Photovoltaic Systems Engineering 4th New edition [Kõva köide]

(Florida Atlantic University (FAU), Boca Raton, Florida, USA), (Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, USA)
  • Formaat: Hardback, 504 pages, kõrgus x laius: 235x156 mm, kaal: 898 g, 151 Line drawings, black and white; 3 Halftones, black and white
  • Ilmumisaeg: 07-Mar-2017
  • Kirjastus: Productivity Press
  • ISBN-10: 1498772773
  • ISBN-13: 9781498772778
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  • Formaat: Hardback, 504 pages, kõrgus x laius: 235x156 mm, kaal: 898 g, 151 Line drawings, black and white; 3 Halftones, black and white
  • Ilmumisaeg: 07-Mar-2017
  • Kirjastus: Productivity Press
  • ISBN-10: 1498772773
  • ISBN-13: 9781498772778
The primary purpose of PV Systems Engineering is to provide a comprehensive set of PV knowledge and understanding tools for the design, installation, commissioning, inspection, and operation of PV systems. During recent years in the United States, more PV capacity was installed than any other electrical generation source. In addition to practical system information, this new edition includes explanation of the basic physical principles upon which the technology is based and a consideration of the environmental and economic impact of the technology. The material covers all phases of PV systems from basic sunlight parameters to system commissioning and simulation, as well as economic and environmental impact of PV. With homework problems included in each chapter and numerous design examples of real systems, the book provides the reader with consistent opportunities to apply the information to real-world scenarios.

Arvustused

"The new edition of the text represents an outstanding improvement over earlier versions. I would highly recommend it to any faculty interested in teaching a course related to photovoltaic systems engineering for the following reasons: a) It represents an excellent balance of theory and practical engineering application of science, technology, and economic analysis; b) It is up-to-date on the latest technology, system components, codes and standards, and accepted design practices, c) The problem sets at the end of each chapter are well thought out and provide students with relevant needed practice necessary for developing comprehensive design knowledge and skills for a variety of PV system configurations; d) The book is extremely well organized, well written, easy to follow, and should appeal to a large segment of both student and practicing engineering populations. In short, it is an excellent engineering text on extremely important subject matter from which faculty will enjoy teaching and from which student learning will be enhanced." - Jerry Ventre, Florida Solar Energy Center (Retired), USA "This book, now in its 4th edition, is thorough, comprehensive and frequently revised, so it is up-to-date. I have always liked it, in earlier editions, for bothering to address the low profile but important aspects of photovoltaic systems that tend to be left out of other books - the mechanical engineering aspects, including mounting methods, loads and stresses and wind loading; electrical protection; standards (for USA at least); wire sizing; junction boxes; environmental impacts, etc." - Richard Corkish, University of New South Wales, Australia "I find this book to be excellent, containing both the theoretical and practical knowledge to analyze and design a wide range of solar photovoltaic systems. I am not aware of any currently available books that include such breadth and depth." - John Murray, Dine College, USA

