Geology: Basics for Engineers, Second Edition 2nd New edition [Pehme köide]

(Federal Institute of Technology (Epfl) Lausanne Switzerland)
  • Formaat: Paperback / softback, 578 pages, kõrgus x laius: 248x171 mm, kaal: 1148 g
  • Ilmumisaeg: 02-Nov-2018
  • Kirjastus: CRC Press
  • ISBN-10: 1138096628
  • ISBN-13: 9781138096622
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  • Formaat: Paperback / softback, 578 pages, kõrgus x laius: 248x171 mm, kaal: 1148 g
  • Ilmumisaeg: 02-Nov-2018
  • Kirjastus: CRC Press
  • ISBN-10: 1138096628
  • ISBN-13: 9781138096622
Teised raamatud teemal:
Geology - Basics for Engineers (second edition) presents the physical and chemical characteristics of the Earth, the nature and the properties of rocks and unconsolidated deposits/sediments, the action of water, how the Earth is transformed by various phenomena at different scales of time and space. The book shows the engineer how to take geological conditions into account in their projects, and how to exploit a wide range of natural resources in an intelligent way, reduce geological hazards, and manage subsurface pollution. This second edition has been fully revised and updated. Through a problem-based learning approach, this instructional text imparts knowledge and practical experience to engineering students (undergraduate and graduate level), as well as to experts in the fields of civil engineering, environmental engineering, earth sciences, architecture, land and urban planning. Free digital supplements to the book, found on the book page, contain solutions to the problems and animations that show additional facets of the living Earth. The original French edition of the book (2007) won the prestigious Roberval Prize, an international contest organized by the University of Technology of Compiegne in collaboration with the General Council of Oise, France. Geology, Basics for Engineers was selected out of a total of 110 candidates. The jury praised the book as a "very well conceived teaching textbook" and underscored its highly didactic nature, as well as the excellent quality of its illustrations. Features: Offers an exhaustive outline of the methods and techniques used in geology, with a study of the nature and properties of the principal soils and rocks Helps students understand how geological conditions should be taken into account by the engineer by taking a problem-solving approach Contains extensive figures and examples, solutions to probems, and illustrative animations Presents a highly didactic and synthetic work intended for engineering students as well as experts in civil engineering, environmental engineering, the earth sciences, and architecture
Dedication v
About The Author vii
Foreword xv
Preface xvii
1 The Geology-Engineering Partnership
1.1 Areas of engineering geology
1(5)
1.1.1 Project construction
2(1)
1.1.2 Natural hazards
3(1)
1.1.3 Geological resources
4(2)
1.1.4 Environmental pollution
6(1)
1.2 The history of geology
6(5)
2 The Earth in Space
2.1 The solar system
11(6)
2.1.1 Historical representations
11(1)
2.1.2 General structure
12(2)
2.1.3 The Earth's revolution
14(3)
2.2 The telluric planets
17(7)
2.2.1 Atmospheres and hydrospheres
18(1)
2.2.2 Geology and geologic activity
19(5)
2.3 Giant planets
24(1)
2.4 Comets
24(2)
2.5 Meteorites
26(3)
2.5.1 Stony meteorites
27(1)
2.5.2 Metallic meteorites
28(1)
3 The Earth Through Time
3.1 Measurement of geologic time
29(8)
