Sabda Reader: Language in Classical Indian Thought [Kõva köide]

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Language (sabda) occupied a central yet often unacknowledged place in classical Indian philosophical thought. Foundational thinkers considered topics such as the nature of language, its relationship to reality, the nature and existence of linguistic units and their capacity to convey meaning, and the role of language in the interpretation of sacred writings. The first reader on language in—and the language of—classical Indian philosophy, A Sabda Reader offers a comprehensive and pedagogically valuable treatment of this topic and its importance to Indian philosophical thought.

A Sabda Reader brings together newly translated passages by authors from a variety of traditions—Brahmin, Buddhist, Jaina—representing a number of schools of thought. It illuminates issues such as how Brahmanical thinkers understood the Veda and conceived of Sanskrit; how Buddhist thinkers came to assign importance to language’s link to phenomenal reality; how Jains saw language as strictly material; the possibility of self-contradictory sentences; and how words affect thought. Throughout, the volume shows that linguistic presuppositions and implicit notions about language often play as significant a role as explicit ideas and formal theories. Including an introduction that places the texts and ideas in their historical and cultural context, A Sabda Reader sheds light on a crucial aspect of classical Indian thought and in so doing deepens our understanding of the philosophy of language.

The first reader on language in—and the language of—classical Indian philosophy, A Sabda Reader offers a comprehensive and pedagogically valuable treatment of this topic. It brings together newly translated passages by authors from a variety of traditions—Brahmin, Buddhist, Jaina—representing a number of schools of thought.

Arvustused

When in the Aitareya-Brahmana the goddess Vac ('Language') says to the gods that she will take leave from them in the attempt of rescuing the stolen sacrifice, the gods were upset: 'No, you will not go: how could we do without Vac?' In no other tradition did speculation on language have such a strong impact on philosophical thought as in premodern India. Both Brahmanical and Buddhist philosophers, in spite of their radically conflicting views on language (a marvelous reality from which we derive ultramundane and mundane knowledge for the former; a highly dangerous and deceptive tool for the latter) brilliantly contributed to its investigation. Exploring the labyrinthine world of Indian linguistic thought, led by the firm hand of Johannes Bronkhorst, means entering Indian philosophy as a whole through the main door. -- Raffaele Torella, author of The Philosophical Traditions of India: An Appraisal Never before has Indian philosophy of language been made accessible in such comprehensive, penetrating, and masterly fashion. Containing an original selection and careful translation of passages from around fifty different texts in Sanskrit, Vedic, and Pali, A Sabda Reader is an indispensable guide and sourcebook for students and scholars of India's long, rich, and dynamic intellectual history. -- Jan E.M. Houben, Professor of Sanskrit at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, PSL Universite Paris A Sabda Reader provides a comprehensive survey of what arguably was the world's richest speculation on language and its nature. It was a direct exposure to this tradition in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that prompted the emergence of modern linguistics. Part I presents an overview of a wide spectrum of topics, whereas Part II lets the Indian mind speak for itself: it offers a comprehensive selection of passages translated from their originals. The lucid nature of the exposition makes the contents easily accessible to nonspecialists and highly informative to specialists trained in South Asian languages. -- Piotr Balcerowicz, author of Early Asceticism in India: Ajivikism and Jainism Johannes Bronkhorst is a master of the field of Indian theories of language, and he brings his lifelong expertise to provide comprehensive coverage and lucid access to scientific thinking about language from Sanskrit classics including traditions of Sanskrit grammarians, Buddhist and Jain philosophers, Yoga, Vedanta, Mimamsa, Hindu logicians, and Sanskrit poetics. A Sabda Reader is going to become essential reading for anyone interested in Indian theories of language. -- Madhav M. Deshpande, author of The Meaning of Nouns: Semantic Theory in Classical and Medieval India

