Kaitsmaks meie kliente ning töötajaid on meie Tartu kauplus suletud kuni olukorra rahunemiseni. E-pood on avatud ning pakkide saatmine jätkub tavapärasel viisil.

Rang & Dale's Pharmacology 9th Revised edition [Pehme köide]

  • Formaat: Paperback / softback, 808 pages, kõrgus x laius: 219x276 mm, Approx. 370 illustrations (370 in full color)
  • Ilmumisaeg: 22-Jan-2019
  • Kirjastus: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN-10: 0702074489
  • ISBN-13: 9780702074486
Teised raamatud teemal:
  • Pehme köide
  • Hind: 56,55 €*
  • * hind on lõplik, st. muud allahindlused enam ei rakendu
  • soodushind kehtib ainult laos olevatele toodetele
  • Tavahind: 70,69 €
  • Säästad 20%
  • Lisa soovinimekirja
  • Laos olemas 5 eks Tule tutvuma - Raekoja plats 11, Tartu, E-R 10-18
  • Lisa ostukorvi
  • Kogus:
  • Tasuta tarne
  • Saadame välja 1 tööpäeva jooksul
  • Formaat: Paperback / softback, 808 pages, kõrgus x laius: 219x276 mm, Approx. 370 illustrations (370 in full color)
  • Ilmumisaeg: 22-Jan-2019
  • Kirjastus: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN-10: 0702074489
  • ISBN-13: 9780702074486
Teised raamatud teemal:

Comprehensive yet easy to use, Rang and Dale's Pharmacology has been providing core basic and clinical science information to students and healthcare practitioners worldwide for more than 25 years. The fully revised 9th Edition keeps you up to date with all that's new in the field, including new and emerging drugs and recent studies. From cover to cover, you'll progressively increase your knowledge of all relevant aspects of pharmacology, from a molecular understanding of receptors and drug actions through clinical uses of key groups of drugs.

  • Keeps you up-to-date with new information in this fast-changing field, including significantly revised coverage of CNS drugs, cognitive enhancers, anti-infectives, biologicals/biopharmaceuticals, lifestyle drugs, and more.
  • Includes access to unique features online, including more than 100 brand new chapter-specific multiple-choice questions and 6 new cases for immediate self-assessment.
  • Features a color-coded layout for faster navigation and cross-referencing.
  • Clarifies complex concepts with Key Points boxes, Clinical Uses boxes and full-color illustrations throughout.
  • Enhanced eBook version included with purchase. Your enhanced eBook allows you to access all of the text, figures, and references - including 68 bonus dissection videos - from the book on a variety of devices.

Arvustused

"This book is well suited for a graduate-level pharmacology course for MS or PhD students or MD/PhD students." -Carol L Beck, PharmD, PhD (Thomas Jefferson University) Doody's Review Score: 90-4 Stars!

Preface xv
Acknowledgements xvi
Section 1 General principles
1 What is pharmacology?
1(5)
Overview
1(1)
What is a drug?
1(1)
Origins and antecedents
1(1)
Pharmacology in the 20th and 21st centuries
2(4)
Alternative therapeutic principles
2(1)
The emergence of biotechnology
3(1)
Pharmacology today
4(2)
2 How drugs act: general principles
6(17)
Overview
6(1)
Introduction
6(1)
Protein targets for drug binding
6(12)
Drug receptors
6(1)
Drug specificity
7(1)
Receptor classification
8(1)
Drug--receptor interactions
8(2)
Competitive antagonism
10(1)
Partial agonists and the concept of efficacy
11(2)
Partial agonists as antagonists
13(3)
Other forms of drug antagonism
16(2)
Desensitisation and tolerance
18(1)
Change in receptors
18(1)
Translocation of receptors
19(1)
Exhaustion of mediators
19(1)
Altered drug metabolism
19(1)
Physiological adaptation
19(1)
Quantitative aspects of drug--receptor interactions
19(2)
The binding reaction
19(1)
Binding when more than one drug is present
20(1)
The nature of drug effects
21(2)
3 How drugs act: molecular aspects
23(29)
Overview
23(1)
Protein targets for drug action
23(2)
Receptors
23(1)
Ion channels
23(1)
Enzymes
24(1)
Transporters
24(1)
Receptor proteins
25(21)
Cloning of receptors
25(1)
Types of receptor
25(1)
Molecular structure of receptors
26(1)
Type 1 Ligand-gated ion channels
27(2)
Type 2 G protein--coupled receptors
29(11)
Type 3 Kinase-linked and related receptors
40(4)
Type 4 Nuclear receptors
44(2)
Ion channels as drug targets
46(3)
Ion selectivity
47(1)
Gating
47(1)
Molecular architecture of ion channels
48(1)
Pharmacology of ion channels
49(1)
Control of receptor expression
49(1)
Receptors and disease
49(3)
