Switching Power Supply Design, 3rd Ed. 3rd edition [Kõva köide]

  • Formaat: Hardback, 880 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 236x163x47 mm, kaal: 1335 g, Illustrations
  • Sari: Electronics
  • Ilmumisaeg: 11-Jul-2008
  • Kirjastus: McGraw-Hill Professional
  • ISBN-10: 0071482725
  • ISBN-13: 9780071482721
Teised raamatud teemal:
  • Formaat: Hardback, 880 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 236x163x47 mm, kaal: 1335 g, Illustrations
  • Sari: Electronics
  • Ilmumisaeg: 11-Jul-2008
  • Kirjastus: McGraw-Hill Professional
  • ISBN-10: 0071482725
  • ISBN-13: 9780071482721
Teised raamatud teemal:
The third edition of this authoritative reference on power supply design includes designs for many of the most useful switching power supply topologies, core principles required to solve design problems, and an emphasis on the essentials of transformer and magnetics design. A new feature of this edition is a chapter on choke design and optimum drive conditions for modern fast insulated gate bipolar transistors. Additional topics include: fundamental switching regulators, flyback converter topologies, drive circuits for magnetic amplifiers, and power factor and power factor correction. Authors are Pressman (nationally-known power supply consultant and lecturer), Billings (chartered electronics engineer), and Morey (electronics, Conestoga College, Canada). Annotation ©2009 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com) The Worlds #1 Guide to Power Supply Design_Now Updated! Recognized worldwide as the definitive guide to power supply design for over 25 years, Switching Power Supply Design has been updated to cover the latest innovations in technology, materials, and components.This Third Edition presents basic principles of all the commonly used topologies, providing you with the essential information required to design cutting-edge power supplies. Using a tutorial, how-to approach, this expert resource is filled with design examples, equations, and charts. The Third Edition of Switching Power Supply Design features:Designs for all the most useful switching power supply topologiesThe basic principles required to solve day-to-day design problemsA strong focus on magnetics designNew to this edition: a full chapter on choke design and quasi-resonant switching methods Get Everything You Need to Design a Complete Switching Power Supply• Fundamental Switching Regulators • Push-Pull and Forward Converter Topologies • Half- and Full-Bridge Converter Topologies • Flyback Converter Topologies • Current-Mode and Current-Fed Topologies • Miscellaneous Topologies • Transformer and Magnetics Design • High-Frequency Choke Design • Bipolar Power Transistor Base Drives • MOSFET Power Transistors and Input Drive Circuits • Magnetic Amplifier Postregulators • Turn-on, Turn-off Switching Losses and Snubbers • Feedback-Loop Stabilization • Resonant Converters • Waveforms • Power Factor, Power Factor Correction • High-Frequency Power Sources for Fluorescent Lamps • Low-Input-Voltage Regulators for Laptop Computers and Portable Electronics • Phase-Shifted Zero-Voltage Transition Full-Bridge Converter
Acknowledgments xxxiii
Preface xxxv
Part I Topologies
Basic Topologies
3(42)
Introduction to Linear Regulators and Switching Regulators of the Buck Boost and Inverting Types
3(1)
Linear Regulator---the Dissipative Regulator
4(6)
Basic Operation
4(2)
Some Limitations of the Linear Regulator
6(1)
Power Dissipation in the Series-Pass Transistor
6(1)
Linear Regulator Efficiency vs. Output Voltage