3.1.1 Radiometric methods.
29(1)
3.1.2 Stratigraphic methods
30(2)
3.1.3 Paleontological methods
32(4)
3.1.4 Summary of dating methods
36(1)
3.2 Origin of the Universe and Matter
37(3)
3.2.1 Initial nucleosynthesis
38(1)
3.2.2 Stellar phase
38(2)
3.2.3 Accretion of the planets
40(1)
3.3 Voyage through time: From the Precambrian to the Quaternary
40(19)
3.3.1 Precambrian Era
41(4)
3.3.2 Primary Era (Paleozoic)
45(3)
3.3.3 Secondary Era (Mesozoic)
48(2)
3.3.4 Tertiary Era (Cenozoic)
50(2)
3.3.5 Quaternary Era (Anthropozoic)
52(7)
4 Physics of the Globe
4.1 Seismology
59(42)
4.1.1 Rupture mechanisms
59(1)
4.1.2 Types of seismic waves
60(4)
4.1.3 Laws of wave propagation
64(2)
4.1.4 Causes of earthquakes
66(6)
4.1.5 Monitoring and treatment of seismic signals
72(15)
4.1.6 Seismic risk
87(11)
4.1.7 Seismic prospecting
98(3)
4.2 Gravimetry
101(16)
4.2.1 Connection with mechanics
101(1)
4.2.2 Notion of a geoid
102(1)
4.2.3 Measurement of the gravitational field and its treatment
103(5)
4.2.4 Interpretation of anomalies
108(3)
4.2.5 Principles of isostasy
111(6)
4.2.6 Density of Earth's rocks
117(1)
4.3 Magnetism
117(7)
4.3.1 Causes of the Earth's magnetic field
118(3)
4.3.2 Components of the magnetic field at a point on the Earth's surface
121(3)
4.3.3 Measurement of the magnetic field
124(1)
4.3.4 Paleomagnetism
124(1)
4.4 Geothermics
124(9)
4.4.1 Thermal transfer within the Earth
124(3)
4.4.2 Exploitation of geothermal energy
127(6)
5 Rock Forming Minerals
5.1 Crystallography
133(16)
5.1.1 Internal structure of minerals
134(5)
5.1.2 Crystal morphology
139(4)
5.1.3 Cohesion properties
143(3)
5.1.4 Optical properties of minerals
146(3)
5.2 Geochemistry
149(18)
5.2.1 Silicates
150(10)
5.2.2 Carbonates
160(1)
5.2.3 Sulfates
161(1)
5.2.4 Phosphates
162(1)
5.2.5 Halides
163(2)
5.2.6 Sulfides
165(1)
5.2.7 Oxides and hydroxides
165(2)
5.3 Practical mineral identification
167(4)
6 Magmatism and Magmatic Rocks
6.1 Composition of the Earth's layers
171(2)
6.2 Magmatism and plate tectonics
173(8)
6.2.1 The history of plate tectonics
173(3)
6.2.2 Paleomagnetic reconstruction
176(3)
6.2.3 Possible relationships between plates
179(2)
6.3 From magma to magmatic rocks
181(11)
6.3.1 Process of magma generation
181(1)
6.3.2 Magma solidification processes
181(5)
6.3.3 Magmatic configurations
186(6)
6.4 Magmatic events
192(14)
6.4.1 Plutonism and plutonic rocks
192(2)
6.4.2 Volcanism and volcanic rocks
194(12)
6.5 Major magmatic rocks
206(6)
6.5.1 Classification
206(2)
6.5.2 Field identification methods
208(4)
7 The Water Cycle
7.1 Water reserves and their exchanges
212(1)
7.2 The atmosphere
213(9)
7.2.1 Atmospheric reservoir
213(1)
7.2.2 The greenhouse effect
214(2)
7.2.3 Atmospheric precipitation
216(4)
7.2.4 Rainfall fractionation on the soil
220(2)
7.3 Surface water
222(23)
7.3.1 Rivers and streams
222(12)
7.3.2 Lakes
234(5)
7.3.3 Glaciers
239(6)
7.4 Groundwater
245(42)
7.4.1 Porosity of geological materials
246(3)
7.4.2 Water flow in geologic media
249(1)
7.4.3 Basics of hydrodynamics
250(2)
7.4.4 Application of permeability to the subsurface
252(1)
7.4.5 Hydrodynamic application of flow toward a well
253(4)
7.4.6 Hydrologic balance of aquifers
257(1)
7.4.7 Groundwater intake
257(2)
7.4.8 Effects of drainage and irrigation
259(2)
7.4.9 Groundwater management
261(2)
7.4.10 Groundwater protection
263(3)
7.4.11 Groundwater and civil engineering projects
266(21)