Preface xxi
Disclaimer xxv
Acknowledgments xxvii
Authors xxix
Abbreviations xxxi
Chapter 1 Background 1(22)
1.1 Introduction
1(1)
1.2 Population and Energy Demand
2(1)
1.3 Current World Energy Use Patterns
2(4)
1.4 Exponential Growth
6(4)
1.4.1 Introduction
6(1)
1.4.2 Compound Interest
6(1)
1.4.3 Doubling Time
7(1)
1.4.4 Accumulation
8(1)
1.4.5 Resource Lifetime in an Exponential Environment
9(1)
1.5 Hubbert's Gaussian Model
10(2)
1.6 Net Energy, BTU Economics, and the Test for Sustainability
12(1)
1.7 Direct Conversion of Sunlight to Electricity with PV
13(2)
1.8 Energy Units
15(4)
References
19(1)
Suggestive Reading
20(3)
Chapter 2 The Sun 23(26)
2.1 Introduction
23(1)
2.2 The Solar Spectrum
23(2)
2.3 Effect of Atmosphere on Sunlight
25(2)
2.4 Sunlight Specifics
27(8)
2.4.1 Introduction
27(1)
2.4.2 Definitions
28(1)
2.4.3 The Orbit and Rotation of the Earth
29(2)
2.4.4 Tracking the Sun
31(3)
2.4.5 Measuring Sunlight
34(1)
2.4.5.1 Precision Measurements
34(1)
2.4.5.2 Less Precise Measurements
35(1)
2.5 Capturing Sunlight
35(11)
2.5.1 Maximizing Irradiation on the Collector
35(3)
2.5.2 Shading
38(3)
2.5.2.1 Field Measurement of Shading Objects
38(2)
2.5.2.2 Computational Methods of Determining Shading
40(1)
2.5.3 Special Orientation Considerations
41(16)
2.5.3.1 Horizontal Mounting
41(1)
2.5.3.2 Non-South-Facing Mounting
41(5)
References
46(1)
Suggestive Reading
47(2)
Chapter 3 Introduction to PV Systems 49(64)
3.1 Introduction
49(1)
3.2 The PV Cell
50(4)
3.3 The PV Module
54(2)
3.4 The PV Array
56(1)
3.5 Energy Storage
57(15)
3.5.1 Introduction
57(1)
3.5.2 The Lead-Acid Storage Battery
58(6)
3.5.2.1 Chemistry of the Lead-Acid Cell
58(2)
3.5.2.2 Properties of the Lead-Acid Storage Battery
60(4)
3.5.3 Lithium-Ion Battery Technologies
64(2)
3.5.4 Nickel-Based Battery Systems
66(2)
3.5.4.1 Nickel-Cadmium Batteries
66(1)
3.5.4.2 Nickel-Zinc Batteries
67(1)
3.5.4.3 Nickel-Metal Hydride 134tteries
67(1)
3.5.5 Emerging Battery Technologies
68(2)
3.5.6 Hydrogen Storage
70(1)
3.5.7 The Fuel Cell
71(1)
3.5.8 Other Storage Options
71(1)
3.6 PV System Loads
72(1)
3.7 PV System Availability: Traditional Concerns and New Concerns
73(5)
3.7.1 Traditional Concerns as Applied to Stand-Alone Systems
73(4)
3.7.2 New Concerns about PV System Availability
77(1)
3.8 Associated System Electronic Components
78(19)
3.8.1 Introduction
78(1)
3.8.2 Charge Controllers
78(4)
3.8.2.1 Charging Considerations
79(3)
3.8.2.2 Discharging Considerations
82(1)
3.8.3 Maximum Power Point Trackers and Linear Current Boosters
82(4)
3.8.4 Inverters
86(11)
3.8.4.1 Square Wave Inverters
87(2)
3.8.4.2 Modified Sine Wave Inverters
89(2)
3.8.4.3 PWM Inverters
91(4)
3.8.4.4 Transformerless Inverters
95(1)
3.8.4.5 Other Desirable Inverter Features
95(2)
3.9 Generators
97(6)
3.9.1 Introduction
97(1)
3.9.2 Types and Sizes of Generators
97(1)
3.9.3 Generator Operating Characteristics
98(4)
3.9.3.1 Rotation Speed
98(1)
3.9.3.2 Efficiency versus Electrical Load
99(1)
3.9.3.3 Fuel Types
100(1)
3.9.3.4 Altitude Effects
101(1)
3.9.3.5 Waveform Harmonic Content
101(1)
3.9.3.6 Frequency Stability
101(1)
3.9.3.7 Amplitude Stability
101(1)
3.9.3.8 Noise Level
102(1)
3.9.3.9 Type of Starting
102(1)