7(2)
Linear Regulators with PNP Series-Pass Transistors for Reduced Dissipation
9(1)
Switching Regulator Topologies
10(21)
The Buck Switching Regulator
10(1)
Basic Elements and Waveforms of a Typical Buck Regulator
11(2)
Buck Regulator Basic Operation
13(1)
Typical Waveforms in the Buck Regulator
14(1)
Buck Regulator Efficiency
15(1)
Calculating Conduction Loss and Conduction-Related Efficiency
16(1)
Buck Regulator Efficiency Including AC Switching Losses
16(4)
Selecting the Optimum Switching Frequency
20(1)
Design Examples
21(1)
Buck Regulator Output Filter Inductor (Choke) Design
21(4)
Designing the Inductor to Maintain Continuous Mode Operation
25(1)
Inductor (Choke) Design
26(1)
Output Capacitor
27(3)
Obtaining Isolated Semi-Regulated Outputs from a Buck Regulator
30(1)
The Boost Switching Regulator Topology
31(9)
Basic Operation
31(2)
The Discontinuous Mode Action in the Boost Regulator
33(2)
The Continuous Mode Action in the Boost Regulator
35(2)
Designing to Ensure Discontinuous Operation in the Boost Regulator
37(3)
The Link Between the Boost Regulator and the Flyback Converter
40(1)
The Polarity Inverting Boost Regulator
40(5)
Basic Operation
40(2)
Design Relations in the Polarity Inverting Boost Regulator
42(1)
References
43(2)
Push-Pull and Forward Converter Topologies
45(58)
Introduction
45(1)
The Push-Pull Topology
45(30)
Basic Operation (With Master/Slave Outputs)
45(3)
Slave Line-Load Regulation
48(1)
Slave Output Voltage Tolerance
49(1)
Master Output Inductor Minimum Current Limitations
49(1)
Flux Imbalance in the Push-Pull Topology (Staircase Saturation Effects)
50(2)
Indications of Flux Imbalance
52(3)
Testing for Flux Imbalance
55(1)
Coping with Flux Imbalance
56(1)
Gapping the Core
56(1)
Adding Primary Resistance
57(1)
Matching Power Transistors
57(1)
Using MOSFET Power Transistors
58(1)
Using Current-Mode Topology
58(1)
Power Transformer Design Relationships
59(1)
Core Selection
59(1)
Maximum Power Transistor On-Time Selection
60(1)
Primary Turns Selection
61(1)
Maximum Flux Change (Flux Density Swing) Selection
61(2)
Secondary Turns Selection
63(1)
Primary, Secondary Peak and rms Currents
63(1)
Primary Peak Current Calculation
63(1)
Primary rms Current Calculation and Wire Size Selection
64(1)
Secondary Peak, rms Current, and Wire Size Calculation
65(1)
Primary rms Current, and Wire Size Calculation
66(1)
Transistor Voltage Stress and Leakage Inductance Spikes
67(2)
Power Transistor Losses
69(1)
AC Switching or Current-Voltage ``Overlap'' Losses
69(1)
Transistor Conduction Losses
70(1)
Typical Losses: 150-W, 50-kHz Push-Pull Converter
71(1)
Output Power and Input Voltage Limitations in the Push-Pull Topology
71(2)
Output Filter Design Relations
73(1)
Output Inductor Design
73(1)
Output Capacitor Design
74(1)
Forward Converter Topology
75(19)
Basic Operation
75(3)
Design Relations: Output/Input Voltage, ``On'' Time, Turns Ratios
78(2)
Slave Output Voltages
80(1)
Secondary Load, Free-Wheeling Diode, and Inductor Currents
81(1)
Relations Between Primary Current, Output Power, and Input Voltage
81(1)
Maximum Off-Voltage Stress in Power Transistor
82(1)
Practical Input Voltage/Output Power Limits
83(1)
Forward Converter With Unequal Power and Reset Winding Turns
84(2)
Forward Converter Magnetics
86(1)
First-Quadrant Operation Only
86(2)
Core Gapping in a Forward Converter
88(1)
Magnetizing Inductance with Gapped Core
89(1)
Power Transformer Design Relations
90(1)
Core Selection
90(1)
Primary Turns Calculation
90(1)
Secondary Turns Calculation
91(1)
