Central Issues
408(1)
2 The Function and Operation of the Infringement Procedure
409(5)
a Nature and Function of the Article 258 Procedure
410(3)
b Operation of the Procedure
413(1)
3 Relationship Between 'Public' and 'Private' Enforcement Mechanisms
414(1)
4 The Commission's Discretion
415(3)
5 The Reasoned Opinion
418(4)
a Function
418(1)
b Form and Content
418(3)
c Confidentiality of the Reasoned Opinion
421(1)
6 Why is an Enforcement Action Admissible After the Breach is Remedied?
422(1)
7 Types of Breach by Member States of EU Law
423(6)
a Breach of the Obligation of Sincere Cooperation Under Article 4(3) TEU
423(1)
b Inadequate Implementation of EU Law
424(3)
c Breaches which Interfere with EU External Relations
427(1)
d Systemic and Persistent Breaches or General Practices
427(1)
e Action by the Courts of a Member State
428(1)
8 State Defences in Enforcement Proceedings
429(2)
a Force Majeure
430(1)
b Lack of Intentional Wrongdoing by the State
430(1)
c The EU Measure on Which the Infringement Proceedings are Based is Illegal
430(1)
d Other Member States are also in Breach
431(1)
9 The Consequences of an Article 258 Ruling
431(1)
10 Article 259
432(1)
11 Article 260 TFEU: The Pecuniary Penalty
433(6)
12 Interim Measures
439(1)
13 Conclusions
439(1)
14 Further Reading
440(2)
13 Preliminary Rulings 442(43)
1 Central Issues
442(1)
2 Foundations: Article 267
443(5)
a Questions that Can be Referred
443(1)
b Courts or Tribunals which Can Refer
444(2)
c Courts or Tribunals which Must Refer
446(1)
d Relationship Between National Courts
447(1)
e National Court Raising EU Law of its Own Volition
448(1)
3 The Existence of a Questions: Development of Precedent
448(8)
a National Law in Breach of EU Law and Prior ECJ Rulings
449(2)
b The Validity of EU Legislation and Prior ECJ Rulings
451(3)
c ECJ Rulings and Legal Certainty
454(1)
d Conclusion
455(1)
4 The Existence of A Question: The 'Acte Clair' Doctrine
456(3)
Summary
459(1)
5 The Decision to Refer: rihe National Court's Perspective
459(3)
6 Acceptance of the Reference: The ECJ's Perspective
462(11)
a The Liberal Initial Approach
462(1)
b The ECJ Asserts Authority Over Cases Referred
463(4)
c Cases where the ECJ has Declined Jurisdiction
467(4)
d Information Note on Preliminary References
471(1)
e Limits of the Power to Decline a Case
471(1)
f Summary
472(1)
7 The Decision on the Reference: Interpretation versus Application
473(2)
8 Development of an EU Judicial System: National Courts and the ECJ
475(2)
a Precedent
475(1)
b Acte Clair
476(1)
c Sectoral Delegation
477(1)
9 Development of an EU Judicial System: ECJ, General Court, and National Courts
477(5)
a Limiting the National Courts Empowered to Make a Reference
478(1)
b A Filtering Mechanism Based on the Novelty, Complexity, or Importance of the Question
479(1)
c The National Court Proposes an Answer to the Question
479(1)
d Towards an Appellate System
480(1)
e Creation of Decentralized Judicial Bodies
481(1)
f General Court to Have Jurisdiction to Give Preliminary Rulings
481(1)
10 Conclusions
482(1)
11 Further Reading
483(2)
14 Review Of Legality: Access 485(34)
1 Central Issues
485(1)
2 Article 263(1): Bodies Subject to Review
485(1)
3 Article 263(1): Acts Subject to Review
486(4)
a General Principles
486(3)
b Non-Existent Acts
489(1)
c Limitations on Review
489(1)
4 Article 263(2)-(3): Standing for Privileged and Quasi-Privileged Applicants
490(1)
5 Article 263(4): Standing for Non-Privileged Applicants
491(19)
a Direct Concern
491(2)
b Individual Concern: Legal Acts Under the Lisbon Treaty
493(1)