4 How drugs act: cellular aspects --- excitation, contraction and secretion
52(17)
Overview
52(1)
Regulation of intracellular calcium
52(4)
Calcium entry mechanisms
52(3)
Calcium extrusion mechanisms
55(1)
Calcium release mechanisms
55(1)
Calmodulin
56(1)
Excitation
56(5)
The `resting' cell
57(1)
Electrical and ionic events underlying the action potential
57(1)
Channel function
58(3)
Muscle contraction
61(3)
Skeletal muscle
62(2)
Cardiac muscle
64(1)
Smooth muscle
64(1)
Release of chemical mediators
64(3)
Exocytosis
65(1)
Non-vesicular release mechanisms
66(1)
Epithelial ion transport
67(2)
5 How drugs act: biopharmaceuticals and gene therapy
69(13)
Overview
69(1)
Introduction
69(1)
Protein and oligonucleotide biopharmaceuticals
69(1)
Proteins and polypeptides
70(2)
Monoclonal antibodies
71(1)
Oligonucleotides
72(2)
Pharmacology of protein and oligonucleotide pharmaceuticals
73(1)
Gene therapy
74(3)
Gene delivery
75(2)
Controlling gene expression
77(1)
Safety and societal issues
77(1)
Therapeutic applications
77(2)
Concluding remarks
79(3)
6 Cell proliferation, apoptosis, repair and regeneration
82(11)
Overview
82(1)
Cell proliferation
82(4)
The cell cycle
82(3)
Interactions between cells, growth factors and the extracellular matrix
85(1)
Angiogenesis
86(1)
Apoptosis and cell removal
86(3)
Morphological changes in apoptosis
87(1)
The major players in apoptosis
87(1)
Pathways to apoptosis
88(1)
Pathophysiological implications
89(1)
Repair and healing
89(1)
Hyperplasia
89(1)
The growth, invasion and metastasis of tumours
89(1)
Stem cells and regeneration
90(1)
Therapeutic prospects
90(3)
Apoptotic mechanisms
90(1)
Angiogenesis and metalloproteinases
91(1)
Cell cycle regulation
91(2)
7 Cellular mechanisms: host defence
93(13)
Overview
93(1)
Introduction
93(1)
The innate immune response
93(5)
Pattern recognition
93(5)
The adaptive immune response
98(5)
The induction phase
99(1)
The effector phase
100(3)
Systemic responses in inflammation
103(3)
The role of the nervous system in inflammation
103(1)
Unwanted inflammatory and immune responses
103(1)
The outcome of the inflammatory response
104(2)
8 Method and measurement in pharmacology
106(11)
Overview
106(1)
Bioassay
106(4)
Biological test systems
106(1)
General principles of bioassay
107(3)
Animal models of disease
110(1)
Genetic and transgenic animal models
110(1)
Pharmacological studies in humans
111(1)
Clinical trials
111(6)
Avoidance of bias
112(1)
The size of the sample
113(1)
Clinical outcome measures
114(1)
Placebos
114(1)
Meta-analysis
114(1)
Balancing benefit and risk
114(3)
9 Absorption and distribution of drugs
117(16)
Overview
117(1)
Introduction
117(1)
Physical processes underlying drug disposition
117(7)
The movement of drug molecules across cell barriers
117(4)
Binding of drugs to plasma proteins
121(3)
Partition into body fat and other tissues
124(1)
Drug absorption and routes of administration
124(4)
Oral administration
124(2)
Oromucosal (sublingual or buccal) administration
126(1)
Rectal administration
127(1)
Application to epithelial surfaces
127(1)
Distribution of drugs in the body
128(3)
Body fluid compartments
128(1)
Volume of distribution
129(2)
Special drug delivery systems
131(2)
10 Drug metabolism and elimination
133(10)
Overview
133(1)
Introduction
133(6)
Drug metabolism
133(1)
Phase 1 reactions
133(2)
Phase 2 reactions
135(1)
Stereoselectivity
135(1)
Inhibition of P450
136(1)
Induction of microsomal enzymes
136(1)
Presystemic (`first-pass') metabolism
136(1)
Pharmacologically active drug metabolites
137(1)
Drug interactions due to enzyme induction or inhibition
137(2)
Drug and metabolite excretion
139(4)
Biliary excretion and enterohepatic circulation
139(1)
Renal excretion of drugs and metabolites
139(1)
Drug interactions due to altered drug excretion
140(3)
11 Pharmacokinetics
143(9)
Overview
143(1)
Introduction: definition and uses of pharmacokinetics
143(1)
Uses of pharmacokinetics
144(1)
Scope of this chapter
144(1)
Drug elimination expressed as clearance
144(1)
Single-compartment model
145(2)
Effect of repeated dosing
146(1)
Effect of variation in rate of absorption
146(1)
More complicated kinetic models
147(2)
Two-compartment model
148(1)
Saturation kinetics
149(1)
Population pharmacokinetics
149(1)
Limitations of pharmacokinetics
150(2)
12 Individual variation, pharmacogenomics and personalised medicine
152(11)
Overview
152(1)
Introduction
152(1)
Epidemiological factors and inter-individual variation of drug response