Primary rms Current and Wire Size Selection
91(1)
Secondary rms Current and Wire Size Selection
92(1)
Reset Winding rms Current and Wire Size Selection
92(1)
Output Filter Design Relations
93(1)
Output Inductor Design
93(1)
Output Capacitor Design
94(1)
Double-Ended Forward Converter Topology
94(4)
Basic Operation
94(2)
Practical Output Power Limits
96(1)
Design Relations and Transformer Design
97(1)
Core Selection---Primary Turns and Wire Size
97(1)
Secondary Turns and Wire Size
98(1)
Output Filter Design
98(1)
Interleaved Forward Converter Topology
98(5)
Basic Operation---Merits, Drawbacks, and Output Power Limits
98(2)
Transformer Design Relations
100(1)
Core Selection
100(1)
Primary Turns and Wire Size
100(1)
Secondary Turns and Wire Size
101(1)
Output Filter Design
101(1)
Output Inductor Design
101(1)
Output Capacitor Design
101(1)
Reference
101(2)
Half- and Full-Bridge Converter Topologies
103(14)
Introduction
103(1)
Half-Bridge Converter Topology
103(8)
Basic Operation
103(2)
Half-Bridge Magnetics
105(1)
Selecting Maximum ``On'' Time, Magnetic Core, and Primary Turns
105(1)
The Relation Between Input Voltage, Primary Current, and Output Power
106(1)
Primary Wire Size Selection
106(1)
Secondary Turns and Wire Size Selection
107(1)
Output Filter Calculations
107(1)
Blocking Capacitor to Avoid Flux Imbalance
107(2)
Half-Bridge Leakage Inductance Problems
109(1)
Double-Ended Forward Converter vs. Half Bridge
109(2)
Practical Output Power Limits in Half Bridge
111(1)
Full-Bridge Converter Topology
111(6)
Basic Operation
111(2)
Full-Bridge Magnetics
113(1)
Maximum ``On'' Time, Core, and Primary Turns Selection
113(1)
Relation Between Input Voltage, Primary Current, and Output Power
114(1)
Primary Wire Size Selection
114(1)
Secondary Turns and Wire Size
114(1)
Output Filter Calculations
115(1)
Transformer Primary Blocking Capacitor
115(2)
Flyback Converter Topologies
117(44)
Introduction
120(1)
Basic Flyback Converter Schematic
121(1)
Operating Modes
121(2)
Discontinuous-Mode Operation
123(7)
Relationship Between Output Voltage, Input Voltage, ``On'' Time, and Output Load
124(1)
Discontinuous-Mode to Continuous-Mode Transition
124(3)
Continuous-Mode Flyback---Basic Operation
127(3)
Design Relations and Sequential Design Steps
130(2)
Establish the Primary/Secondary Turns Ratio
130(1)
Ensure the Core Does Not Saturate and the Mode Remains Discontinuous
130(1)
Adjust the Primary Inductance Versus Minimum Output Resistance and DC Input Voltage
131(1)
Check Transistor Peak Current and Maximum Voltage Stress
131(1)
Check Primary RMS Current and Establish Wire Size
132(1)
Check Secondary RMS Current and Select Wire Size
132(1)
Design Example for a Discontinuous-Mode Flyback Converter
132(15)
Flyback Magnetics
135(2)
Gapping Ferrite Cores to Avoid Saturation
137(1)
Using Powdered Permalloy (MPP) Cores to Avoid Saturation
138(7)
Flyback Disadvantages
145(1)
Large Output Voltage Spikes
145(1)
Large Output Filter Capacitor and High Ripple Current Requirement
146(1)
Universal Input Flybacks for 120-V AC Through 220-V AC Operation
147(2)
Design Relations---Continuous-Mode Flybacks
149(6)
The Relation Between Output Voltage and ``On'' Time
149(1)
Input, Output Current-Power Relations
150(2)
Ramp Amplitudes for Continuous Mode at Minimum DC Input
152(1)
Discontinuous- and Continuous-Mode Flyback Design Example
153(2)
Interleaved Flybacks
155(2)
Summation of Secondary Currents in Interleaved Flybacks
156(1)
Double-Ended (Two Transistor) Discontinuous-Mode Flyback
157(4)
Area of Application
157(1)
Basic Operation
157(2)