c Individual Concern: Plaumann and Decisions
493(3)
d Individual Concern: Plaumann, Regulations, and Directives
496(3)
e Individual Concern: Anti-Dumping, Competition, and State Aids
499(3)
f Individual Concern: Reform and the Courts
502(6)
g Individual Concern: Reform and the Lisbon Treaty
508(1)
h Individual Concern: Reform and the Charter
509(1)
i Summary
510(1)
6 Article 267: Indirect Challenge to the Legality of EU Acts
510(2)
a The Rationale for Using Article 267
510(1)
b The Acts that Can be Challenged Under Article 267
511(1)
7 Article 265: Failure to Act
512(3)
a Reviewable Omissions
513(1)
b Procedure
514(1)
c Standing
514(1)
8 Article 277: The Plea of Illegality
515(2)
a The Acts that Can be Challenged
515(2)
b The Parties Who Can Use Article 277
517(1)
9 Conclusions
517(1)
10 Further Reading
518(1)
15 Review Of Legality: Grounds Of Review 519(38)
1 Central Issues
519(1)
2 Lack of Competence
520(1)
3 Infringement of an Essential Procedural Requirement 52G
a Right to be Heard
520(1)
b Consultation and Participation
521(1)
c Duty to Give Reasons
522(3)
4 Infringement of the Treaty or Any Rule of Law Relating to its Application
525(25)
a Scope
525(1)
b General Principles of Law: Proportionality
526(7)
c General Principles of Law: Legal Certainty and Legitimate Expectations
533(5)
d General Principles of Law: Non-Discrimination
538(3)
e General Principles of Law: Transparency
541(8)
f General Principles of Law: Precautionary Principle
549(1)
5 Misuse of Power
550(1)
6 The Intensity of Review
551(2)
7 The Consequences of illegality and invalidity
553(2)
8 Conclusions
555(1)
9 Further Reading
556(1)
16 Damages Actions And Money Claims 557(24)
1 Central Issues
557(1)
2 Discretionary Acts
557(8)
a The General Test
557(1)
b Legislative and Non-Legislative Discretionary Acts
558(1)
c Superior Rule of Law
559(2)
d Flagrant Violation/Serious Breach
561(3)
e Assessment
564(1)
f Summary
564(1)
3 Non-Discretionary Acts
565(3)
a The General Principle: Illegality, Causation, Damage
565(1)
b Application of the General Principle
565(1)
c The Meaning of Illegality
566(1)
d Summary
567(1)
4 Official Acts of Union Servants
568(1)
5 Valid Legislative Acts
569(2)
a The Nature of the Problem
569(1)
b The Case Law
570(1)
6 Causation and Damage
571(3)
a Causation
571(2)
b Damage
573(1)
7 joint Liability of the EU and Member States
574
a Procedural Issues
574(1)
b Substantive Issues
575
8 Contract
57(521)
9 Restitution
578(1)
10 Conclusions
579(1)
11 Further Reading
580(1)
17 The Single Market 581(30)
1 Central Issues
581(1)
2 Economic Integration: Forms and Techniques
581(2)
a Forms of Economic Integration
581(1)
b Techniques of Economic Integration
582(1)
3 Pre-1986: Limits of Integration
583(1)
4 Single European Act 1986: The Economics and Politics of Integration
583(5)
a The Economic Dimension: The Commission's White Paper
583(3)
b The Political Dimension: The Politics of Integration
586(2)
5 The Internal Market: Legislative Reform and the SEA
588(6)
a Article 26: The Obligation Stated
588(1)
b Article 27: The Obligation Qualified
589(1)
c Article 114(1): Facilitating the Passage of Harmonization Measures
589(2)
d Article 114(2)-(10): Qualifications to Article 114(1)
591(3)
6 The Internal Market: The New Legislative Approach to Marketing of Products and Harmonization
594(7)
a The Rationale for the New Approach
594(1)
b The Elements of the New Approach
594(7)
7 The Internal Market: Tensions and Concerns
601(4)
a Consumer Interests and Commercial Power
601(1)
b The Single Market, Market Freedom, and Structural Balance
602(1)