153(3)
Ethnicity
153(1)
Age
153(2)
Pregnancy
155(1)
Disease
155(1)
Drug interactions
155(1)
Genetic variation in drug responsiveness
156(3)
Single-gene pharmacokinetic disorders
157(2)
Therapeutic drugs and clinically available pharmacogenomic tests
159(2)
HLA gene tests
159(1)
Drug metabolism-related gene tests
160(1)
Drug target-related gene tests (`companion diagnostics')
161(1)
Combined (metabolism and target) gene tests
161(1)
Conclusions
161(2)
Section 2 Chemical mediators
13 Chemical mediators and the autonomic nervous system
163(12)
Overview
163(1)
Historical aspects
163(1)
The autonomic nervous system
164(3)
Basic anatomy and physiology
164(1)
Transmitters in the autonomic nervous system
165(2)
Some general principles of chemical transmission
167(6)
Presynaptic modulation
167(2)
Postsynaptic modulation
169(1)
Transmitters other than acetylcholine and noradrenaline
170(1)
Co-transmission
170(1)
Termination of transmitter action
170(1)
Denervation supersensitivity
171(2)
Basic steps in neurochemical transmission: sites of drug action
173(2)
14 Cholinergic transmission
175(22)
Overview
175(1)
Muscarinic and nicotinic actions of acetylcholine
175(1)
Acetylcholine receptors
175(1)
Nicotinic receptors
175(3)
Muscarinic receptors
177(1)
Physiology of cholinergic transmission
178(3)
Acetylcholine synthesis and release
178(2)
Electrical events in transmission at fast cholinergic synapses
180(1)
Effects of drugs on cholinergic transmission
181(16)
Drugs affecting muscarinic receptors
181(4)
Drugs affecting autonomic ganglia
185(5)
Drugs that act presynaptically
190(2)
Drugs that enhance cholinergic transmission
192(4)
Other drugs that enhance cholinergic transmission
196(1)
15 Noradrenergic transmission
197(20)
Overview
197(1)
Catecholamines
197(1)
Classification of adrenoceptors
197(1)
Physiology of noradrenergic transmission
198(4)
The noradrenergic neuron
198(3)
Uptake and degradation of catecholamines
201(1)
Drugs acting on noradrenergic transmission
202(15)
Drugs acting on adrenoceptors
202(11)
Drugs that affect noradrenergic neurons
213(4)
16 5-Hydroxytryptamine and the pharmacology of migraine
217(11)
Overview
217(1)
5-Hydroxytryptamine
217(6)
Distribution, biosynthesis and degradation
217(4)
Pharmacological effects
221(1)
Drugs acting at 5-HT receptors
221(2)
Migraine and other clinical conditions in which 5-HT plays a role
223(5)
Migraine and antimigraine drugs
223(1)
Antimigraine drugs
224(1)
Carcinoid syndrome
224(1)
Pulmonary hypertension
225(3)
17 Purines
228(5)
Overview
228(1)
Introduction
228(1)
Purinergic receptors
228(1)
Adenosine as a mediator
228(3)
Adenosine and the cardiovascular system
230(1)
Adenosine in asthma
231(1)
Adenosine in inflammation
231(1)
Adenosine in the CNS
231(1)
ADP as a mediator
231(1)
ADP and platelets
231(1)
ATP as a mediator
231(1)
ATP as a neurotransmitter
231(1)
ATP in nociception
232(1)
ATP in inflammation
232(1)
Future prospects
232(1)
18 Local hormones 1: histamine and the biologically active lipids
233(11)
Overview
233(1)
Introduction
233(1)
What is a `mediator'?
233(1)
Histamine
233(2)
Synthesis and storage of histamine
234(1)
Histamine release
234(1)
Histamine receptors
234(1)
Actions
234(1)
Eicosanoids
235(5)
General remarks
235(1)
Structure and biosynthesis
235(1)
Prostanoids
235(5)
Leukotrienes
240(1)
Leukotriene receptors
240(1)
Leukotriene actions
241(1)
Other important fatty acid derivatives
241(1)
Platelet-activating factor
242(1)
Biosynthesis
242(1)
Actions and role in inflammation
242(1)
Concluding remarks
242(2)
19 Local hormones 2: peptides and proteins
244(9)
Overview
244(1)
Introduction
244(1)
General principles of protein and peptide pharmacology
244(1)
Structure
244(1)
Types of protein and peptide mediator
244(1)
Biosynthesis and regulation of peptides
245(2)
Peptide precursors
246(1)
Diversity within peptide families
246(1)
Peptide trafficking and secretion
246(1)
Bradykinin
247(1)
Source and formation of bradykinin
247(1)
Metabolism and inactivation of bradykinin
247(1)
Bradykinin receptors
247(1)
Actions and role in inflammation
247(1)
Neuropeptides
248(1)
Cytokines
248(3)
Interleukins and related compounds
249(1)
Chemokines
249(1)
Interferons
249(2)
The `cytokine storm'
251(1)
Proteins and peptides that down-regulate inflammation
251(1)
Concluding remarks
251(2)
20 Cannabinoids
253(7)
Overview
253(1)
Plant-derived cannabinoids and their pharmacological effects
253(1)
Pharmacological effects
253(1)