Leakage Inductance Effect in Double-Ended Flyback
159(1)
References
160(1)
Current-Mode and Current-Fed Topologies
161(68)
Introduction
161(1)
Current-Mode Control
161(1)
Current-Fed Topology
162(1)
Current-Mode Control
162(3)
Current-Mode Control Advantages
163(1)
Avoidance of Flux Imbalance in Push-Pull Converters
163(1)
Fast Correction Against Line Voltage Changes Without Error Amplifier Delay (Voltage Feed-Forward)
163(1)
Ease and Simplicity of Feedback-Loop Stabilization
164(1)
Paralleling Outputs
164(1)
Improved Load Current Regulation
164(1)
Current-Mode vs. Voltage-Mode Control Circuits
165(6)
Voltage-Mode Control Circuitry
165(4)
Current-Mode Control Circuitry
169(2)
Detailed Explanation of Current-Mode Advantages
171(5)
Line Voltage Regulation
171(1)
Elimination of Flux Imbalance
172(1)
Simplified Loop Stabilization from Elimination of Output Inductor in Small-Signal Analysis
172(2)
Load Current Regulation
174(2)
Current-Mode Deficiencies and Limitations
176(7)
Constant Peak Current vs. Average Output Current Ratio Problem
176(3)
Response to an Output Inductor Current Disturbance
179(1)
Slope Compensation to Correct Problems in Current Mode
179(2)
Slope (Ramp) Compensation with a Positive-Going Ramp Voltage
181(1)
Implementing Slope Compensation
182(1)
Comparing the Properties of Voltage-Fed and Current-Fed Topologies
183(46)
Introduction and Definitions
183(1)
Deficiencies of Voltage-Fed, Pulse-Width-Modulated Full-Wave Bridge
184(1)
Output Inductor Problems in Voltage-Fed, Pulse-Width-Modulated Full-Wave Bridge
185(1)
Turn ``On'' Transient Problems in Voltage-Fed, Pulse-Width-Modulated Full-Wave Bridge
186(1)
Turn ``Off'' Transient Problems in Voltage-Fed, Pulse-Width-Modulated Full-Wave Bridge
187(1)
Flux-Imbalance Problem in Voltage-Fed, Pulse-Width-Modulated Full-Wave Bridge
188(1)
Buck Voltage-Fed Full-Wave Bridge Topology---Basic Operation
188(2)
Buck Voltage-Fed Full-Wave Bridge Advantages
190(1)
Elimination of Output Inductors
190(1)
Elimination of Bridge Transistor Turn ``On'' Transients
191(1)
Decrease of Bridge Transistor Turn ``Off'' Dissipation
192(1)
Flux-Imbalance Problem in Bridge Transformer
192(1)
Drawbacks in Buck Voltage-Fed Full-Wave Bridge
193(1)
Buck Current-Fed Full-Wave Bridge Topology---Basic Operation
193(2)
Alleviation of Turn ``On''-Turn ``Off'' Transient Problems in Buck Current-Fed Bridge
195(3)
Absence of Simultaneous Conduction Problem in the Buck Current-Fed Bridge
198(1)
Turn ``On'' Problems in Buck Transistor of Buck Current- or Buck Voltage-Fed Bridge
198(3)
Buck Transistor Turn ``On'' Snubber---Basic Operation
201(1)
Selection of Buck Turn ``On'' Snubber Components
202(1)
Dissipation in Buck Transistor Snubber Resistor
203(1)
Snubbing Inductor Charging Time
203(1)
Lossless Turn ``On'' Snubber for Buck Transistor
204(1)
Design Decisions in Buck Current-Fed Bridge
205(1)
Operating Frequencies---Buck and Bridge Transistors
206(1)
Buck Current-Fed Push-Pull Topology
206(2)
Flyback Current-Fed Push-Pull Topology (Weinberg Circuit)
208(2)
Absence of Flux-Imbalance Problem in Flyback Current-Fed Push-Pull Topology
210(1)
Decreased Push-Pull Transistor Current in Flyback Current-Fed Topology
211(1)
Non-Overlapping Mode in Flyback Current-Fed Push-Pull Topology---Basic Operation
212(1)
Output Voltage vs. ``On'' Time in Non-Overlapping Mode of Flyback Current-Fed Push-Pull Topology
213(1)
Output Voltage Ripple and Input Current Ripple in Non-Overlapping Mode
214(1)
Output Stage and Transformer Design Example---Non-Overlapping Mode
215(3)
