GIS and the Social Sciences: Theory and Applications [Pehme köide]

(University of Leeds, UK.), (University of Sheffield, England), (Brown University, USA), (University of Leeds, UK)
  • Formaat: Paperback / softback, 280 pages, kõrgus x laius: 248x191 mm, kaal: 658 g, Style copy: World History Volume 1, 2e (9780415670012); 84 Line drawings, color; 107 Halftones, color; 37 Tables, black and white; 191 Illustrations, color
  • Ilmumisaeg: 12-Oct-2017
  • Kirjastus: Routledge
  • ISBN-10: 1138785121
  • ISBN-13: 9781138785120
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  • Formaat: Paperback / softback, 280 pages, kõrgus x laius: 248x191 mm, kaal: 658 g, Style copy: World History Volume 1, 2e (9780415670012); 84 Line drawings, color; 107 Halftones, color; 37 Tables, black and white; 191 Illustrations, color
  • Ilmumisaeg: 12-Oct-2017
  • Kirjastus: Routledge
  • ISBN-10: 1138785121
  • ISBN-13: 9781138785120

This book explores how human geography can engage with a variety of important policy issues through linking together GIS and spatial analysis. It considers how geography can ‘outreach’ to the wider community and demonstrates the importance of applied GIS and spatial analysis for solving real world problems in both the public and private sector.

The book is divided into two sections. The first section introduces basic theoretical material from a social science perspective. This section explores how spatial data is handled in a GIS, forms of geocoding, geoprocessing and visualisation, and ends with a discussion of basic GIS functionality – what are the standard spatial commands within GIS packages and what can they offer in terms of spatial analysis? Part B then explores the range of applications that GIS has been primarily used for in the social sciences, offering a global perspective of examples at a range of spatial scales. The book explores the use of GIS in crime, health, education, retail location, urban planning, transport, geodemographics, emergency planning and poverty/income inequalities. The text is supplemented with practical examples at the end of each chapter, and a companion website containing further examples and data sets. These will be written in both MAPINFO and ARC, to show how the user can access data and put the theory in the textbook to applied use.

This book is the first to offer a social science approach to GIS techniques and applications while showing the user how to do GIS. It provides a range of modern applications of GIS with associated practicals to work through, and demonstrates how researcher and policy makers alike can use GIS to plan services more effectively. It will be of great interest to geographers, as well as the broader social sciences, such as sociology, crime science, health, business and marketing.

Arvustused

'Interested in Geographic Information Systems and how they can be used in Human Geography and the Social Sciences? This is the best book to buy.' - Danny Dorling, Halford Mackinder Professor of Geography, St Peter's College, University of Oxford, UK 'Geographic Information Systems are revolutionizing the social sciences by enriching models and techniques that were previously devoid of spatial context. GIS and the Social Sciences is an essential primer for this revolution, covering a wide range of social research domains and applications. Both students and practitioners will find it to be a key guide to this emerging field.' - Harvey J. Miller, Bob and Mary Reusche Chair in Geographic Information Science and Professor of Geography, The Ohio State University, USA