3.9.3.10 Overload Characteristics
102(1)
3.9.3.11 Power Factor Considerations
102(1)
3.9.4 Generator Maintenance
102(1)
3.9.5 Generator Selection
103(1)
3.10 Balance of System Components
103(8)
3.10.1 Introduction
103(1)
3.10.2 Switches, Circuit Breakers, Fuses, and Receptacles
104(1)
3.10.3 Ground Fault, Arc Fault, Surge, and Lightning Protection
105(1)
3.10.3.1 Grounding versus Grounded and Ground Fault Protection
105(1)
3.10.3.2 Arc Fault Protection
105(1)
3.10.3.3 Surge Protection
106(1)
3.10.4 Inverter Bypass Switches and Source Circuit Combiner Boxes
106(1)
3.10.4.1 Inverter Bypass Switches
106(1)
3.10.4.2 Source Circuit Combiner Boxes
106(1)
3.10.5 Grounding Devices
107(1)
3.10.6 Rapid Shutdown
107(4)
References
111(1)
Suggestive Reading
112(1)
Chapter 4 Grid-Connected Utility-Interactive Photovoltaic Systems 113(72)
4.1 Introduction
113(1)
4.2 Applicable Codes and Standards
114(14)
4.2.1 The National Electrical Code
114(5)
4.2.1.1 Introduction
114(2)
4.2.1.2 Voltage Drop and Wire Sizing
116(3)
4.2.2 IEEE Standard 1547-2003
119(6)
4.2.2.1 Introduction
119(1)
4.2.2.2 Specific Requirements
119(4)
4.2.2.3 Comparison of PV Inverters to Mechanically Rotating Generators
123(1)
4.2.2.4 Islanding Analysis
123(2)
4.2.3 Other Issues
125(3)
4.2.3.1 Aesthetics
125(1)
4.2.3.2 Electromagnetic Interference
126(1)
4.2.3.3 Surge Protection
126(1)
4.2.3.4 Structural Considerations
127(1)
4.3 Design Considerations for Straight Grid-Connected PV Systems
128(4)
4.3.1 Determining System Energy Output
128(2)
4.3.2 Array Installation
130(1)
4.3.3 Inverter Selection and Mounting
130(2)
4.3.4 Other Installation Considerations
132(1)
4.4 Design of a System Based on Desired Annual System Performance
132(13)
4.4.1 Array Sizing
132(1)
4.4.2 Inverter Selection
133(1)
4.4.3 Module Selection
134(2)
4.4.4 Balance of System
136(8)
4.4.4.1 Wiring from Array to Rooftop Junction Box
137(1)
4.4.4.2 Wire and Conduit from Rooftop Junction Box to Inverter
138(3)
4.4.4.3 Rapid Shutdown
141(1)
4.4.4.4 Ground Fault and Arc Fault Protection
142(1)
4.4.4.5 DC and AC Disconnects and Overcurrent Protection
142(1)
4.4.4.6 Point of Utility Connection
143(1)
4.4.4.7 Final System Electrical Schematic Diagram
144(1)
4.5 Design of a System Based upon Available Roof Space
145(9)
4.5.1 Array Selection
145(4)
4.5.2 Inverter Selection
149(1)
4.5.3 Balance of System
149(4)
4.5.3.1 Wiring from Array to Rooftop Junction Box
149(2)
4.5.3.2 Rapid Shutdown, Ground Fault, and Arc Fault Protection
151(1)
4.5.3.3 DC and AC Disconnects and Overcurrent Protection
151(1)
4.5.3.4 Point of Utility Connection
152(1)
4.5.3.5 Estimating System Annual Performance
152(1)
4.5.3.6 Final System Electrical Schematic Diagram
153(1)
4.5.4 Extension of Design to Lower Wind Speed Region
153(1)
4.6 Design of a Microinverter-Based System
154(3)
4.6.1 Introduction
154(1)
4.6.2 System Design
155(1)
4.6.3 Bells and Whistles (i.e., Monitoring Possibilities)
156(1)
4.7 Design of a Nominal 20 kW System That Feeds a Three-Phase Distribution Panel
157(6)
4.7.1 Introduction
157(1)
4.7.2 Inverter
157(1)
4.7.3 Modules
158(1)
4.7.4 System DC Wiring
159(2)
4.7.5 System AC Wiring
161(2)
4.7.5.1 Wire and Overcurrent Protection Sizing
161(1)
4.7.5.2 Voltage Drop Calculations
162(1)
4.7.6 Annual System Performance Estimate
163(1)
4.8 Design of a Nominal 500-kW System
163(13)
4.8.1 Introduction
163(1)
4.8.2 Inverter
163(1)
4.8.3 Modules and Array
164(1)