Flyback Transformer for Design Example of Section 5.6.7.6
218(1)
Overlapping Mode in Flyback Current-Fed Push-Pull Topology---Basic Operation
219(2)
Output/Input Voltages vs. ``On'' Time in Overlapping Mode
221(1)
Turns Ratio Selection in Overlapping Mode
222(1)
Output/Input Voltages vs. ``On'' Time for Overlap-Mode Design at High DC Input Voltages, with Forced Non-Overlap Operation
223(1)
Design Example---Overlap Mode
224(2)
Voltages, Currents, and Wire Size Selection for Overlap Mode
226(1)
References
227(2)
Miscellaneous Topologies
229(56)
SCR Resonant Topologies---Introduction
229(2)
SCR and ASCR Basics
231(4)
SCR Turn ``Off'' by Resonant Sinusoidal Anode Current---Single-Ended Resonant Inverter Topology
235(5)
SCR Resonant Bridge Topologies---Introduction
240(14)
Series-Loaded SCR Half-Bridge Resonant Converter---Basic Operation
241(4)
Design Calculations---Series-Loaded SCR Half-Bridge Resonant Converter
245(2)
Design Example---Series-Loaded SCR Half-Bridge Resonant Converter
247(1)
Shunt-Loaded SCR Half-Bridge Resonant Converter
248(1)
Single-Ended SCR Resonant Converter Topology Design
249(2)
Minimum Trigger Period Selection
251(1)
Peak SCR Current Choice and LC Component Selection
252(1)
Design Example
253(1)
Cuk Converter Topology---Introduction
254(6)
Cuk Converter---Basic Operation
255(1)
Relation Between Output and Input Voltages, and Q1 ``On'' Time
256(1)
Rates of Change of Current in L1, L2
257(1)
Reducing Input Ripple Currents to Zero
258(1)
Isolated Outputs in the Cuk Converter
259(1)
Low Output Power ``Housekeeping'' or ``Auxiliary'' Topologies---Introduction
260(25)
Housekeeping Power Supply---on Output or Input Common?
261(1)
Housekeeping Supply Alternatives
262(1)
Specific Housekeeping Supply Block Diagrams
262(1)
Housekeeping Supply for AC Prime Power
262(2)
Oscillator-Type Housekeeping Supply for AC Prime Power
264(1)
Flyback-Type Housekeeping Supplies for DC Prime Power
265(1)
Royer Oscillator Housekeeping Supply---Basic Operation
266(2)
Royer Oscillator Drawbacks
268(3)
Current-Fed Royer Oscillator
271(1)
Buck Preregulated Current-Fed Royer Converter
271(3)
Square Hysteresis Loop Materials for Royer Oscillators
274(3)
Future Potential for Current-Fed Royer and Buck Preregulated Current-Fed Royer
277(1)
Minimum-Parts-Count Flyback as Housekeeping Supply
278(2)
Buck Regulator with DC-Isolated Output as a Housekeeping Supply
280(1)
References
280(5)
Part II Magnetics and Circuit Design
Transformers and Magnetic Design
285(138)
Introduction
285(1)
Transformer Core Materials and Geometries and Peak Flux Density Selection
286(9)
Ferrite Core Losses versus Frequency and Flux Density for Widely Used Core Materials
286(3)
Ferrite Core Geometries
289(5)
Peak Flux Density Selection
294(1)
Maximum Core Output Power, Peak Flux Density, Core and Bobbin Areas, and Coil Currency Density
295(57)
Derivation of Output Power Relations for Converter Topology
295(50)
Select Core Size and Establish Area Product
345(2)
Establish Thermal Resistance and Internal Dissipation Limit
347(1)
Establish Winding Resistance
348(1)
Establish Turns and Wire Gauge from the Nomogram Shown in Figure 7.15
349(1)
Calculating Turns and Wire Gauge
349(3)
Series-Mode Line Filter Inductors
352(6)
Ferrite and Iron Powder Rod Core Inductors
353(2)
High-Frequency Performance of Rod Core Inductors
355(1)
Calculating Inductance of Rod Core Inductors
356(2)
Magnetics: Introduction to Chokes---Inductors with Large DC Bias Current
358(9)
Equations, Units, and Charts
359(1)
Magnetization Characteristics (B/H Loop) with DC Bias Current
359(2)