7.5 Water in the seas and oceans
287(7)
8 The Continental Sedimentary Environment
8.1 Generalities
294(5)
8.1.1 Continental erosion
295(2)
8.1.2 Continental sedimentation
297(2)
8.2 Hillslope environments
299(13)
8.2.1 Particle transport
299(4)
8.2.2 Mass transport
303(9)
8.3 The alluvial environment
312(6)
8.3.1 Solid transport in rivers
312(2)
8.3.2 Areas of stream and river erosion
314(1)
8.3.3 Alluvial zones
314(4)
8.4 The lacustrine environment
318(6)
8.4.1 Deltas
318(4)
8.4.2 Lacustrine basins
322(2)
8.5 The palustrine environment
324(4)
8.5.1 Swamps at the bottom of depressions
324(1)
8.5.2 Swamps created by springs
325(1)
8.5.3 Marsh drainage
325(3)
8.5.4 Exploitation of peat
328(1)
8.6 Boreal and polar environments
328(9)
8.6.1 Glacial regions
328(4)
8.6.2 Non-glaciated regions
332(5)
8.7 The desert environment
337(9)
8.7.1 Eolian erosion and transport close to the soil
337(2)
8.7.2 Transport of suspended particles
339(1)
8.7.3 Water in deserts
339(2)
8.7.4 Protective measures
341(5)
9 The Oceanic Sedimentary Environment
9.1 Continental margin
346(21)
9.1.1 Detrital sedimentation
347(13)
9.1.2 Biogenic sedimentation
360(3)
9.1.3 Evaporite deposits
363(4)
9.2 The continental rise and the abyssal plains
367(7)
9.2.1 Detrital sedimentation
367(1)
9.2.2 Biogenic sedimentation
367(3)
9.2.3 Hydrochemical sedimentation
370(4)
10 Diagenesis and Properties of Sedimentary Rocks
10.1 Diagenetic processes
374(5)
10.1.1 Compaction
375(1)
10.1.2 Cementation
376(2)
10.1.3 Mineralogical modifications
378(1)
10.2 Detrital rocks
379(5)
10.2.1 Conglomerates
379(1)
10.2.2 Sandstones
380(2)
10.2.3 Siltstone
382(1)
10.2.4 Claystones
382(2)
10.3 Biogenic rocks
384(12)
10.3.1 Carbonate rocks
384(6)
10.3.2 Siliceous rocks
390(2)
10.3.3 Fossil fuels
392(4)
10.4 Evaporite rocks
396(8)
10.4.1 Primary dolomite
396(1)
10.4.2 Gypsum and anhydrite
396(2)
10.4.3 Halite rocks
398(1)
10.4.4 Potassium rocks
399(1)
10.4.5 Cargneules
399(5)
11 Metamorphism
11.1 Transformation processes
404(5)
11.1.1 Mineralogical modifications
404(2)
11.1.2 Chemical modifications
406(1)
11.1.3 Mechanical modifications
407(2)
11.2 Types of metamorphism
409(4)
11.2.1 Regional metamorphism
410(1)
11.2.2 Contact metamorphism
410(2)
11.2.3 Cataclastic metamorphism
412(1)
11.3 Principal metamorphic rocks and their properties
413(8)
11.3.1 Pelitic sequence
414(2)
11.3.2 Quartzo-feldspathic sequence
416(1)
11.3.3 Carbonate sequence
417(2)
11.3.4 Calcareous-pelitic sequence
419(1)
11.3.5 Mafic sequence
419(2)
11.3.6 Ultramafic sequence
421(1)
11.4 Identification of magmatic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
421(6)
12 Tectonics
12.1 Mechanical stresses in the subsurface
427(3)
12.1.1 Physical definition
427(2)
12.1.2 Stress state in geological environments
429(1)
12.2 Stress-deformation relationships
430(14)
12.2.1 Laboratory tests
431(12)
12.2.2 Rock deformation observed in the field
443(1)
12.3 Brittle deformation
444(7)
12.3.1 Joints
444(1)
12.3.2 Faults
445(3)
12.3.3 Characterization of discontinuities in a rock massif
448(3)
12.4 Ductile deformation
451(8)
12.4.1 Folds
451(4)
12.4.2 Concentric folds
455(2)
12.4.3 Similar folds
457(1)
12.4.4 Fold nappes
458(1)
12.5 Geometric representation and treatment of structural elements
459(9)
12.5.1 Mapping of structural elements
459(1)
12.5.2 Geometric tools
460(1)
12.5.3 Stereographic projections
460(8)
12.6 The Alps: a tectonic model
468(9)
12.6.1 Jura
