Structure of Values and Norms, The Structure of Values and Norms [Kõva köide]

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Formal representations of values and norms are employed in several academic disciplines and specialties, such as economics, jurisprudence, decision theory and social choice theory. Sven Ove Hansson closely examines such foundational issues as the values of wholes and the values of their parts, the connections between values and norms, how values can be decision-guiding and the structure of normative codes with formal precision. Models of change in both preferences and norms are offered, as well as a method to base the logic of norms on that of preferences. Hansson has developed a unified formal representation of values and norms that reflects both their static and their dynamic properties. This formalized treatment, carried out in terms of both informal value theory and precise logical detail, will contribute to the clarification of certain issues in the basic philosophical theory of values and norms.

Arvustused

'Hansson has written an excellent book on the logic of preferences and norms ... the book is by no means written for logicians only ... Anyone interested in economics, decision theory, political philosophy or social choice theory is well advised to familiarize herself with the (not too difficult) logical machinery, as there are lots of insights to be reaped from Hansson's work.' Journal of Economics & Philosophy "...specialist readers will appreciate the way that this publication provides them, in effect, with revised, coordinated and extended versions of the author's papers scattered in the journal literature." David Makinson, Mathematical Reviews "Hansson's study is very clear... It is a dense and rich study, with an abundant set of formal terms, definitions, and theorems. It is a valuable study also for its numerous examples drawn from real life." Symbolic Logic

Muu info

A unified formal representation of values and norms reflecting both their static and their dynamic properties.
Preface xi
PROLEGOMENA
Formalization
3(12)
Formalization and Idealization
3(2)
The Virtues and Dangers of Formalization
5(2)
Why Logic?
7(1)
A Trade-Off Between Simplicity and Faithfulness
8(2)
Formalizing Change
10(5)
PART I: VALUES
Exclusionary Preferences
15(18)
Some Basic Conditions
15(2)
The Comparative Value Concepts
17(3)
A Central Dilemma in Preference Logic
20(3)
Minimal Principles for Choice-Guiding Preferences
23(3)
Restrictability
26(3)
Other Approaches to Rational Preferences
29(4)
Preference States
33(9)
Preference Sets
34(3)
Preference Models
37(2)
Intersectible Rationality Postulates
39(3)
Changes in Exclusionary Preferences
42(15)
The Basic Framework
43(3)
Revision
46(4)
Contraction
50(4)
Subtraction
54(1)
Addition
55(2)
Constructing Combinative Preferences
57(10)
Connecting the Two Levels
57(3)
Representing Relata and Alternatives
60(5)
Pairwise and Decision-Guiding Preferences
65(2)
Pairwise Combinative Preferences
67(27)
How to Compare Compatible Alternatives
67(3)
From Exclusionary to Pairwise Preferences
70(3)
Strict Preference and Indifference
73(2)
Constructing the Representation Function
75(8)
Transmitted Logical Properties
83(4)
Superstructural Logical Properties
87(7)
Decision-Guiding Combinative Preferences
94(20)
Two Approaches to Decision Making
94(3)
Weighted Preferences
97(3)
Basic Criteria for Agnostic Preferences
100(2)
Extremal Preferences
102(2)
Further Conditions on Extremal Preferences
104(3)
Properties of Extremal Preferences
107(6)
A Resume of Combinative Preference Relations
113(1)
Monadic Value Predicates
114(15)
Positive, Negative, and Circumscriptive Predicates
115(2)
Negation-Comparing Predicates
117(1)
Defining Good and Bad
118(4)
Alternative Accounts of Good and Bad
122(3)
Reducibility Theses
125(4)
PART II: NORMS
A Starting Point for Deontic Logic
129(10)
What Normative Predicates Refer To
129(2)
The Multiplicity of Normative Predicates
131(3)
Deontic Alternatives
134(3)
Delineating Situationist Deontic Logic
137(2)
Situationist Deontic Logic
139(31)
Standard Deontic Logic (SDL)
139(4)
Preference-Based Deontic Logic
143(5)
The Logic of Positive and Contranegative Predicates
148(13)
Representation Theorems
161(3)
Canonical Deontic Predicates
164(2)
Maximal Obeyable and Maxiconsistent Predicates
166(4)
Conflicts and Counterfactuals
170(12)
Shifting to Action-Guidance
170(3)
Moral Dilemmas
173(2)
Deontic Counterfactuals
175(4)
Restrictive Conditionals
179(3)
Rules and Normative Systems
182(26)
Rules and Instantiations
182(3)
Two Types of Application
185(3)
Unrestrained Application
188(5)
Consistent Application
193(7)
Obeyable Application
200(3)
Changing the Rules
203(1)
Promulgation
203(2)
Derogation
205(3)
Legal Relations
208(17)
Potestative Rules
208(4)
Types of Legal Relations
212(2)
Rights
214(4)
A Comparison with Hohfeld's Typology
218(7)
EPILOGUE
Afterthought
225(4)
Philosophical Relevance
225(1)
Applications in Other Disciplines
226(2)
A Difficult Trade-Off
228(1)
Proofs 229(60)
References 289(13)
Index of Symbols 302(5)
General Index 307


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