List of figures
ix
List of tables
xv
Preface xvii
PART I GENERAL CONCEPTS
1(80)
1 An introduction to GIS
3(17)
Background
3(2)
What can a GIS and spatial analysis do?
5(3)
Some basic spatial concepts
8(1)
Conceptualising space
9(3)
From conceptualisation to operationalisation
12(3)
Location in space: coordinate systems and projections
15(2)
Getting data into a GIS
17(2)
Concluding comments
19(1)
Accompanying practical
19(1)
Further reading
19(1)
References
19(1)
2 Data querying and spatial analysis in GIS
20(16)
Introduction
20(1)
Getting started
21(2)
Using GIS to perform attribute (aspatial) queries
23(4)
Spatial queries: buffers and overlay operations
27(6)
The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP) and ecological fallacy
33(1)
More advanced forms of spatial analysis in GIS
33(1)
Concluding comments
34(1)
Accompanying practical
34(1)
Appendix 2.1 Examples of data resources
34(1)
References
34(2)
3 Thematic mapping, GIS and geovisualisation
36(33)
Introduction
36(2)
Geographic and associated tabular/attribute data
38(1)
Mapping location: reference maps
39(3)
Thematic maps
42(12)
Cartography and human-scaled geovisualisations
54(12)
Concluding comments
66(1)
Accompanying practicals
67(1)
References
67(2)
4 GIS and network analysis
69(12)
Introduction
69(2)
When a network can help
71(1)
Networks: the basics
72(2)
Common types of network analysis
74(5)
Concluding comments
79(1)
Accompanying practical
79(1)
Further reading
80(1)
Reference
80(1)
PART II APPLICATIONS
81(194)
5 GIS and the classification of people and areas
83(35)
Introduction
83(2)
Composite indicators
85(15)
Geodemographic classifications
100(9)
Concluding comments
109(2)
Accompanying practical
111(1)
Further reading
111(1)
Appendix 5.1 Dan Vickers' Open Geodemographic Classification developed for the UK Office for National Statistics
112(2)
Appendix 5.2 The 2001 ONS Census Output Area Classification groups
114(1)
References
115(3)
6 GIS and small-area estimation of income, well-being and happiness
118(33)
Introduction
118(1)
Combining small-area with national social survey data
119(4)
Generating indirect non-survey designed estimates
123(1)
Statistical model-based estimates
124(7)
Geosimulation and spatial microsimulation
131(6)
Using GIS and spatial microsimulation for public policy analysis
137(6)
Concluding comments
143(1)
Accompanying practical
143(1)
Further reading
143(1)
Appendix 6.1 Details of the core, rotating core and variable component question subject areas from the BHPS Individual Questionnaire
144(2)
Appendix 6.2 Details of the core question subject areas from the BHPS Household Questionnaire
146(1)
Appendix 6.3 A selection of policies that were evaluated in SimBritain
146(1)
References
147(4)
7 GIS and crime pattern analysis
151(15)
Introduction
151(1)
Crime data
151(2)
GIS for the allocation of funding
153(1)
GIS for mapping and analysing crime patterns
153(6)
Crime profiling
159(1)
Estimating expected versus actual crime rates
160(1)
GIS and arson mapping
161(2)
Concluding comments
163(1)
Accompanying practical
164(1)
Further reading
164(1)
References
164(2)
8 GIS for retail network planning and analysis
166(24)
Introduction
166(2)
The building blocks for analysis
168(2)
GIS for retail analysis and planning
170(8)
Adding a modelling capability to the GIS
178(3)
GIS for public sector retail planning
181(6)
Concluding comments
187(1)
Accompanying practicals
187(1)
References
187(3)
9 GIS and health care planning and analysis
190(17)
Introduction
190(1)
Geographical components health and health care policy
191(6)
Using GIS to analyse health care provision
197(7)
Concluding comments
204(1)
Accompanying practical
205(1)
References
205(2)
10 GIS for emergency planning
207(13)
Introduction
207(2)
What is an emergency?
209(2)
Data requirements
211(2)
Examples: GIS for emergency planning
213(4)
GIS for vulnerability assessment
217(1)
GIS and social media and crowd-sourced data
218(1)
Concluding comments
218(1)
Accompanying practical
218(1)
References
219(1)
11 GIS and education planning
220(14)
Introduction
220(1)
Demography and pupil forecasting
221(2)
School catchment areas and the dynamics of provision
223(4)
Educational performance in market systems
227(3)
GIS in higher education
230(1)
Concluding comments
231(1)
Accompanying practical
231(1)
References
232(2)
12 GIS and transport analysis and planning
234(18)
Introduction
234(1)
Flows on networks
235(4)
Networks and examples of GIS in use
239(9)
GIS and models for transport-based location analysis
248(1)
Concluding comments
249(1)
Accompanying practical
250(1)
References
250(2)
13 GIS for environmental justice and policy evaluation
252(18)
Introduction
252(1)
Data and conceptual challenges
253(1)
What do we study when we study GIS and environmental justice?
254(2)
Common GIS methods employed in environmental justice and policy research
256(3)
Applications of GIS in environmental justice
259(9)
Concluding comments
268(1)
Accompanying practical
268(1)
References
268(2)
14 Conclusions: GIS, social media and the future of GIS applications
270(5)
References
273(2)
Index 275
Dimitris Ballas is Professor of Economic Geography at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. He has published widely in the fields of Social and Economic Geography, Regional Science and Geoinformatics in the Social Sciences. His recent books include The Human Atlas of Europe: A Continent United in Diversity (co-authored with Danny Dorling and Benjamin Hennig). Graham Clarke is Professor of Business Geography at the University of Leeds, UK. He specialises in the application of GIS for service analysis and planning, particularly within the context of health and retailing. Rachel S. Franklin is Associate Director of the Spatial Structures in the Social Sciences (S4) initiative and Associate Professor (Research) of Population Studies at Brown University, USA. Andy Newing is a Lecturer in Retail Geography at the School of Geography, University of Leeds, UK. Andy contributes extensively to undergraduate and master's level GIS teaching and student supervision within the social sciences.

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