470(1)
12.6.2 Molasse plateau
470(1)
12.6.3 Prealps
471(1)
12.6.4 Hautes Alpes Calcaires
471(1)
12.6.5 External crystalline massifs
472(1)
12.6.6 Internal thrust nappes
472(1)
12.6.7 Present-day deformation
472(5)
13 Weathering
13.1 Weathering processes
477(14)
13.1.1 Thermal processes
478(6)
13.1.2 Physico-chemical processes
484(7)
13.2 Catalog of weathering-prone materials
491(2)
13.3 Extent of weathering at depth
493(2)
13.4 Engineering concerns
495(7)
13.4.1 Weathering effects on mechanical properties
496(1)
13.4.2 Weathering effects on hydrogeological properties
497(5)
13.5 Screening for weathering
502(3)
14 Geology's Role in the Major Issues Facing Society
14.1 Land development and natural resources
505(17)
14.1.1 Food resources
505(2)
14.1.2 Energy resources
507(4)
14.1.3 Resources of underground space
511(2)
14.1.4 Mineral resources
513(4)
14.1.5 Geomaterials resources
517(4)
14.1.6 Space Resources
521(1)
14.2 Environmental protection
522(30)
14.2.1 Ecosystems and biodiversity
522(2)
14.2.2 Natural hazards
524(1)
14.2.3 Climate change
524(7)
14.2.4 Geologic waste disposal
531(6)
14.2.5 Pollution of the subsurface
537(15)
14.3 Conclusion
552(1)
Bibliography 553(14)
Index 567
Aurele Parriaux studied geology at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland. He obtained his Ph.D. in hydrogeology and followed several postgraduate courses in hydrogeology, operational hydrology and geotechnics. In 1991, he was appointed Professor of Engineering Geology at EPFL and presently he is head of the Engineering and Environmental Geology Laboratory (GEOLEP) at the same institute. He leads a research team of about twenty people specializing in the fields of geological hazards and underground resources. Professor Parriaux has significant teaching responsibilities. He teaches geology to students in 'Civil Engineering' and 'Environmental Sciences and Engineering'. Moreover, he teaches "Engineering Geology" at the Universities of Lausanne and Geneva. Parallel to his research and teaching, Aurele Parriaux carries out expert appraisals in various fields of engineering and environmental geology. In particular, the recent appraisal of the compatibility between construction of tunnels and protection of groundwater resources. Since the creation of the new School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering (ENAC) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, he participates in the teaching related to territory and landscape into which he brings the geological and geomorphologic component. Aurele Parriaux is active in several international organizations. He was chairman of the Swiss Hydrogeological Society for six years. From 2001 to 2006 he was Director of the Civil Engineering Section of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne. In 2006, he published his book "Geologie: bases pour l'ingenieur". The second edition of this successful textbook will be published in 2009. In competition with 105 scientific books, "Geologie : bases pour l'ingenieur" received the Roberval Prize in 2007. The publisher CRC Press/Balkema, member of the Taylor & Francis Group decided to publish an English translation of the book (Geology: basics for Engineers, 2009). In December 2008, Prof. Parriaux was nominated Chevalier of the Order of Academic Palms by the Prime Minister of the Republic of France.

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