c The Challenge to Positive Integration
603(1)
d Politics, Economics, and the Single Market Enterprise
604(1)
8 The Internal Market: Reconceptualization
605(4)
9 Conclusions
609(1)
10 Further Reading
609(2)
18 Free Movement Of Goods: Duties, Charges, And Taxes 611(26)
1 Central Issues
611(1)
2 Articles 28-30: Duties and Charges
612(8)
a Duties and Charges: Effect Not Purpose
613(1)
b Charges Having an Equivalent Effect: General Principles
614(1)
c Charges Having an Equivalent Effect: Inspections and the 'Exchange Exception'
615(2)
d Charges Having an Equivalent Effect: Inspections and Fulfilment of Mandatory Legal Requirements
617(2)
e Recovery of Unlawful Charges
619(1)
f The Customs Union: The Broader Perspective
619(1)
3 Articles 110-113: Discriminatory Tax Provisions
620(12)
a The Purpose of Article 110
620(1)
b Article 110(1): Direct Discrimination
621(1)
c Article 110(1): Indirect Discrimination
621(2)
d Article 110: National Autonomy and Fiscal Choices
623(2)
e The Relationship Between Article 110(1) and (2)
625(1)
f Article 110(1) and (2): The Determination of Similarity
626(2)
g Artide 110(2): The Determination of Protective Effect
628(2)
h Taxation: The Broader Legal Perspective
630(1)
i Taxation: The Broader Political Perspective
631(1)
4 The Boundary Between Articles 28-30 and 110-113
632(3)
a Levies Imposed on Importers
632(1)
b Imports Taxed but not Made by the State of Import
633(1)
c Selective Tax Refund
634(1)
5 Conclusions
635(1)
6 Further Reading
636(1)
19 Free Movement Of Goods: Quantitative Restrictions 637(56)
1 Central Issues
637(1)
2 Directive 70/50 and Dassonville
638(2)
3 Discriminatory Barriers to Trade
640(7)
a Import and Export Restrictions
640(1)
b Promotion or Favouring of Domestic Products
641(3)
c Price Fixing
644(1)
d Measures which Make Imports more Difficult or Costly
645(1)
e National Measures versus Private Action
646(1)
f Summary
647(1)
4 Indistinctly Applicable Rules: Cassis de Dijon
647(7)
a Foundations: Cassis de Dijon
647(2)
b Application: The Post-Cassis Jurisprudence
649(1)
c Indistinctly Applicable Rules: Article 35
650(1)
d Indistinctly Applicable Rules: The Limits of Article 34
651(3)
5 Indistinctly and Distinctly Applicable Rules: Keck and Selling Arrangements
654(5)
a Keck: Selling Arrangements
654(1)
b Keck: Static and Dynamic Selling Arrangements
655(1)
c Keck and Selling Arrangements: Two Qualifications
656(3)
6 Indistinctly and Distinctly Applicable Rules: Product Use
659(2)
7 The Current Law: Summary
661(1)
8 The Current Law: Assessment
662(6)
a Market Access as Overarching Principle
662(3)
b Market Access as Slogan
665(2)
c Summary and Choices
667(1)
9 Defences to Discriminatory Measures: Article 36
668(9)
a Public Morality
668(2)
b Public Policy
670(1)
c Public Security
671(1)
d Protection of Health and Life of Humans, Animals, or Plants
672(2)
e Other Grounds for Validating Discriminatory Measures
674(2)
f The Relationship Between Harmonization and Article 36
676(1)
10 Defences to Indistinctly Applicable Rules: The Mandatory Requirements
677(7)
a The Rationale for the Mandatory Requirements
677(1)
b The Relationship Between the Mandatory Requirements and Article 36
677(1)
c The Mandatory Requirements: Consumer Protection
678(2)
d The Mandatory Requirements: Fairness of Commercial Transactions
680(1)
e The Mandatory Requirements: Public Health
680(1)
f Other Mandatory Requirements
681(3)
g Mandatory Requirements and Harmonization
684(1)
h Summary
684(1)
11 Free Movement of Goods and Cassis: The Broader Perspective
684(5)
a The Commission's Response to Cassis
684(2)