Magnetizing Force Hdc
361(1)
Methods of Increasing Choke Inductance or Bias Current Rating
362(1)
Flux Density Swing B
363(3)
Air Gap Function
366(1)
Temperature Rise
367(1)
Magnetics Design: Materials for Chokes---Introduction
367(8)
Choke Materials for Low AC Stress Applications
368(1)
Choke Materials for High AC Stress Applications
368(1)
Choke Materials for Mid-Range Applications
369(1)
Core Material Saturation Characteristics
369(1)
Core Material Loss Characteristics
370(1)
Material Saturation Characteristics
371(1)
Material Permeability Parameters
371(2)
Material Cost
373(1)
Establishing Optimum Core Size and Shape
374(1)
Conclusions on Core Material Selection
374(1)
Magnetics: Choke Design Examples
375(12)
Choke Design Example: Gapped Ferrite E Core
375(1)
Establish Inductance for 20% Ripple Current
376(1)
Establish Area Product (AP)
377(1)
Calculate Minimum Turns
378(1)
Calculate Core Gap
378(2)
Establish Optimum Wire Size
380(1)
Calculating Optimum Wire Size
381(1)
Calculate Winding Resistance
382(1)
Establish Power Loss
382(1)
Predict Temperature Rise---Area Product Method
383(1)
Check Core Loss
383(4)
Magnetics: Choke Designs Using Powder Core Materials---Introduction
387(8)
Factors Controlling Choice of Powder Core Material
388(1)
Powder Core Saturation Properties
388(1)
Powder Core Material Loss Properties
389(2)
Copper Loss-Limited Choke Designs for Low AC Stress
391(1)
Core Loss-Limited Choke Designs for High AC Stress
392(1)
Choke Designs for Medium AC Stress
392(1)
Core Material Saturation Properties
393(1)
Core Geometry
393(1)
Material Cost
394(1)
Choke Design Example: Copper Loss Limited Using Kool Mμ Powder Toroid
395(8)
Introduction
395(1)
Selecting Core Size by Energy Storage and Area Product Methods
395(2)
Copper Loss-Limited Choke Design Example
397(1)
Calculate Energy Storage Number
397(1)
Establish Area Product and Select Core Size
397(1)
Calculate Initial Turns
397(2)
Calculate DC Magnetizing Force
399(1)
Establish New Relative Permeability and Adjust Turns
399(1)
Establish Wire Size
399(1)
Establish Copper Loss
400(1)
Check Temperature Rise by Energy Density Method
400(1)
Predict Temperature Rise by Area Product Method
401(1)
Establish Core Loss
401(2)
Choke Design Examples Using Various Powder E Cores
403(10)
Introduction
403(1)
First Example: Choke Using a #40 Iron Powder E Core
404(1)
Calculate Inductance for 1.5 Amps Ripple Current
404(2)
Calculate Energy Storage Number
406(1)
Establish Area Product and Select Core Size
407(1)
Calculate Initial Turns
407(2)
Calculate Core Loss
409(2)
Establish Wire Size
411(1)
Establish Copper Loss
411(1)
Second Example: Choke Using a #8 Iron Powder E Core
412(1)
Calculate New Turns
412(1)
Calculate Core Loss with #8 Mix
412(1)
Establish Copper Loss
413(1)
Calculate Efficiency and Temperature Rise
413(1)
Third Example: Choke Using #60 Kool Mμ E Cores
413(4)
Select Core Size
414(1)
Calculate Turns
414(1)
Calculate DC Magnetizing Force
415(1)
Establish Relative Permeability and Adjust Turns
415(1)
Calculate Core Loss with #60 Kool Mμ Mix
415(1)
Establish Wire Size
416(1)
Establish Copper Loss
416(1)
Establish Temperature Rise
416(1)
Swinging Choke Design Example: Copper Loss Limited Using Kool Mμ Powder E Core
417(6)
Swinging Chokes
417(1)
Swinging Choke Design Example
418(1)
Calculate Energy Storage Number
418(1)
Establish Area Product and Select Core Size
418(1)
Calculate Turns for 100 Oersteds
419(1)
Calculate Inductance
419(1)
Calculate Wire Size
420(1)
Establish Copper Loss
420(1)
Check Temperature Rise by Thermal Resistance Method