Pharmacokinetic aspects
253(1)
Adverse effects
253(1)
Tolerance and dependence
254(1)
Cannabinoid receptors
254(1)
Endocannabinoids
255(3)
Biosynthesis of endocannabinoids
255(1)
Termination of the endocannabinoid signal
256(1)
Physiological mechanisms
257(1)
Pathological involvement
257(1)
Synthetic cannabinoids
258(1)
Clinical applications
258(2)
21 Nitric oxide and related mediators
260(11)
Overview
260(1)
Introduction
260(1)
Biosynthesis of nitric oxide and its control
260(2)
Degradation and carriage of nitric oxide
262(1)
Effects of nitric oxide
263(2)
Biochemical and cellular aspects
263(1)
Vascular effects
264(1)
Neuronal effects
264(1)
Host defence
264(1)
Therapeutic aspects
265(1)
Nitric oxide
265(1)
Nitric oxide donors/precursors
265(1)
Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis
265(1)
Nitric oxide replacement or potentiation
266(1)
Clinical conditions in which nitric oxide may play a part
266(1)
Related mediators
267(4)
Section 3 Drugs affecting major organ systems
22 The heart
271(19)
Overview
271(1)
Introduction
271(1)
Physiology of cardiac function
271(5)
Cardiac rate and rhythm
271(3)
Cardiac contraction
274(1)
Myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow
275(1)
Autonomic control of the heart
276(2)
Sympathetic system
276(1)
Parasympathetic system
277(1)
Cardiac natriuretic peptides
278(1)
Ischaemic heart disease
278(1)
Angina
278(1)
Myocardial infarction
279(1)
Drugs that affect cardiac function
279(11)
Antidysrhythmic drugs
279(4)
Drugs that increase myocardial contraction
283(1)
Anti-anginal drugs
284(6)
23 The vascular system
290(20)
Overview
290(1)
Introduction
290(1)
Vascular structure and function
290(1)
Control of vascular smooth muscle tone
291(5)
The vascular endothelium
291(4)
The renin--angiotensin system
295(1)
Vasoactive drugs
296(5)
Vasoconstrictor drugs
296(1)
Vasodilator drugs
297(4)
Clinical uses of vasoactive drugs
301(9)
Systemic hypertension
301(3)
Heart failure
304(2)
Vasodilatory shock and hypotensive states
306(1)
Peripheral vascular disease
307(1)
Raynaud's disease
307(1)
Pulmonary hypertension
307(3)
24 Atherosclerosis and lipoprotein metabolism
310(9)
Overview
310(1)
Introduction
310(1)
Atherogenesis
310(1)
Lipoprotein transport
311(2)
Dyslipidaemia
312(1)
Prevention of atheromatous disease
313(1)
Lipid-lowering drugs
314(5)
Statins: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
314(1)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9) inhibitors
315(1)
Fibrates
315(1)
Drugs that inhibit cholesterol absorption
316(1)
Nicotinic acid
316(1)
Fish oil derivatives
316(1)
Mipomersen
317(1)
Lomitapide
317(2)
25 Haemostasis and thrombosis
319(15)
Overview
319(1)
Introduction
319(1)
Blood coagulation
319(3)
Coagulation cascade
319(2)
Vascular endothelium in haemostasis and thrombosis
321(1)
Drugs that act on the coagulation cascade
322(5)
Coagulation defects
322(1)
Thrombosis
323(4)
Platelet adhesion and activation
327(3)
Antiplatelet drugs
329(1)
Fibrinolysis (thrombolysis)
330(4)
Fibrinolytic drugs
331(3)
26 Haematopoietic system and treatment of anaemia
334(9)
Overview
334(1)
Introduction
334(1)
The haematopoietic system
334(1)
Types of anaemia
334(1)
Haematinic agents
335(3)
Iron
335(2)
Folic acid and vitamin B12
337(1)
Haematopoietic growth factors
338(3)
Haemolytic anaemia
341(2)
Drugs used to treat haemolytic anaemias
341(2)
27 Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant drugs
343(19)
Overview
343(1)
Introduction
343(1)
Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors
343(8)
Mechanism of action
344(1)
Pharmacological actions
345(1)
Therapeutic actions
346(2)
Some important NSAIDs and coxibs
348(3)
Antirheumatoid drugs
351(4)
Anticytokine drugs and other biopharmaceuticals
355(1)
Drugs used in gout
356(2)
Antagonists of histamine
358(1)
Possible future developments in antiinflammatory therapy
359(3)
28 Skin
362(9)
Overview
362(1)
Introduction
362(1)
Structure of skin
362(2)
Common diseases of the skin
364(2)
Acne
364(1)
Rosacea
365(1)
Baldness and hirsutism
365(1)
Eczema
365(1)
Pruritus
365(1)
Urticaria
365(1)
Psoriasis
366(1)
Warts
366(1)
Other infections
366(1)
Drugs acting on skin
366(1)
Formulation
366(1)
Principal drugs used in skin disorders
366(3)
Antimicrobial agents
366(1)
Glucocorticoids and other anti-inflammatory agents
367(1)
Drugs used to control hair growth
367(1)
Retinoids
368(1)
Vitamin D analogues
369(1)
Agents acting by other mechanisms
369(1)