4.8.4 Configuring the Array
164(4)
4.8.4.1 Sizing the Array
164(1)
4.8.4.2 Combiner Boxes
165(1)
4.8.4.3 Array Layout
166(2)
4.8.5 Wire Sizing and Voltage Drop Calculations
168(3)
4.8.5.1 Source-Circuit Calculations
168(2)
4.8.5.2 Combiner to Recombiner Wiring (PV Output Circuits)
170(1)
4.8.5.3 Disconnects, GFDI, and Overcurrent Protection on the DC Side of the Inverter
171(1)
4.8.6 AC Wire Sizing, Disconnects, and Overcurrent Protection
171(14)
4.8.7 Arc Flash Calculations
172(1)
4.8.7.1 Introduction
172(1)
4.8.7.2 AC Voltage Sources
173(1)
4.8.7.3 DC Current Sources
174(2)
4.9 System Commissioning
176(2)
4.10 System Performance Monitoring
178(5)
References
183(1)
Suggestive Reading
184(1)
Chapter 5 Mechanical Considerations 185(50)
5.1 Introduction
185(1)
5.2 Important Properties of Materials
185(13)
5.2.1 Introduction
185(1)
5.2.2 Stress and Strain
186(4)
5.2.3 Strength of Materials
190(1)
5.2.4 Column Buckling
190(1)
5.2.5 Thermal Expansion and Contraction
191(2)
5.2.6 Chemical Corrosion and Ultraviolet Degradation
193(2)
5.2.7 Properties of Steel
195(1)
5.2.8 Properties of Aluminum
196(2)
5.3 Establishing Mechanical System Requirements
198(3)
5.3.1 Mechanical System Design Process
198(1)
5.3.2 Functional Requirements
198(1)
5.3.3 Operational Requirements
199(1)
5.3.4 Constraints
200(1)
5.3.5 Trade-Offs
200(1)
5.4 Design and Installation Guidelines
201(2)
5.4.1 Standards and Codes
201(1)
5.4.2 Building Code Requirements
202(1)
5.5 Forces Acting on PV Arrays
203(7)
5.5.1 Structural Loading Considerations
203(1)
5.5.2 Dead Loads
204(1)
5.5.3 Live Loads
204(1)
5.5.4 Wind Loads
204(5)
5.5.5 Snow Loads
209(1)
5.5.6 Other Loads
210(1)
5.6 Array Mounting System Design
210(11)
5.6.1 Introduction
210(1)
5.6.2 Objectives in Designing the Array Mounting System
210(3)
5.6.2.1 Minimizing Installation Costs
210(2)
5.6.2.2 Building Integration Considerations
212(1)
5.6.2.3 Costs and Durability of Array-Roof Configurations
213(1)
5.6.3 Enhancing Array Performance
213(2)
5.6.3.1 Irradiance Enhancement
213(1)
5.6.3.2 Shading
214(1)
5.6.3.3 Array Cooling
214(1)
5.6.3.4 Protection from Vandalism
214(1)
5.6.4 Roof-Mounted Arrays
215(3)
5.6.4.1 Standoff Mounting
215(1)
5.6.4.2 Rack Mounting
216(1)
5.6.4.3 Integrated Mounting
217(1)
5.6.4.4 Direct Mounting
218(1)
5.6.5 Ground-Mounted Arrays
218(2)
5.6.5.1 Rack Mounting
218(1)
5.6.5.2 Pole Mounting
218(1)
5.6.5.3 Tracking-Stand Mounting
219(1)
5.6.6 Aesthetics
220(1)
5.7 Computing Mechanical Loads and Stresses
221(2)
5.7.1 Introduction
221(1)
5.7.2 Withdrawal Loads
221(1)
5.7.3 Tensile Stresses
222(1)
5.7.4 Buckling
222(1)
5.8 Standoff, Roof Mount Examples
223(10)
5.8.1 Introduction to ASCE 7 Wind Load Analysis Tabular Method
223(4)
5.8.2 Array Mount Design, High Wind Speed Case
227(2)
5.8.3 Array Mount Design, Lower Wind Speed Case
229(2)
5.8.4 Exposure C, Exposure D, and Other Correction Factors
231(2)
References
233(1)
Suggestive Reading
234(1)
Chapter 6 Battery-Backup Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems 235(60)
6.1 Introduction
235(2)
6.2 Battery-Backup Design Basics
237(4)
6.2.1 Introduction
237(1)
6.2.2 Load Determination
237(1)
6.2.3 Inverter Sizing
238(1)
6.2.4 Battery Sizing
238(1)
6.2.5 Sizing the Array
239(2)
6.3 A Single Inverter 120-V Battery-Backup System Based on Standby Loads
241(16)
6.3.1 Determination of Standby Loads
241(1)
6.3.2 Inverter Selection
241(1)
6.3.3 Battery Selection
242(2)