b Problems with Realizing the Cassis Strategy
686(1)
c Problems Flowing from the Cassis Strategy
687(2)
12 Conclusions
689(1)
13 Further Reading
690(3)
20 Free Movement Of Capital And Economic And Monetary Union 693(22)
1 Central Issues
693(1)
2 Free Movement of Capital
694(4)
a The Original Treaty Provisions
694(1)
b The Current Provisions: The Basic Principle
694(2)
c The Current Provisions: The Exceptions
696(2)
3 EMU and the European Monetary System: Early Attempts
698(1)
4 Economic and Monetary Union: The Three Stages
699(2)
a Stage One and the Delors Report
699(1)
b Stage Two and the Treaty on European Union
699(1)
c Stage Three and the Legal Framework
700(1)
5 EMU: Economic Foundations
701(2)
a The Case For EMU
701(1)
b The Case Against EMU
702(1)
c EMU: Economics, Politics, and Law
703(1)
6 EMU: Monetary Union and the ECB
703(4)
a ECB and ESCB
704(1)
b Monetary Policy
705(1)
c Policy Issues: Central Bank Independence
705(2)
7 EMU: Coordination of Economic Policy
707(5)
a Multilateral Surveillance Procedure
708(1)
b Excessive Deficit Procedure
708(1)
c Policy Issues: Effectiveness of Economic Policy Coordination
709(3)
8 Conclusions
712(1)
9 Further Reading
712(3)
21 Free Movement Of Workers 715(49)
1 Central Issues
715(1)
2 Article 45: Direct Effect
716(2)
3 Article 45: Worker and the Scope of Protection
718(10)
a Definition of 'Worker': An EU Concept
719(1)
b Definition of 'Worker': Minimum-Income and Working-Time Requirements
720(3)
c Definition of 'Worker': Purpose of the Employment
723(3)
d Definition of 'Worker': The Job-Seeker
726(2)
e Scope of Protection: New Member States
728(1)
4 Article 45: Discrimination, Market Access, and Justification
728(6)
a Direct Discrimination
729(1)
b Indirect Discrimination
729(1)
c Obstacles to Access to the Employment Market
730(2)
d Internal Situations
732(1)
e Objective Justification
733(1)
5 Article 45(4): The Public-Service Exception
734(7)
a The Meaning Determined by the Court, not the Member States
735(1)
b The ECJ's Test for Public Service
735(2)
c Application of the ECJ's Test
737(3)
d Discriminatory Conditions of Employment within the Public Service are Prohibited
740(1)
6 Directive 2004/38: Right of Entry and Residence of Workers and Their Families
741(5)
a Formal Requirements for Workers
741(4)
b Job-Seekers and the Unemployed
745(1)
c The Right of Permanent Residence
746(1)
d Conditions for Exercise of the Right to Residence
746(1)
7 Regulation 1612/68: Substantive Rights and Social Advantages
746(9)
a Regulation 1612/68
746(2)
b Article 7(2) of Regulation 1612/68
748(2)
c Article 7(3) of Regulation 1612/68 and Educational Rights for Workers
750(1)
d Article 12 of Regulation 1612/68: Educational Rights for Children
751(1)
e Rights of Families as Parasitic on the Workers' Rights
752(2)
f Family Members in an Internal Situation
754(1)
8 Directive 2004/38: Public Policy, Security, and Health Restrictions
755(5)
a Three Levels of Protection
755(1)
b Article 27: General Principles
755(1)
c Article 28: Expulsion
756(3)
d Article 29: Public Health
759(1)
e Article 30: Notification of Decisions
759(1)
f Article 31: Procedural Safeguards
759(1)
g Articles 32-33: Duration of Exclusion Orders and Expulsion
760(1)
9 Free Movement of Workers: Current Assessment
760(2)
10 Conclusions
762(1)
11 Further Reading
763(1)
22 Freedom Of Establishment And To Provide Services 764(55)
1 Central Issues
764(1)
2 Differences and Commonalities Between the Free Movement of Persons, Services, and Establishment
765(5)
a Comparing the Treaty
Chapters
765(2)
b Are the Freedoms Horizontally Applicable?