420(1)
Establish Core Loss
421(1)
References
421(2)
Bipolar Power Transistor Base Drive Circuits
423(34)
Introduction
423(1)
The Key Objectives of Good Base Drive Circuits for Bipolar Transistors
424(6)
Sufficiently High Current Throughout the ``On'' Time
424(1)
A Spike of High Base Input Current Ib1 at Instant of Turn ``On''
425(2)
A Spike of High Reverse Base Current Ib2 at the Instant of Turn ``Off'' (Figure 8.2a)
427(1)
A Base-to-Emitter Reverse Voltage Spike -1 to -5 V in Amplitude at the Instant of Turn ``Off''
427(2)
The Baker Clamp (A Circuit That Works Equally Well with High-or Low-Beta Transistors)
429(1)
Improving Drive Efficiency
429(1)
Transformer Coupled Baker Clamp Circuits
430(27)
Baker Clamp Operation
431(4)
Transformer Coupling into a Baker Clamp
435(1)
Transformer Supply Voltage, Turns Ratio Selection, and Primary and Secondary Current Limiting
435(2)
Power Transistor Reverse Base Current Derived from Flyback Action in Drive Transformer
437(1)
Drive Transformer Primary Current Limiting to Achieve Equal Forward and Reverse Base Currents in Power Transistor at End of the ``On'' Time
438(1)
Design Example---Transformer-Driven Baker Clamp
439(1)
Baker Clamp with Integral Transformer
440(2)
Design Example---Transformer Baker Clamp
442(1)
Inherent Baker Clamping with a Darlington Transistor
442(1)
Proportional Base Drive
443(1)
Detailed Circuit Operation---Proportional Base Drive
443(3)
Quantitative Design of Proportional Base Drive Scheme
446(1)
Selection of Holdup Capacitor (C1, Figure 8.12) to Guarantee Power Transistor Turn ``Off''
447(2)
Base Drive Transformer Primary Inductance and Core Selection
449(1)
Design Example---Proportional Base Drive
449(1)
Miscellaneous Base Drive Schemes
450(5)
References
455(2)
MOSFET and IGBT Power Transistors and Gate Drive Requirements
457(54)
MOSFET Introduction
457(2)
IGBT Introduction
457(1)
The Changing Industry
458(1)
The Impact on New Designs
458(1)
MOSFET Basics
459(28)
Typical Drain Current vs. Drain-to-Source Voltage Characteristics (Id --- Vds) for a FET Device
461(1)
``On'' State Resistance rds (on)
461(3)
MOSFET Input Impedance Miller Effect and Required Gate Currents
464(3)
Calculating the Gate Voltage Rise and Fall Times for a Desired Drain Current Rise and Fall Time
467(1)
MOSFET Gate Drive Circuits
468(5)
MOSFET Rds Temperature Characteristics and Safe Operating Area Limits
473(2)
MOSFET Gate Threshold Voltage and Temperature Characteristics
475(1)
MOSFET Switching Speed and Temperature Characteristics
476(1)
MOSFET Current Ratings
477(3)
Paralleling MOSFETs
480(3)
MOSFETs in Push-Pull Topology
483(1)
MOSFET Maximum Gate Voltage Specifications
484(1)
MOSFET Drain-to-Source ``Body'' Diode
485(2)
Introduction to Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs)
487(24)
Selecting Suitable IGBTs for Your Application
488(1)
IGBT Construction Overview
489(1)
Equivalent Circuits
490(1)
Performance Characteristics of IGBTs
490(1)
Turn ``Off'' Characteristics of IGBTs
490(1)
The Difference Between PT- and NPT-Type IGBTs
491(1)
The Conduction of PT- and NPT-Type IGBTs
491(1)
The Link Between Ruggedness and Switching Loss in PT- and NPT-Type IGBTs
491(1)
IGBT Latch-Up Possibilities
492(1)
Temperature Effects
493(1)
Parallel Operation of IGBTs
493(1)
Specification Parameters and Maximum Ratings
494(4)
Static Electrical Characteristics
498(1)
Dynamic Characteristics
499(5)
Thermal and Mechanical Characteristics
504(5)
References
509(2)
Magnetic-Amplifier Postregulators
511(34)
Introduction
511(2)
Linear and Buck Postregulators
