E-raamat: Laboratory Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy: Instrumentation and Applications

  • Formaat: 356 pages, 107 Illustrations, color; 147 Illustrations, black and white; XVIII, 356 p. 254 illus., 107 illus. in color., 1 Hardback
  • Sari: Springer Series in Surface Sciences 55
  • Ilmumisaeg: 08-May-2014
  • Kirjastus: Springer International Publishing AG
  • ISBN-13: 9783319048642
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  • Formaat: 356 pages, 107 Illustrations, color; 147 Illustrations, black and white; XVIII, 356 p. 254 illus., 107 illus. in color., 1 Hardback
  • Sari: Springer Series in Surface Sciences 55
  • Ilmumisaeg: 08-May-2014
  • Kirjastus: Springer International Publishing AG
  • ISBN-13: 9783319048642

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Micro-X-ray fluorescence offers the possibility for a position- sensitive and non-destructive analysis that can be used for the analysis of non-homogeneous materials and layer systems. This analytical technique has shown a dynamic development in the last 15 years and is used for the analysis of small particles, inclusions, of elemental distributions for a wide range of different applications both in research and quality control. The first experiments were performed on synchrotrons but there is a requirement for laboratory instruments which offers a fast and immediate access for analytical results. The book discuss the main components of a µ-XRF instrument and the different measurement modes, it gives an overview about the various instruments types, considers the special requirements for quantification of non-homogeneous materials and presents a wide range of application for single point and multi-point analysis as well as for distribution analysis in one, two and three dimensions.