6.3.4 Array Sizing
244(1)
6.3.5 Charge Controller and Module Selection
245(1)
6.3.6 BOS Selection and Completion of the Design
246(7)
6.3.6.1 Array Mounting Equipment
246(1)
6.3.6.2 Rooftop Junction Box
247(1)
6.3.6.3 Source-Circuit Combiner Box and Surge Arrestor
248(1)
6.3.6.4 Wire and Circuit Breaker Sizing-DC Side
248(3)
6.3.6.5 Wire and Circuit Breaker Sizing-AC Side
251(1)
6.3.6.6 Wiring of Standby Loads
251(2)
6.3.6.7 Equipment Grounding Conductor and Grounding Electrode Conductor Sizing
253(1)
6.3.7 Programming the Inverter and the Charge Controller
253(3)
6.3.8 Fossil-Fuel Generator Connection Options
256(1)
6.4 A 120/240-V Battery-Backup System Based on Available Roof Space
257(10)
6.4.1 Introduction
257(1)
6.4.2 Module Selection and Source Circuit Design
257(1)
6.4.3 Source-Circuit Combiner Box and Charge Controller Selection
258(2)
6.4.4 Inverter Selection
260(1)
6.4.5 Determination of Standby Loads and Battery Selection
260(2)
6.4.6 BOS Selection and Completion of Design
262(5)
6.4.6.1 Rooftop Junction Box
262(1)
6.4.6.2 Source-Circuit Combiner Box and Surge Arrestors
263(1)
6.4.6.3 Wire and Circuit Breaker Sizing-DC Side
263(2)
6.4.6.4 Wire and Circuit Breaker Sizing-AC Side
265(1)
6.4.6.5 Wiring of Standby Loads
265(1)
6.4.6.6 Equipment Grounding Conductor and Grounding Electrode Conductor Sizing
266(1)
6.4.6.7 Rapid Shutdown
266(1)
6.5 An 18-kW Battery-Backup System Using Inverters in Parallel
267(13)
6.5.1 Introduction
267(1)
6.5.2 Inverter and Charge Controller Selection
268(2)
6.5.2.1 Inverter Selection
268(2)
6.5.2.2 Charge Controllers
270(1)
6.5.3 Module Selection and Array Layout
270(5)
6.5.3.1 Module Selection
271(1)
6.5.3.2 Array Layout
272(1)
6.5.3.3 Array Performance
273(2)
6.5.4 Battery and BOS Selection
275(1)
6.5.5 Wire Sizing
275(2)
6.5.6 Final Design
277(3)
6.6 AC-Coupled Battery-Backup Systems
280(6)
6.6.1 Introduction
280(1)
6.6.2 A 120/240-V Battery-Backup Inverter with 240-V Straight Grid-Connected Inverter
281(2)
6.6.3 A 120-V Battery-Backup Inverter with a 240-V Straight Grid-Connected Inverter
283(2)
6.6.4 A 120/208-V Three-Phase AC-Coupled System
285(1)
6.7 Battery Connections
286(8)
6.7.1 Lead-Acid Connections
286(5)
6.7.2 Other Battery Systems
291(3)
References
294(1)
Chapter 7 Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems 295(60)
7.1 Introduction
295(2)
7.2 The Simplest Configuration: Module and Fan
297(1)
7.3 A PV-Powered Water Pumping System
298(6)
7.3.1 Introduction
298(1)
7.3.2 Selection of System Components
299(2)
7.3.3 Design Approach for Simple Pumping System
301(3)
7.3.3.1 Pump Selection
301(1)
7.3.3.2 Battery Selection
302(1)
7.3.3.3 Module Selection
302(1)
7.3.3.4 Charge Controller Selection
303(1)
7.3.3.5 BOS and Completion of the System
303(1)
7.4 A PV-Powered Parking Lot Lighting System
304(7)
7.4.1 Determination of the Lighting Load
304(2)
7.4.2 Parking Lot Lighting Design
306(5)
7.4.2.1 Introduction
306(1)
7.4.2.2 Determination of Lamp Wattage and Daily Load Presented by the Fixture
307(1)
7.4.2.3 Determination of Battery Storage Requirements
308(1)
7.4.2.4 Determination of Array Size
308(1)
7.4.2.5 Charge Controller and Inverter Selection
309(1)
7.4.2.6 Final System Schematic
309(1)
7.4.2.7 Structural Comment
310(1)
7.5 A Cathodic Protection System
311(4)
7.5.1 Introduction
311(1)
7.5.2 System Design
312(3)
7.6 A Portable Highway Advisory Sign
315(2)
7.6.1 Introduction
315(1)