767(2)
c The 'Official Authority' Exception
769(1)
d The Public Policy, Security, and Health Exceptions
770(1)
e Legislation Governing Entry, Residence, and Expulsion
770(1)
3 The Right of Establishment
770(18)
a The Effect of Article 49
771(2)
b The Scope of Article 49
773(6)
c Establishment of Companies
779(9)
d Summary
788(1)
4 Free Movement of Services
788(21)
a The Effect of Article 56 TFEU
790(2)
b The Scope of Article 56
792(8)
c Justifying Restrictions on the Free Movement of Services
800(6)
d Are Non-Discriminatory Restrictions Covered by Article 56?
806(3)
5 General Legislation to Facilitate Establishment and Services: Recognition of Professional Qualifications
809(4)
a The Initial Sectoral Harmonization/Coordination Approach
809(1)
b Introduction of the Mutual Recognition Approach
809(2)
c Directive 2005/36 on the Recognition of Professional Qualifications
811(1)
d Situations not Covered by the Legislation
812(1)
6 General Legislation to Facilitate Establishment and Services: The Services Directive
813(3)
7 Conclusions
816(1)
8 Further Reading
817(2)
23 Citizenship Of The European Union 819(35)
1 Central Issues
819(1)
2 Introduction
820(3)
3 The Rights of Free Movement and Residence of EU Citizens
823(25)
a Did Article 20 Create an Autonomous and Directly Effective Right?
824(5)
b Did Articles 20 and 21 Change the Law Concerning 'Wholly Internal Situations'?
829(4)
c Did Articles 20 and 21 Create Rights for EU Nationals Who are neither Economically Active nor Economically Self-Sufficient to Claim Substantive Equality of Treatment with Nationals of a Host Member State?
833(12)
d Did Articles 20 and 21 Otherwise Enhance the Rights of EU Citizens to Challenge Restrictive Member State Measures?
845(1)
e Summary
846(2)
4 Political Rights of Citizenship
848(2)
5 Directive 2004/38 on the Rights of Free Movement and Residence for EU Citizens and their Families
850(2)
6 Conclusions
852(1)
7 Further Reading
852(2)
24 Equal Treatment And Non-Discrimination 854(69)
1 Central Issues
854(1)
2 EU Anti-Discrimination Law: Origins and Context
855(1)
3 Equal Treatment and Non-Discrimination: The Legal Framework
856(1)
4 The Origins: Article 157 TFEU and the Principle of Equal Pay for Women and Men
857(10)
a The Social and Economic Underpinnings of Article 157
858(2)
b The Breadth of Article 157: The Definition of Pay
860(7)
5 Article 19 TFEU and the Article 19 Directives
867(6)
a The Race Directive 2000/43
868(2)
b The Framework Employment Directive 2000/78
870(3)
c The Proposed New Article 19 Directive on Equal Treatment
873(1)
6 The Gender Directives
873(18)
a The 'Recast' Equal Treatment Directive 2006/54
874(7)
b The Social Security Directive 79/7
881(3)
c The Pregnancy Directive 92/85
884(3)
d Directive 2004/113 on Access to and Supply of Goods and Services
887(2)
e Parental Leave
889(1)
f Directive 2010/41 on the Self-Employed
890(1)
7 The General Principle of Equal Treatment and Non-Discrimination
891(4)
8 Common Provisions and Concepts of EU Anti-Discrimination Law
895(26)
a Direct and Indirect Discrimination
895(3)
b Exceptions and Justifications
898(11)
c Positive Action
909(6)
d Remedies
915(5)