Concluding remarks
369(2)
29 Respiratory system
371(11)
Overview
371(1)
The physiology of respiration
371(1)
Control of breathing
371(1)
Regulation of musculature, blood vessels and glands of the airways
371(1)
Pulmonary disease and its treatment
372(10)
Bronchial asthma
372(3)
Drugs used to treat and prevent asthma
375(4)
Severe acute asthma (status asthmaticus)
379(1)
Allergic emergencies
379(1)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
379(1)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
380(1)
Surfactants
380(1)
Cough
380(2)
30 The kidney and urinary system
382(13)
Overview
382(1)
Introduction
382(1)
Outline of renal function
382(1)
The structure and function of the nephron
382(6)
Tubular function
384(3)
Acid-base balance
387(1)
Potassium balance
388(1)
Excretion of organic molecules
388(1)
Natriuretic peptides
388(1)
Prostaglandins and renal function
388(1)
Drugs acting on the kidney
388(4)
Diuretics
388(4)
Drugs that alter the pH of the urine
392(1)
Drugs that alter the excretion of organic molecules
392(1)
Drugs used in renal failure
393(1)
Hyperphosphataemia
393(1)
Hyperkalaemia
393(1)
Drugs used in urinary tract disorders
393(2)
31 The gastrointestinal tract
395(13)
Overview
395(1)
The innervation and hormones of the gastrointestinal tract
395(1)
Neuronal control
395(1)
Hormonal control
395(1)
Gastric secretion
395(5)
The regulation of acid seceretion by parietal cells
395(1)
The coordination of factors regulating acid secretion
396(1)
Drugs used to inhibit or neutralise gastric acid secretion
397(2)
Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection
399(1)
Drugs that protect the mucosa
400(1)
Vomiting
400(3)
The reflex mechanism of vomiting
400(1)
Antiemetic drugs
401(2)
The motility of the GI tract
403(3)
Purgatives
404(1)
Drugs that increase gastrointestinal motility
404(1)
Antidiarrhoeal agents
405(1)
Drugs for chronic bowel disease
406(1)
Drugs affecting the biliary system
406(1)
Future directions
407(1)
32 The control of blood glucose and drug treatment of diabetes mellitus
408(14)
Overview
408(1)
Introduction
408(1)
Control of blood glucose
408(1)
Pancreatic islet hormones
409(4)
Insulin
410(2)
Glucagon
412(1)
Somatostatin
413(1)
Amylin (islet amyloid polypeptide)
413(1)
Incretins
413(1)
Diabetes mellitus
413(9)
Drugs used in the treatment of diabetes
414(5)
Treatment of diabetes mellitus
419(3)
33 Obesity
422(10)
Overview
422(1)
Introduction
422(1)
Definition of obesity
422(1)
Obesity as a health problem
422(1)
Homeostatic mechanisms controlling energy balance
423(3)
The role of gut and other hormones in body weight regulation
423(1)
Neurological circuits that control body weight and eating behaviour
423(3)
The pathophysiology of human obesity
426(2)
Food intake and obesity
426(1)
Physical exercise and obesity
427(1)
Obesity as a disorder of the homeostatic control of energy balance
427(1)
Genetic factors and obesity
427(1)
Pharmacological approaches to the problem of obesity
428(2)
Centrally acting appetite suppressants
429(1)
Orlistat
429(1)
New approaches to obesity therapy
430(2)
34 The pituitary and the adrenal cortex
432(16)
Overview
432(1)
The pituitary gland
432(6)
The anterior pituitary gland
432(1)
Hypothalamic hormones
432(1)
Anterior pituitary hormones
433(4)
Posterior pituitary gland
437(1)
The adrenal cortex
438(7)
Glucocorticoids
440(4)
Mineralocorticoids
444(1)
New directions in glucocorticoid therapy
445(3)
35 The thyroid
448(7)
Overview
448(1)
Synthesis, storage and secretion of thyroid hormones
448(1)
Uptake of plasma iodide by the follicle cells
448(1)
Oxidation of iodide and iodination of tyrosine residues
448(1)
Secretion of thyroid hormone
448(1)
Regulation of thyroid function
448(2)
Actions of the thyroid hormones
450(1)
Effects on metabolism
450(1)
Effects on growth and development
451(1)
Mechanism of action
451(1)
Transport and metabolism of thyroid hormones
451(1)
Abnormalities of thyroid function
451(1)
Hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis)
451(1)
Simple, non-toxic goitre
452(1)
Hypothyroidism
452(1)
Drugs used in diseases of the thyroid
452(3)
Hyperthyroidism
452(1)
Hypothyroidism
453(2)
36 The reproductive system
455(15)
Overview
455(1)
Introduction
455(1)
Endocrine control of reproduction
455(3)
Neurohormonal control of the female reproductive system
455(2)
Neurohormonal control of the male reproductive system
457(1)
Behavioural effects of sex hormones
458(1)
Drugs affecting reproductive function