7.6.2 Determination of Available Average Power
316(1)
7.6.3 Determination of Battery Requirements
317(1)
7.6.4 Additional Observations and Considerations
317(1)
7.7 A Critical Need Refrigeration System
317(6)
7.7.1 Introduction
317(1)
7.7.2 Load Determination
318(1)
7.7.3 Battery Sizing
318(2)
7.7.4 Array Sizing
320(1)
7.7.5 Charge Controller and Inverter Selection
321(1)
7.7.6 BOS Component Selection
321(1)
7.7.7 Overall System Design
322(1)
7.8 A PV-Powered Mountain Cabin
323(11)
7.8.1 Introduction
323(1)
7.8.2 Load Determination
324(3)
7.8.3 Battery Selection
327(1)
7.8.4 Array Sizing and Tilt
328(2)
7.8.5 Charge Controller Selection
330(1)
7.8.6 Inverter Selection
330(1)
7.8.7 Excess Electrical Production
331(1)
7.8.8 BOS Component Selection
332(2)
7.8.8.1 Wire, Circuit Breaker, and Switch Selection
332(1)
7.8.8.2 Other Items
333(1)
7.9 A Hybrid-Powered, Off-Grid Residence
334(15)
7.9.1 Introduction
334(2)
7.9.2 Summary of Loads
336(1)
7.9.3 Battery Selection
337(2)
7.9.4 Array Design
339(3)
7.9.5 Generator Selection
342(1)
7.9.6 Generator Operating Hours and Operating Cost
342(2)
7.9.7 Charge Controller and Inverter Selection
344(2)
7.9.8 Wire, Circuit Breaker, and Disconnect Selection
346(2)
7.9.9 BOS Component Selection
348(1)
7.9.10 Total System Design
348(1)
7.10 Summary of Design Procedures
349(5)
References
354(1)
Suggestive Reading
354(1)
Chapter 8 Economic Considerations 355(24)
8.1 Introduction
355(1)
8.2 Life-Cycle Costing
356(11)
8.2.1 The Time Value of Money
356(1)
8.2.2 Present Worth Factors and Present Worth
357(3)
8.2.3 Life-Cycle Cost
360(4)
8.2.4 Annualized LCC
364(1)
8.2.5 Unit Electrical Cost
365(1)
8.2.6 LCOE Analysis
365(2)
8.3 Borrowing Money
367(4)
8.3.1 Introduction
367(1)
8.3.2 Determination of Annual Payments on Borrowed Money
367(3)
8.3.3 The Effect of Borrowing on LCC
370(1)
8.4 Payback Analysis
371(1)
8.5 Externalities
372(5)
8.5.1 Introduction
372(2)
8.5.2 Subsidies
374(1)
8.5.3 Externalities and PV
375(2)
References
377(1)
Suggestive Reading
378(1)
Chapter 9 Externalities and Photovoltaics 379(18)
9.1 Introduction
379(1)
9.2 Externalities
380(1)
9.3 Environmental Effects of Energy Sources
381(8)
9.3.1 Introduction
381(1)
9.3.2 Air Pollution
382(2)
9.3.2.1 The Clean Air Act and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
382(1)
9.3.2.2 Greenhouse Gases and the Greenhouse Effect
383(1)
9.3.3 Water and Soil Pollution
384(1)
9.3.4 Infrastructure Degradation
385(1)
9.3.5 Quantifying the Cost of Externalities
385(4)
9.3.5.1 The Cost of CO2
385(1)
9.3.5.2 Sequestering CO2 with Trees
386(1)
9.3.5.3 Attainment Levels as Commodities
387(1)
9.3.5.4 Subsidies
388(1)
9.3.6 Health and Safety as Externalities
389(1)
9.4 Externalities Associated with PV Systems
389(5)
9.4.1 Environmental Effects of PV System Implementation
389(2)
9.4.2 Environmental Effects of PV System Deployment and Operation
391(1)
9.4.3 Environmental Impact of Large-Scale Solar PV Installations
392(1)
9.4.4 Environmental Effects of PV System Decommissioning
393(1)
References
394(3)
Chapter 10 The Physics of Photovoltaic Cells 397(38)
10.1 Introduction
397(1)
10.2 Optical Absorption
397(7)
10.2.1 Introduction
397(1)
10.2.2 Semiconductor Materials
398(1)
10.2.3 Generation of EHP by Photon Absorption
399(3)
10.2.4 Photoconductors
402(2)
10.3 Extrinsic Semiconductors and the PN Junction
404(10)
10.3.1 Extrinsic Semiconductors
404(2)
10.3.2 The PN Junction
406(8)