e Mainstreaming
920(1)
9 Conclusions
921(1)
10 Further Reading
922(1)
25 AFSJ: EU Criminal Law 923(36)
1 Central Issues
923(1)
2 Maastricht to Lisbon
924(1)
a Maastricht: Three Pillars
924(1)
b Amsterdam: Three Pillars Modified
925(1)
3 Rationale
925(6)
a Rationale for the Three-Pillar Structure
926(1)
b Rationale for Subject Matter Comprising AFSJ
926(5)
4 Lisbon Treaty: General Principles
931(8)
a Objectives
932(1)
b Treaty Architecture
932(1)
c Competence
932(1)
d Article 67 TFEU
933(1)
e Institutions
934(2)
f Union Courts
936(1)
g UK and the AFSJ
937(2)
5 Criminal Law and Procedure: Pre-Lisbon
939(1)
6 Criminal Law and Procedure: Post-Lisbon
940(5)
a Criminal Law
941(1)
b Criminal Procedure
942(1)
c Crime Prevention
943(1)
d Criminal Investigation and Prosecution
943(1)
e Criminal Prosecution and the European Public Prosecutor
944(1)
f Crime and Police Cooperation
945(1)
7 Criminal law and Procedure: Objectives
945(1)
8 Criminal Law and Procedure: Objectives
946(10)
a Member State Acceptance
946(1)
b Mutual Recognition
947(1)
c Mutual Recognition and the European Arrest Warrant
948(4)
d Mutual Recognition and the European Evidence Warrant
952(2)
e Substantive Criminal Law
954(2)
9 Conclusions
956(1)
10 Further Reading
957(2)
26 Competition Law: Article 101 959(52)
1 Central Issues
595(364)
2 Competition Law: Objectives
959(1)
3 Article 101: The Treaty Text
959(1)
4 Article 101(1): Undertakings
960(2)
5 Article 101(1): Agreements, Decisions, and Concerted Practices
962(1)
a Agreements
962(3)
b Concerted Practice
965
6 Article 101(1): Agreements, Decisions, and Concerted Practices
962(21)
a Nature of the Problem
970(1)
b Experience in the United States
971(1)
c The Academic Debate in the EU
972(1)
d The Case Law
973(9)
e Summary
982(1)
7 Article 101(1): The Effect on Trade Between Member States
983(1)
8 Article 101(1): The De Minimis Doctrine
983(1)
9 Article 101(3): Exemptions
984(3)
a Individual Exemption
984(3)
b Block Exemption
987(1)
10 Article 101: Competition and Non-Competition Considerations
987(2)
a Article 101(1)
988(1)
b Article 101(3)
988(1)
11 Article 101: Vertical Restraints
989(16)
a The Economic Debate
990(2)
b The Commission and Vertical Restraints
992(2)
c Exclusive Distribution
994(1)
d Selective Distribution
995(4)
e Franchising
999(1)
f Exclusive Purchasing
1000(1)
g The Block Exemption
1001(4)
h Summary
1005(1)
12 Competition Law: Enforcement
1005(4)
a The Traditional Approach and the Modernization White Paper
1005(1)
b The New Regime
1006(1)
c Judicial Review
1007(1)
d Damages Actions
1008(1)
13 Conclusions
1009(1)
14 Further Reading
1010(1)
27 Competition Law: Article 102 1011(35)
1 Central Issues
1011(1)
2 Dominant Position: Defining the Relevant Market
1012(6)
a The Product Market
1012(3)
b The Geographic Market
1015(2)
c The Temporal Factor
1017(1)
d The Commission Notice on Market Definition
1017(1)
3 Dominant Position: Market Power
1018(6)
a Single Firm Dominance
1018(4)
b Joint Dominance
1022(2)
4 Abuse: Three Problems of Interpretation
1024(2)
a Who is Article 102 Designed to Protect?
1025(1)
b What Kinds of Behaviour are Abusive?
1025(1)
c Abuse of which Market?