458(5)
Oestrogens
458(1)
Antioestrogens
459(1)
Progestogens
459(1)
Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
460(1)
Androgens
461(1)
Anabolic steroids
461(1)
Anti-androgens
462(1)
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone: agonists and antagonists
462(1)
Gonadotrophins and analogues
463(1)
Drugs used for contraception
463(2)
Oral contraceptives
463(1)
Other drug regimens used for contraception
464(1)
The uterus
465(2)
The motility of the uterus
465(1)
Drugs that stimulate the uterus
465(1)
Drugs that inhibit uterine contraction
466(1)
Erectile dysfunction
467(3)
37 Bone metabolism
470(10)
Overview
470(1)
Introduction
470(1)
Bone structure and composition
470(1)
Bone remodelling
470(4)
The action of cells and cytokines
470(2)
The turnover of bone minerals
472(1)
Hormones involved in bone metabolism and remodelling
473(1)
Disorders of bone
474(1)
Drugs used in bone disorders
475(3)
Bisphosphonates
475(1)
Oestrogens and related compounds
476(1)
Parathyroid hormone and teriparatide
476(1)
Vitamin D preparations
477(1)
Biopharmaceuticals
477(1)
Calcitonin
477(1)
Calcium salts
477(1)
Calcimimetic compounds
478(1)
Potential new therapies
478(2)
Section 4 Nervous system
38 Chemical transmission and drug action in the central nervous system
480(6)
Overview
480(1)
Introduction
480(1)
Chemical signalling in the nervous system
480(2)
Targets for drug action
482(1)
Drug action in the central nervous system
483(1)
Blood--brain barrier
483(1)
The classification of psychotropic drugs
484(2)
39 Amino acid transmitters
486(13)
Overview
486(1)
Excitatory amino acids
486(1)
Excitatory amino acids as CNS transmitters
486(1)
Metabolism and release of excitatory amino acids
486(1)
Glutamate
487(6)
Glutamate receptor subtypes
487(4)
Synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation
491(1)
Drugs acting on glutamate receptors
491(2)
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)
493(4)
Synthesis, storage and function
493(1)
GABA receptors: structure and pharmacology
494(2)
Drugs acting on GABA receptors
496(1)
Glycine
497(1)
Concluding remarks
497(2)
40 Other transmitters and modulators
499(15)
Overview
499(1)
Introduction
499(1)
Noradrenaline
499(1)
Noradrenergic pathways in the CNS
499(1)
Functional aspects
500(1)
Dopamine
500(4)
Dopaminergic pathways in the CNS
501(1)
Dopamine receptors
502(1)
Functional aspects
502(2)
5-Hydroxytryptamine
504(2)
5-HT pathways in the CNS
504(1)
5-HT receptors in the CNS
504(1)
Functional aspects
505(1)
Clinically used drugs
506(1)
Acetylcholine
506(2)
Cholinergic pathways in the CNS
507(1)
Acetylcholine receptors
507(1)
Functional aspects
507(1)
Purines
508(1)
Histamine
509(1)
Other CNS mediators
509(3)
Melatonin
509(1)
Nitric oxide
509(1)
Lipid mediators
510(2)
A final message
512(2)
41 Neurodegenerative diseases
514(17)
Overview
514(1)
Protein misfolding and aggregation in chronic neurodegenerative diseases
514(1)
Mechanisms of neuronal death
514(4)
Excitotoxicity
516(1)
Apoptosis
516(1)
Oxidative stress
516(2)
Ischaemic brain damage
518(1)
Pathophysiology
518(1)
Therapeutic approaches
519(1)
Alzheimer's disease
519(3)
Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease
519(2)
Therapeutic approaches
521(1)
Parkinson's disease
522(5)
Features of Parkinson's disease
522(1)
Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease
523(1)
Drug treatment of Parkinson's disease
524(3)
Huntington's disease
527(1)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
528(1)
Spinal muscular atrophy
528(1)
Multiple sclerosis
528(3)
42 General anaesthetic agents
531(11)
Overview
531(1)
Introduction
531(1)
Mechanism of action of anaesthetic drugs
531(3)
Lipid solubility
531(1)
Effects on ion channels
532(1)
Effects on the nervous system
533(1)
Effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
533(1)
Intravenous anaesthetic agents
534(2)
Propofol
534(1)
Thiopental
534(1)
Etomidate
535(1)
Other intravenous agents
535(1)
Inhalation anaesthetics
536(3)
Pharmacokinetic aspects
536(3)
Individual inhalation anaesthetics
539(1)
Isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane and halothane
539(1)
Nitrous oxide
540(1)
Balanced anaesthesia
540(2)
43 Analgesic drugs
542(21)
Overview
542(1)
Neural mechanisms of pain
542(6)
Nociceptive afferent neurons
542(1)
Modulation in the nociceptive pathway
543(3)
Neuropathic pain
546(1)
Chemical signalling in the nociceptive pathway
546(2)
Analgesic drugs