10.3.2.1 Drift and Diffusion
406(1)
10.3.2.2 Junction Formation and Built-In Potential
407(3)
10.3.2.3 The Illuminated PN Junction
410(2)
10.3.2.4 The Externally Biased PN Junction
412(2)
10.4 Maximizing PV Cell Performance
414(12)
10.4.1 Introduction
414(1)
10.4.2 Minimizing the Reverse Saturation Current
415(1)
10.4.3 Optimizing Photocurrent
416(8)
10.4.3.1 Minimizing Reflection of Incident Photons
416(1)
10.4.3.2 Maximizing Minority Carrier Diffusion Lengths
417(2)
10.4.3.3 Maximizing Junction Width
419(2)
10.4.3.4 Minimizing Surface Recombination Velocity
421(1)
10.4.3.5 A Final Expression for the Photocurrent
422(2)
10.4.4 Minimizing Cell Resistance Losses
424(2)
10.5 Exotic Junctions
426(8)
10.5.1 Introduction
426(1)
10.5.2 Graded Junctions
427(1)
10.5.3 Heterojunctions
428(1)
10.5.4 Schottky Junctions
428(3)
10.5.5 Multijunctions
431(1)
10.5.6 Tunnel Junctions
432(2)
References
434(1)
Chapter 11 Evolution of Photovoltaic Cells and Systems 435(50)
11.1 Introduction
435(2)
11.2 Silicon PV Cells
437(14)
11.2.1 Production of Pure Silicon
437(1)
11.2.2 Single-Crystal Silicon Cells
438(7)
11.2.2.1 Fabrication of the Wafer
438(1)
11.2.2.2 Fabrication of the Junction
439(2)
11.2.2.3 Contacts
441(3)
11.2.2.4 Antireflective Coating (ARC)
444(1)
11.2.2.5 Modules
445(1)
11.2.3 A High-Efficiency Si Cell with All Contacts on the Back
445(2)
11.2.4 Multicrystalline Silicon Cells
447(1)
11.2.5 Other Thin Silicon Cells
447(1)
11.2.6 Amorphous Silicon Cells
448(3)
11.2.6.1 Introduction
448(1)
11.2.6.2 Fabrication
449(2)
11.2.6.3 Cell Performance
451(1)
11.3 Gallium Arsenide Cells
451(5)
11.3.1 Introduction
451(1)
11.3.2 Production of Pure Cell Components
452(1)
11.3.2.1 Gallium
452(1)
11.3.2.2 Arsenic
452(1)
11.3.2.3 Germanium
453(1)
11.3.3 Fabrication of the Gallium Arsenide Cell
453(2)
11.3.4 Cell Performance
455(1)
11.4 CIGS Cells
456(6)
11.4.1 Introduction
456(1)
11.4.2 Production of Pure Cell Components
457(2)
11.4.2.1 Copper
457(1)
11.4.2.2 Indium
458(1)
11.4.2.3 Selenium
458(1)
11.4.2.4 Cadmium
458(1)
11.4.2.5 Sulfur
459(1)
11.4.2.6 Molybdenum
459(1)
11.4.3 Fabrication of the CIS Cell
459(1)
11.4.4 Cell Performance
460(2)
11.5 CdTe Cells
462(3)
11.5.1 Introduction
462(1)
11.5.2 Production of Pure Tellurium
462(1)
11.5.3 Production of the CdTe Cell
463(1)
11.5.4 Cell Performance
464(1)
11.6 Emerging Technologies
465(10)
11.6.1 New Developments in Silicon Technology
465(2)
11.6.2 CIS-Family-Based Absorbers
467(1)
11.6.3 Other III-V and II-VI Emerging Technologies
468(1)
11.6.4 Other Technologies
469(6)
11.6.4.1 Thermophotovoltaic Cells
469(1)
11.6.4.2 Intermediate Band Solar Cells
469(1)
11.6.4.3 Supertandem Cells
470(1)
11.6.4.4 Hot Carrier Cells
470(1)
11.6.4.5 Optical Up- and Down-Conversion
470(1)
11.6.4.6 Organic PV Cells
471(1)
11.6.4.7 Concentrating PV Cells
472(1)
11.6.4.8 Perovskites
473(2)
11.6.4.9 Quantum Dot and Dye-Sensitive Solar Cells
475(1)
11.7 New Developments in System Design
475(4)
11.7.1 Micro Grids
475(1)
11.7.2 Smart Grids
476(2)
11.7.3 Inverter Performance Enhancement
478(1)
11.7.4 Module Performance Enhancement
478(1)
11.8 Summary
479(1)
References
480(5)
Appendix: Design Review Checklist 485(2)
Index 487