1026(1)
5 Abuse: Particular Examples
1026(15)
a Abuse and Mergers
1026(2)
b Abuse and Refusal to Supply
1028(5)
c Abuse and Price Discrimination
1033(5)
d Abuse and Predatory Pricing
1038(2)
e Abuse and Selective Pricing
1040(1)
6 Defences: Objective Justification, Proportionality, and Efficiency
1041(1)
7 Article 102: Reform
1041(2)
8 Conclusions
1043(1)
9 Further Reading
1043(3)
28 Competition Law: Mergers 1046(26)
1 Central Issues
1046(1)
2 Merger Control: The Policy Rationale
1047(2)
a Arguments against Mergers
1047(1)
b Arguments in Favour of Mergers
1048(1)
3 Regulation 139/2004: Jurisdictional Issues
1049(6)
a Concentration: General
1049(1)
b Concentration: Joint Ventures
1050(1)
c Concentrations with an EU Dimension
1051(1)
d The Relation Between EU and National Merger Control
1052(2)
e Residual Role for Articles 101 and 102 TFEU
1054(1)
4 Regulation 139/2004: Procedural Issues
1055(1)
a Prior Notification
1055(1)
b Suspension Pending Investigation
1055(1)
c Investigation
1055(1)
d Investigation and Enforcement
1056(1)
5 Regulation 139/2004: The Substantive Criteria
1056(13)
a Market Definition
1056(1)
b The Test
1057(1)
c Horizontal Mergers: Non-Coordinated Effects
1058(4)
d Horizontal Mergers: Coordinated Effects and Collective Dominance
1062(5)
e Vertical and Conglomerate Mergers: Coordinated and Non-Coordinated Effects
1067(1)
f Concentration and Efficiencies
1067(1)
g Concentrations and Failing Firms
1068(1)
h The Relevance of Non-Competition Considerations
1068(1)
i Remedies
1069(1)
6 Judicial Review
1069(1)
7 Conclusions
1070(1)
8 Further Reading
1070(2)
29 The State And The Common Market 1072(41)
1 Central Issues
1072(1)
2 The State and the Market: General Principles
1072(2)
a The General Principle: The Competition Ethos
1072(1)
b The Qualification: Services of General (Economic) Interest
1073(1)
3 Public Undertakings and Article 106
1074(10)
a Article 106(1)
1075(5)
b Article 106(2)
1080(2)
c Article 106(3)
1082(1)
d Article 106 and National Courts
1083(1)
e Summary
1084(1)
4 The State, Articles 4(3) TEU, 101, 102, AND 34 TFEU
1084(1)
5 State Aids: Policy Development and Reform
1085(2)
a The Commission and the Development of Policy
1085(2)
b Reform
1087(1)
6 State Aids: The Substantive Rules and Article 107
1087(12)
a Definition of State Aid
1087(6)
b Article 107(2)
1093(1)
c Article 107(3)
1094(5)
d The Block Exemption
1099(1)
7 State Aids: The Procedural Rules and Articles 108 and 109
1099(9)
a Review of Existing State Aids
1100(1)
b The Procedure for New State Aids: Notification and Preliminary Review
1100(1)
c The Procedure for State Aids: Detailed Investigation and Enforcement
1101(2)
d Exceptional Circumstances: Article 108(2), Paragraphs 3 and 4
1103(1)
e Article 109: Implementing Regulations
1103(1)
f Challenge to Commission Decisions
1103(1)
g Aid that has not Been Notified
1104(2)
h Recovery of Unlawful Aid
1106(2)
8 State Aids, Market Integration, and Regional Policy
1108(2)
a The Relationship Between Article 34 and Articles 107-109
1108(1)
b The Relationship Between National and EU Regional Policy
1109(1)
9 Conclusions
1110(1)
10 Further Reading
1110(3)
Index 1113
Grainne de Burca is a leading expert on European Union Law, European human rights law, and European and transnational governance. Grainne has recently moved from Fordham University Law School to Harvard Law School. Grainne has written widely on European Union Law and is co-editor of the Oxford University Press book series Oxford Studies in European Law.