XRF-Basics.- Main Components of X-Ray Spectrometers.- Special Requirements for µ-XRF.- Quantification.- Sample Preparation.- Relations to Other Analytical Methods.- Applications.
1 XRF-Basics
1(18)
1.1 Introduction
1(2)
1.2 Interaction of X-rays with Matter Used for Material Characterization
3(11)
1.2.1 Absorption
4(2)
1.2.2 Emission of Fluorescence Radiation
6(2)
1.2.3 Refraction
8(1)
1.2.4 Scattering
8(4)
1.2.5 Diffraction
12(2)
1.3 General Design of X-ray Spectrometers
14(5)
References
15(4)
2 Main Components of X-ray Spectrometers
19(100)
2.1 Excitation Source
19(14)
2.1.1 Excitation by Electrons
19(4)
2.1.2 Excitation by Photons
23(1)
2.1.3 X-ray Tubes
23(10)
2.1.4 Conclusions for Excitation in μ-XRF
33(1)
2.2 Primary Optics
33(36)
2.2.1 Basic Properties of X-ray Optics
34(1)
2.2.2 Diffraction Optics
35(8)
2.2.3 Refraction Optics
43(4)
2.2.4 Reflection Zone Plates
47(1)
2.2.5 Optics Based on Total Reflection
48(19)
2.2.6 Comparison of Different Optics for Their Use in μ-XRF
67(2)
2.3 Sample Positioning and Radiation Shielding
69(14)
2.3.1 Special Requirements for Sample Positioning in μ-XRF
71(4)
2.3.2 Image View
75(1)
2.3.3 Spatial Resolution
76(6)
2.3.4 Measurement Media
82(1)
2.4 Secondary Optics: Spectrometer Type
83(4)
2.4.1 Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometers
83(2)
2.4.2 Energy Dispersive Spectrometers
85(2)
2.5 X-ray Detectors
87(32)
2.5.1 Working Principles and Detector Types
87(4)
2.5.2 Generation of an Energy Dispersive Spectrum
91(1)
2.5.3 Energy Resolution
92(5)
2.5.4 Detection Efficiency
97(4)
2.5.5 Development of Energy Dispersive X-ray Detectors
101(7)
2.5.6 Detector Artifacts
108(7)
References
115(4)
3 Special Requirements for μ-XRF
119(38)
3.1 History of Position Sensitive Element Analysis
119(3)
3.2 Possibilities for Spatial Resolved XRF
122(4)
3.2.1 Excitation of a Small Sample Area
122(1)
3.2.2 Excitation of a Large Sample Area
123(2)
3.2.3 Confocal Geometry
125(1)
3.3 Instrument Types
126(7)
3.3.1 Spot Generation
127(1)
3.3.2 Excitation Direction
127(1)
3.3.3 Detector Types
128(1)
3.3.4 Measurement Medium
128(2)
3.3.5 Sample Movement
130(1)
3.3.6 Type of the Spectrometer
130(1)
3.3.7 Instruments on the Market
131(2)
3.4 Typical Measurement Modes for μ-XRF
133(24)
3.4.1 Single Point Measurement
133(1)
3.4.2 Mutiple Point Measurement
134(1)
3.4.3 Area Analysis
134(1)
3.4.4 Linescan
135(1)
3.4.5 Mapping
135(19)
References
154(3)
4 Quantification
157(44)
4.1 Introduction
157(3)
4.2 Different Types of Quantification
160(3)
4.2.1 Qualitative and Semi-quantitative Methods
160(1)
4.2.2 Quantification Methods
160(3)
4.3 Quantification for μ-XRF
163(13)
4.3.1 Special Conditions
163(5)
4.3.2 Quantification with the Fundamental Parameter Model
168(8)
4.3.3 Summary
176(1)
4.4 Analysis of Coating Systems
176(12)
4.4.1 Principle of Coating Analysis
176(2)
4.4.2 Requirements for Coating Analysis
178(2)
4.4.3 General Equations for Coating Thickness Testing
180(1)
4.4.4 Thickness Ranges for the Coating Measurements
181(2)
4.4.5 Multiple Layer Analysis
183(2)
4.4.6 Accuracy for Coating Analysis
185(2)
4.4.7 Summary
187(1)
4.5 Errors in μ-XRF
188(13)
4.5.1 Characterization of Errors
188(2)
4.5.2 Random Error Contributions
190(2)
4.5.3 Systematic Error Contributions
192(1)
4.5.4 Concept of Uncertainty
193(3)
4.5.5 Possibilities for Improvement of Accuracy
196(2)
References
198(3)
5 Sample Preparation
201(10)
5.1 Introduction
201(1)
5.2 Information Depth
202(1)
5.3 Preparation and Presentation of Different Sample Qualities
203(8)
5.3.1 Solid Samples
203(3)
5.3.2 Powder Samples
206(1)
5.3.3 Filter Materials
207(1)
5.3.4 Liquid Samples
207(1)
5.3.5 Archeological Samples
208(1)
References
209(2)
6 Relations to Other Analytical Methods
211(18)
6.1 Comparison with Other Micro-Analytical Methods
211(9)
6.1.1 Overview
211(3)
6.1.2 Synchrotron Excited μ-XRF
214(1)
6.1.3 SEM-EDS
214(6)
6.2 Combination of μ-XRF with Other Methods
220(9)
6.2.1 General Remarks
220(1)
6.2.2 SEM-EDS and μ-XRF
221(4)
6.2.3 μ-XRF and μ-XRD
225(1)
6.2.4 Raman Spectroscopy and μ-XRF
225(1)
References
226(3)
7 Applications
229(114)
7.1 Point Analysis
229(29)
7.1.1 Analysis of Precious Metal Alloys
230(6)
7.1.2 Coating Thickness Analysis
236(13)
7.1.3 Analysis of Particles and Inclusions
249(7)
7.1.4 Analysis of Restricted Elements in Consumer Goods
256(2)
7.2 Multiple Point Analysis
258(10)
7.2.1 Area Analysis
259(3)
7.2.2 Muliti-point Measurements
262(1)
7.2.3 High Throughput Screening
262(6)
7.3 One Dimensional Distribution Analysis: LineScan
268(7)
7.3.1 Determination of Diffusion Profiles
268(1)
7.3.2 Analysis of Gems
268(1)
7.3.3 Examination of Roll Bearings
269(1)
7.3.4 Analysis of Sediment Bore Cores
270(5)
7.4 Two Dimensional Distribution Analysis: Mapping
275(40)
7.4.1 Analysis of Geological Samples
275(8)
7.4.2 Examination of Art Objects
283(7)
7.4.3 Life Science Applications
290(5)
7.4.4 Electronics
295(3)
7.4.5 Material Analysis
298(10)
7.4.6 Forensic Applications
308(7)
7.5 Three Dimensional Distribution Analysis
315(28)
7.5.1 Destructive 3D-Analysis
316(1)
7.5.2 Measurements with Confocal Geometry
316(20)
References
336(7)
8 Prospectives for μ-XRF
343(6)
8.1 lnstrumentaion
343(4)
8.2 Instrument Control and Data Evaluation
347(2)
Reference
348(1)
Further Readings 349(2)
Index 351
Michael Haschke was born 1948, his schooling was combined with teachings for metalworker. After the study of physics at the TU Dresden which was finished 1974 with PhD he started his career - at first in the Academy of Science of GDR, branch for scientific instrumentation and then in different companies. From the beginning of the 80th he was working in the field of X-Ray analytics. During that time he was responsible for the introduction of energy-dispersive X-Ray spectrometers (EDS) in GDR, for the buildup of the X-Ray product line in Spectro, Kleve including the excitation with polarized radiation, the use of small spectrometers for jewelry analysis and the introduction of poly-capillary based instruments for -XRF in Roentgenanalytik Messtechnik GmbH, Taunusstein in close cooperation with EDAX, USA, the use of -XRF as an additional excitation source for electron microscopes in IfG, Berlin and finally for the introduction of a complete product line for -XRF in Bruker Nano, GmbH, Berlin. This responsibility was realized as deputy-director or product manager in the different companies. He understood the introduction of new instruments as a combination of the development of the instruments with the introduction into the market. Therefore there is a big experience both for instrumentation as well as for application.