Roger Messenger is professor emeritus of electrical engineering at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, Florida. He earned a PhD in electrical engineering at the University of Minnesota and is a Registered Professional Engineer, a former Certified Electrical Contractor, and a former NABCEP Certified PV Installer. He has enjoyed working on field installations as much as he enjoys teaching classes or working on the design of a system or contemplating the theory of operation of a system or commissioning a system. His research work has ranged from electrical noise in gas discharge tubes to deep impurities in silicon to energy conservation to PV system design and performance. Dr. Messenger worked on the development and promulgation of the original Code for Energy Efficiency in Building Construction in Florida and has conducted extensive field studies of energy consumption and conservation in buildings and swimming pools. Since his retirement from Florida Atlantic University in 2005, he has worked as vice president for engineering at VB Engineering, Inc., in Boca Raton and as senior associate at FAE Consulting in Boca Raton. While at VB Engineering, he directed the design of several hundred PV designs, including the 5808-module, 4-acre, 1-MW system on the roof of the Orange County Convention Center in Orlando, Florida. While at FAE Consulting, he led the design of an additional 6 MW of systems that were installed. Dr. Messenger has also been active in the Florida Solar Energy Industries Association and the Florida Alliance for Renewable Energy, has served as a peer reviewer for the U.S. Department of Energy, and has served on the Florida Solar Energy Center Advisory Board. He has conducted numerous seminars and webinars on designing, installing, and inspecting PV systems. Homayoon "Amir" Abtahi is an associate professor of mechanical engineering at Florida Atlantic University. He earned a PhD in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1981 and joined Florida Atlantic University in 1983. In addition to his academic activity, he has a wealth of practical experience, much of which has been obtained as a volunteer. He is a Registered Professional Engineer in Florida and a member of ASME, IEEE, ASHRAE, and SAE. Dr. Abtahi has held LEED Certification since 2007, is ESTIDAMA Certified in the United Arab Emirates, and is a Certified General Contractor and a Certified Solar Contractor in the state of Florida. His interests range widely from PV to PEM fuel cells, integrated capacitor/battery power modules, and atmospheric water generation. In 1985, he installed the first solar-power system in Venezuela and was responsible for the first application of solar power for post-hurricane emergency power and lighting and Ham radio communication operations in the aftermath of Hurricane Hugo in St. Croix in 1989 and Hurricane Marilyn in St. Thomas in 1995. In 1989, Dr. Abtahi published the first comprehensive catalog of 12-V appliances for use with PV systems. Recently, he has been involved with PV installations in the Caribbean, South America, Bangladesh, and India. From 2008 to 2010, he was responsible for design and installation of over 100 residential and 20 commercial/industrial PV systems. Over the past 15 years, he has had responsibility for the design and installation of 1 million BTUD of solar hot water and solar process heat. Along with PV and thermal applications, he has had experience with heat exchangers, MEP plan review, LEED projects, tracking PV, micro-turbines, parabolic trough solar, and other hybrid applications.

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