Muu info

The first comprehensive and pedagogically developed reader on the language of classical Indian philosophy
Preface ix
PART I INTRODUCTION: General Observations About Philosophy in India
3(64)
Chapter One The Brahmanical Background
8(9)
Chapter Two Buddhist Thought: Source of Inspiration
17(7)
The Scholastic Revolution
17(2)
The Perfection of Wisdom
19(2)
Nagarjuna
21(3)
Chapter Three The Grammarian Patanjali
24(5)
Chapter Four The Special Place of Sanskrit and the Veda
29(18)
Single Words as Source of Knowledge
30(3)
Sentences as Source of Knowledge
33(5)
Vedanta
38(4)
Bhartrihari
42(2)
Language as a Means of Valid Cognition
44(1)
The Root Language in Buddhism and Jainism
45(2)
Chapter Five Self-Contradictory Sentences
47(7)
Chapter Six Do Words Affect Cognition?
54(2)
Chapter Seven Words and Sentences
56(6)
Chapter Eight Other Denotative Functions of the Word
62(5)
PART II READER
Chapter One The Brahmanical Background
67(13)
Similar Words Refer to Connected Things
67(1)
Do Mantras Express Meaning?
68(4)
A Paninian Derivation
72(2)
Difference Between Grammar and Etymology
74(2)
Mystical Speculations About Speech Sounds
76(4)
Chapter Two Buddhist Thought: Source of Inspiration
80(54)
Things Are Nothing but Words
80(5)
What Are Words?
85(44)
Buddhist Responses to the Correspondence Principle
129(5)
Chapter Three The Grammarian Patanjali
134(30)
Patanjali on the Existence of Words
134(2)
Patanjali on the Eternality of Words
136(2)
Patanjali and Shabara on Correct Words
138(3)
Patanjali on Merit Resulting from Correct Speech
141(2)
Patanjali and Bhartrihari on Incorrect Words
143(4)
Patanjali and Others on the Referents of Words
147(12)
Patanjali on Minimal Meaning Bearers
159(5)
Chapter Four The Special Place of Sanskrit and the Veda
164(39)
Single Words as Source of Knowledge
164(8)
Sentences as Source of Knowledge
172(24)
Opinions About the Veda
196(2)
The Word as Means of Inferential Knowledge
198(3)
A Buddhist Opinion About the Original Language
201(2)
Chapter Five Self-Contradictory Sentences
203(16)
Texts on Satkaryavada and Language
203(2)
The Agamaiastra (Science of Tradition) on Arising
205(1)
Vatsyayana and Others on the Problem of Production
206(4)
Bhartrihari on the Problem of Production
210(2)
Anekantavada
212(1)
Jainism's Divine Sound (Divyadhvani)
213(6)
Chapter Six Do Words Affect Cognition?
219(8)
Double Cognition
219(1)
Dignaga and His Critics
220(7)
Chapter Seven Words and Sentences
227(63)
Shabara on Mutual Expectancy
227(1)
Shabara on Words and Sentences
228(3)
Shalikanatha Mishra on the Meaning of a Sentence
231(15)
Vacaspati Mishra on Words and Sentences
246(5)
Added Meaning Is Sentence Meaning
251(1)
Bhattoji Dikshita on the Unit of Expression
251(2)
Shabara on the Hierarchy of Words in Sentences
253(1)
Shabara Against Panini on the Meaning of Verbal Suffixes
254(2)
Kumarila and His Followers on the Meaning of the Sentence
256(10)
The New Logicians on Words and Sentences
266(18)
Kaunda Bhatta on the Meaning of the Verb
284(6)
Chapter Eight Other Denotative Functions of the Word
290(19)
Mukula Bhatta
290(19)
Index Of Translated Passages 309(4)
The Texts And Their Dates 313(10)
Chronological Table Of Authors And Works 323(2)
Editions Used 325(4)
Technical Terms And Their Equivalents In English 329(4)
Abbreviations 333(2)
Notes 335(12)
References 347(8)
Index 355
Johannes Bronkhorst is professor emeritus of Sanskrit and Indian studies at the University of Lausanne. He is the author of a number of books, including Buddhist Teaching in India (2009) and How the Brahmins Won: From Alexander to the Guptas (2016).