E-raamat: Reading the Soil Archives: Unraveling the Geoecological Code of Palaeosols and Sediment Cores

Edited by (Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam), Edited by (School of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK)
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Reading the Soil Archives: The Geoecological Code of Paleosoils and Applications of Analytical Techniques, Volume 19 provides details of new techniques for understanding geological history in the form of quantitative pollen analyses, soil micromorphology, OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) dating, phytolith analysis and biomarker analysis. The book presents the genesis of a cultural landscape, based on multi-proxy analysis of paleosoils and integration of geomorphological, pedological and archaeological research results, which can be a model for geoecological landscape studies. Beginning with analytical methods for interpreting soil archives, the book examines methods for reconstructing the landscape genesis.

The book presents strengths and weaknesses of applications, especially in relation to the data from case studies in the Netherlands. The final chapter of the book addresses landscape evolution in different cultural periods. This book offers an integrated approach to geoecological knowledge that is valuable to students and professionals in quaternary science, physical geography, soil science, archaeology, historical geography, and land planning and restructuring.

  • Covers techniques including soil pollen analysis, radiocarbon dating, OSL-dating, phytolith analysis, biomarker analysis, archaeological analysis and GIS
  • Provides a case study of results applied in the reconstruction of landscape evolution of SE-Netherlands
  • Includes color illustrations, such as microscopic pictures, pictures of landscapes and soil profiles, pollen diagrams and dating graph
Contributors vii
Dedication ix
Introduction xi
1 Soil micromorphology
J.J.M. Van Der Meer
J.M. Van Mourik
1.1 Introduction
1(2)
1.2 Micromorphological features
3(2)
1.3 Soil micromorphology supports reconstructing geomorphological development
5(2)
1.4 Geogenic versus pedogenic clay translocation
7(5)
1.5 The micromorphological distinction between pedogenic and geogenic organic layers intercalated in polycyclic drifts and sequences
12(9)
1.6 Monitoring of initial soil development in an experiment on mine waste materials to promote soil regeneration
21(10)
References
28(3)
2 Pollen analysis of soil archives
J.M. Van Mourik
M. Doorenbosch
2.1 Introduction
31(6)
2.2 The distribution pattern of pollen grains in polycyclic slope deposits (Galicia, Spain)
37(12)
2.3 Life cycle of pollen grains in a Mormoder humus form
49(7)
2.4 Palynological dating of mardels on the Gutland plateau (Luxembourg)
56(11)
2.5 Reconstruction of the Dutch harrow landscape on the ancestral heaths, based on soil pollen analysis
67(14)
References
77(4)
3 Radiocarbon dating of soil archives
J. Van Der Plicht
H.J. Streurman
J.M. Van Mourik
3.1 The theory of radiocarbon dating of soil organic matter
81(8)
3.2 Radiocarbon dating of polycyclic soil sequences in Late Glacial and Holocene aeolian sand deposits (profile Weerterbergen, southeast Netherlands)
89(11)
3.3 Absolute and relative dating of the Gasserplatz soil archives (Vorarlberg, Austria) and the reservoir effect
100(8)
3.4 Dating of vegetation horizons
108(1)
3.5 Dating of bog peat
109(1)
3.6 Conclusions
110(5)
References
110(5)
4 Luminescence dating of soil archives
J. Wallinga
J. Sevink
J.M. Van Mourik
T. Reimann
4.1 Principles of soil archive exploration through luminescence dating
115(6)
4.2 OSL dating of polycyclic palaeosols in driftsands: a case study from the LWM area near Hilversum, the Netherlands
121(13)
4.3 OSL dating of plaggic Anthrosols
134(16)
4.4 Reconstructing soil mixing and transport using single-grain luminescence methods
150(13)
References
158(5)
5 Biomarker analysis of soil archives
B. Jansen
H. Hooghiemstra
S.P.C. De Goede
J.M. Van Mourik
5.1 Principles of biomarker analysis
163(4)
5.2 Reconstruction of upper forest line migration in the Ecuadorian Andes
167(12)
5.3 Applications of biomarker analysis in palaeopedology
179(14)
5.4 Simultaneous reconstruction of vegetation and precipitation shifts in the Dominican Republic
193(30)
References
214(9)
6 Pedogenic provenance analysis
J.M. Van Mourik
S.J. De Vet
M.J. Roces Hernandez
D.J.G. Braekmans
6.1 Introduction
223(1)
6.2 Provenance of iron in xeromorphic podzols (Maashorst region, Soudieast Netherlands) recognized by scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis
224(11)
6.3 The provenance of clay for the production of Roman ceramics on the Gutland plateau (Luxembourg)
235(16)
References
248(3)
7 Phytolith analysis of soil archives: phytoliths in soils of the Netherlands
C.N.H. Mcmichael
I.K. De Wolf
K. Land
7.1 Introduction
251(1)
7.2 Phytoliths and their function
252(1)
7.3 Farming in the Netherlands, a pilot study
253(2)
7.4 Methodology
255(6)
7.5 Results
261(6)
7.6 Discussion
267(4)
7.7 Conclusions
271(4)
References
272(3)
8 Can geodiversity help to save the soil archives?
A.C. Seijmonsbergen
J.A.M. Van Den Ancker
P.D. Jungerius
S.J. Norder
8.1 Introduction
275(2)
8.2 Soils are part of nature's diversity
277(1)
8.3 Soil formation in natural and cultural systems
277(3)
8.4 Threats to soils and palaeosols as elements of geodiversity
280(3)
8.5 Soil conservation
283(5)
8.6 Examples of historic and contemporary cultural soil systems
288(3)
8.7 Conservation of soils
291(4)
8.8 Concluding remarks and outlook
295(4)
References
295(4)
Index 299
Jan van Mourik has published extensively on the topic of soils as a record of the past, including serving as Guest Editor for the Quaternary International special issue, "Soils as a Record of the Past." Professor Jaap JM van der Meer , MSc, PhD is Professor emeritus of Physical Geography at Queen Mary, University of London. He obtained a BSc, MSc and PhD at the University of Amsterdam where he was a Senior Lecturer until 2000, when he moved to London. He retired in 2011.Glacial processes and resulting landforms and sediments were the focus of his research. On the general level he studied sediment transfer and (temporal) storage in the glacial system: from the ice divide to the shelf edge. More specifically, there are two clear elements in his studies: the first one is the study of glacial sediments especially in thin sections and the second one is the study of dynamic structures, e.g. push moraines or drumlins. His research is embedded in an international network, encompassing collaboration with colleagues from Western European, North and South American countries and Australia and New Zealand and fieldwork ranging from the Arctic to the Antarctic. He set up the Centre for Micromorphology University of London, internationally a unique research facility to study glacial sediments at all microscales.