548(15)
Opioid drugs
548(11)
Paracetamol
559(1)
Treatment of chronic pain
559(1)
Other pain-relieving drugs
560(1)
New approaches
560(3)
44 Local anaesthetics and other drugs affecting sodium channels
563(6)
Overview
563(1)
Local anaesthetics
563(4)
Chemical aspects
563(1)
Mechanism of action
563(3)
Pharmacokinetic aspects
566(1)
New approaches
566(1)
Other drugs that affect sodium channels
567(2)
Tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin
567(1)
Agents that affect sodium-channel gating
568(1)
45 Anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs
569(11)
Overview
569(1)
The nature of anxiety and its treatment
569(1)
Measurement of anxiolytic activity
569(2)
Animal models of anxiety
569(1)
Tests on humans
570(1)
Drugs used to treat anxiety
571(1)
Delayed anxiolytic effect of SSRIs and buspirone
572(5)
Benzodiazepines and related drugs
572(4)
Other potential anxiolytic drugs
576(1)
Drugs used to treat insomnia (hypnotic drugs)
577(3)
Induction of sleep by benzodiazepines
578(2)
46 Antiepileptic drugs
580(12)
Overview
580(1)
Introduction
580(1)
The nature of epilepsy
580(2)
Types of epilepsy
580(2)
Neural mechanisms and animal models of epilepsy
582(1)
Antiepileptic drugs
582(8)
Carbamazepine
586(1)
Phenytoin
586(1)
Valproate
587(1)
Ethosuximide
588(1)
Phenobarbital
588(1)
Benzodiazepines
588(1)
Newer antiepileptic drugs
589(1)
New drugs
590(1)
Other uses of antiepileptic drugs
590(1)
Antiepileptic drugs and pregnancy
590(1)
Muscle spasm and muscle relaxants
590(2)
47 Antipsychotic drugs
592(11)
Overview
592(1)
Introduction
592(1)
The nature of schizophrenia
592(3)
Aetiology and pathogenesis of schizophrenia
593(2)
Antipsychotic drugs
595(6)
Classification of antipsychotic drugs
595(1)
Clinical efficacy in treatment of schizophrenia
595(3)
Other uses of antipsychotic drugs
598(1)
Pharmacological properties
598(1)
Unwanted effects
599(2)
Pharmacokinetic aspects
601(1)
Future developments
601(2)
48 Antidepressant drugs
603(20)
Overview
603(1)
The nature of depression
603(1)
Theories of depression
603(3)
The monoamine theory
603(1)
Negative affective bias
604(1)
Neuroendocrine mechanisms
604(1)
Trophic effects and neuroplasticity
605(1)
Antidepressant drugs
606(12)
Types of antidepressant drug
606(1)
Testing of antidepressant drugs
607(4)
Mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs
611(1)
Monoamine uptake inhibitors
611(5)
Monoamine receptor antagonists
616(1)
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
616(2)
Melatonin agonist
618(1)
Ketamine
618(1)
Other antidepressant approaches
618(1)
Clinical effectiveness of antidepressant treatments
618(1)
Future antidepressant drugs
619(1)
Brain stimulation therapies
619(1)
Drug treatment of bipolar disorder
620(3)
Lithium
620(1)
Antiepileptic drugs
621(1)
Second-generation antipsychotic drugs
621(2)
49 Psychoactive drugs
623(19)
Overview
623(1)
Introduction
623(1)
Psychomotor stimulants
623(10)
Amphetamines
623(2)
Methylphenidate
625(1)
Modafinil
626(1)
Cocaine
626(2)
MDMA
628(1)
Cathinones
628(1)
Methylxanthines
629(1)
Nicotine
629(1)
Pharmacological effects of nicotine
630(1)
Pharmacokinetic aspects
631(1)
Tolerance and dependence
631(1)
Harmful effects of tobacco smoking
632(1)
Cognition-enhancing drugs
633(1)
Psychedelic drugs
634(1)
LSD, psilocybin and mescaline
634(1)
Other psychedelic drugs
635(1)
Ketamine and related drugs
635(1)
Depressants
635(5)
Ethanol
636(1)
Pharmacological effects of ethanol
636(2)
Pharmacokinetic aspects
638(2)
Tolerance and dependence
640(1)
Synthetic cannabinoids
640(2)
50 Drug abuse and dependence
642(7)
Overview
642(1)
Drug use and abuse
642(7)
Drug administration
642(1)
Drug harm
643(1)
Drug dependence
643(1)
Withdrawal
644(2)
Tolerance
646(1)
Pharmacological approaches to treating drug dependence
646(3)
Section 5 Drugs used for the treatment of infections and cancer
51 Basic principles of antimicrobial chemotherapy
649(12)
Overview
649(1)
Background
649(1)
The molecular basis of chemotherapy
649(7)
Bacteria
649(1)
Biochemical reactions as potential targets
650(4)
The formed structures of the cell as potential targets
654(2)
Resistance to antibacterial drugs
656(3)
The spread of antibiotic resistance
656(1)
Biochemical mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics
657(2)
Current status of antibiotic resistance in bacteria
659(2)
52 Antibacterial drugs
661(17)
Overview
661(1)
Introduction
661(1)
Antibacterial agents that interfere with folate synthesis or action
