Setting the Limit: Occupational Health Standards and the Limits of Science [Kõva köide]

  • Formaat: Hardback, 176 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 208x140x20 mm, kaal: 347 g, line figures
  • Ilmumisaeg: 01-May-1998
  • Kirjastus: Oxford University Press Inc
  • ISBN-10: 0195121600
  • ISBN-13: 9780195121605
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  • Formaat: Hardback, 176 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 208x140x20 mm, kaal: 347 g, line figures
  • Ilmumisaeg: 01-May-1998
  • Kirjastus: Oxford University Press Inc
  • ISBN-10: 0195121600
  • ISBN-13: 9780195121605
Do occupational exposure limits really protect workers from chemical hazards? This book gives an in-depth analysis of three sets of exposure limits: the ACGIH list from the United States, which has a world-wide influence; and the official lists of Germany and Sweden, which are both unusually well-documented. A detailed study of the extensive toxicological documentation offered for these lists makes it possible to calculate the safety margins implicit in the exposure limits. The outcome of this analysis is disquieting. Even for the Swedish list, which has the lowest values in the Western world, safety margins are often small or non-existent. Hansson also proposes new ways to organize exposure limits and to evaluate toxicological data for regulatory purposes.
1. Regulating the Unknown
1(16)
Clinical medicine and the science of health
1(2)
Science and occupational health
3(4)
Two types of error
7(4)
Epistemic asymmetry
11(1)
Exposure limits
12(5)
2. The Most Influential Values
17(18)
The ACGIH and its TLVs
17(3)
Health-based, realistic, or both?
20(4)
Harmful effects below the TLVs
24(3)
The use of corporate information
27(2)
Unorthodox toxicology
29(4)
Conclusions
33(2)
3. Purely Health-based Values?
35(40)
In what sense health-based?
36(3)
Irritation and worse
39(4)
The protection of subpopulations
43(2)
Protecting the unborn
45(2)
Margins of safety and unsafety
47(2)
Human effect levels
49(4)
Animal no-effect levels
53(7)
Animal effect levels
60(5)
On not learning from experience
65(1)
Standards of evidence
66(4)
Questionable reporting
70(2)
Conclusions
72(3)
4. The Lowest Values
75(28)
The development of Swedish exposure limits
75(3)
The impact of consensus reports
78(3)
Critical effects
81(2)
Irritation effects
83(5)
Respiratory diseases
88(3)
Effects on the nervous system
91(2)
Other nonmalignant critical effects
93(3)
Cancer
96(2)
The quality of no-effect levels
98(4)
Conclusions
102(1)
5. Setting Better Standards
103(20)
An impossible task?
103(2)
Health-based exposure limits
105(1)
Levels of aggregation
106(3)
A residual exposure limit
109(1)
Interpretative conservativity
110(3)
Statistical evaluations
113(6)
The role of science in standard setting
119(4)
Appendix: How to Compare Exposure Limits 123(10)
Notes 133(8)
Glossary 141(6)
References 147(10)
Index 157