661(2)
Sulfonamides
661(1)
Trimethoprim
662(1)
β-lactam antibiotics and other agents that interfere with bacterial wall or membrane synthesis
663(3)
Penicillins
663(2)
Cephalosporins and cephamycins
665(1)
Other β-lactam antibiotics
665(1)
Other antibiotics that inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis
665(1)
Antimicrobial agents affecting bacterial protein synthesis
666(6)
Tetracyclines
666(1)
Chloramphenicol
667(1)
Aminoglycosides
667(3)
Macrolides
670(1)
Oxazolidinones
670(1)
Fusidic acid
671(1)
Streptogramins
671(1)
Clindamycin
671(1)
Antimicrobial agents affecting topoisomerase
672(1)
Quinolones
672(1)
Miscellaneous antibacterial agents
672(1)
Antimycobacterial agents
673(2)
Drugs used to treat tuberculosis
673(2)
Drugs used to treat leprosy
675(1)
Possible new antibacterial drugs
675(3)
53 Antiviral drugs
678(12)
Overview
678(1)
Background information about viruses
678(1)
An outline of virus structure
678(1)
Examples of pathogenic viruses
678(1)
Virus function and life history
678(1)
The host virus interaction
679(1)
Host defences against viruses
679(1)
Viral ploys to circumvent host defences
680(1)
HIV and AIDS
680(1)
Induction of the disease
681(1)
Progress of infection
681(1)
Antiviral drugs
681(6)
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
684(1)
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
684(1)
Protease inhibitors
685(1)
DNA polymerase inhibitors
685(1)
Neuraminidase inhibitors and inhibitors of viral coat disassembly
685(1)
Drugs acting through other mechanisms
686(1)
Biopharmaceutical antiviral drugs
686(1)
Other agents
686(1)
Combination therapy for HIV
687(1)
Prospects for new antiviral drugs
687(3)
54 Antifungal drugs
690(6)
Overview
690(1)
Fungi and fungal infections
690(1)
Drugs used to treat fungal infections
691(3)
Antifungal antibiotics
691(2)
Synthetic antifungal drugs
693(1)
Future developments
694(2)
55 Antiprotozoal drugs
696(14)
Overview
696(1)
Background
696(1)
Host--parasite interactions
696(1)
Malaria and antimalarial drugs
696(9)
The life cycle of the malaria parasite
698(1)
Antimalarial drugs
699(6)
Potential new antimalarial drugs
705(1)
Amoebiasis and amoebicidal drugs
705(1)
Trypanosomiasis and trypanocidal drugs
706(1)
Other protozoal infections and drugs used to treat them
707(1)
Leishmaniasis
707(1)
Trichomoniasis
707(1)
Giardiasis
708(1)
Toxoplasmosis
708(1)
Pneumocystis
708(1)
Future developments
708(2)
56 Antihelminthic drugs
710(6)
Overview
710(1)
Helminth infections
710(1)
Antihelminthic drugs
711(2)
Resistance to antihelminthic drugs
713(1)
Vaccines and other novel approaches
714(2)
57 Anticancer drugs
716(17)
Overview
716(1)
Introduction
716(1)
The pathogenesis of cancer
716(3)
The genesis of a cancer cell
717(1)
The special characteristics of cancer cells
717(2)
General principles of cytotoxic anticancer drugs
719(1)
Anticancer drugs
720(10)
Alkylating agents and related compounds
722(1)
Antimetabolites
723(1)
Cytotoxic antibiotics
724(2)
Plant derivatives
726(1)
Hormones
726(1)
Hormone antagonists
727(1)
Monoclonal antibodies
727(1)
Protein kinase inhibitors
728(1)
Miscellaneous agents
729(1)
Resistance to anticancer drugs
729(1)
Combination therapies
730(1)
Control of emesis and myelosuppression
730(1)
Future developments
730(3)
Section 6 Special topics
58 Harmful effects of drugs
733(11)
Overview
733(1)
Introduction
733(1)
Classification of adverse drug reactions
733(1)
Adverse effects related to the known pharmacological action of the drug
733(1)
Adverse effects unrelated to the known pharmacological action of the drug
734(1)
Drug toxicity
734(7)
Toxicity testing
734(1)
General mechanisms of toxin-induced cell damage and cell death
735(1)
Mutagenesis and assessment of genotoxic potential
736(5)
Immunological reactions to drugs
741(3)
Immunological mechanisms
742(1)
Clinical types of allergic response to drugs
742(2)
59 Lifestyle and drugs in sport
744(6)
Overview
744(1)
What are lifestyle drugs?
744(1)
Classification of lifestyle drugs
744(1)
Drugs and sex
745(1)
Drugs in sport
745(3)
Anabolic steroids
746(2)
Human growth hormone
748(1)
Stimulant drugs
748(1)
Conclusion
748(2)
60 Drug discovery and development
750(6)
Overview
750(1)
The stages of a project
750(3)
The drug discovery phase
750(2)
Preclinical development
752(1)
Clinical development
753(1)
Biopharmaceuticals
753(1)
Commercial aspects
754(1)
Future prospects
754(1)
A final word
755(1)
Index 756