513(1)
Magnetic Amplifiers---Introduction
513(27)
Square Hysteresis Loop Magnetic Core as a Fast Acting On/Off Switch with Electrically Adjustable ``On'' and ``Off'' Times
516(3)
Blocking and Firing Times in Magnetic-Amplifier Postregulators
519(1)
Magnetic-Amplifier Core Resetting and Voltage Regulation
520(1)
Slave Output Voltage Shutdown with Magnetic Amplifiers
521(1)
Square Hysteresis Loop Core Characteristics and Sources
522(7)
Core Loss and Temperature Rise Calculations
529(5)
Design Example---Magnetic-Amplifier Postregulator
534(5)
Magnetic-Amplifier Gain
539(1)
Magnetic Amplifiers for a Push-Pull Output
540(1)
Magnetic Amplifier Pulse-Width Modulator and Error Amplifier
540(5)
Circuit Details, Magnetic Amplifier Pulse-Width Modulator-Error Amplifier
541(3)
References
544(1)
Analysis of Turn ``On'' and Turn ``Off'' Switching Losses and the Design of Load-Line Shaping Snubber Circuits
545(16)
Introduction
545(2)
Transistor Turn ``Off'' Losses Without a Snubber
547(1)
RCD Turn ``Off'' Snubber Operation
548(2)
Selection of Capacitor Size in RCD Snubber
550(1)
Design Example---RCD Snubber
551(2)
RCD Snubber Returned to Positive Supply Rail
552(1)
Non-Dissipative Snubbers
553(2)
Load-Line Shaping (The Snubber's Ability to Reduce Spike Voltages so as to Avoid Secondary Breakdown)
555(3)
Transformer Lossless Snubber Circuit
558(3)
References
559(2)
Feedback Loop Stabilization
561(46)
Introduction
561(2)
Mechanism of Loop Oscillation
563(9)
The Gain Criterion for a Stable Circuit
563(1)
Gain Slope Criteria for a Stable Circuit
563(4)
Gain Characteristic of Output LC Filter with and without Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) in Output Capacitor
567(3)
Pulse-Width-Modulator Gain
570(1)
Gain of Output LC Filter Plus Modulator and Sampling Network
571(1)
Shaping Error-Amplifier Gain Versus Frequency Characteristic
572(3)
Error-Amplifier Transfer Function, Poles, and Zeros
575(1)
Rules for Gain Slope Changes Due to Zeros and Poles
576(2)
Derivation of Transfer Function of an Error Amplifier with Single Zero and Single Pole from Its Schematic
578(1)
Calculation of Type 2 Error-Amplifier Phase Shift from Its Zero and Pole Locations
579(1)
Phase Shift Through LC Filter with Significant ESR
580(2)
Design Example---Stabilizing a Forward Converter Feedback Loop with a Type 2 Error Amplifier
582(3)
Type 3 Error Amplifier---Application and Transfer Function
585(2)
Phase Lag Through a Type 3 Error Amplifier as Function of Zero and Pole Locations
587(1)
Type 3 Error Amplifier Schematic, Transfer Function, and Zero and Pole Locations
588(2)
Design Example---Stabilizing a Forward Converter Feedback Loop with a Type 3 Error Amplifier
590(2)
Component Selection to Yield Desired Type 3 Error-Amplifier Gain Curve
592(1)
Conditional Stability in Feedback Loops
593(2)
Stabilizing a Discontinuous-Mode Flyback Converter
595(4)
DC Gain from Error-Amplifier Output to Output Voltage Node
595(2)
Discontinuous-Mode Flyback Transfer Function from Error-Amplifier Output to Output Voltage Node
597(2)
Error-Amplifier Transfer Function for Discontinuous-Mode Flyback
599(1)
Design Example---Stabilizing a Discontinuous-Mode Flyback Converter
600(2)
Transconductance Error Amplifiers
602(5)
References
605(2)
Resonant Converters
607(24)
Introduction
607(1)
Resonant Converters
608(1)
The Resonant Forward Converter
609(5)
Measured Waveforms in a Resonant Forward Converter
612(2)
Resonant Converter Operating Modes
614(2)
Discontinuous and Continuous: Operating Modes Above and Below Resonance
614(2)
Resonant Half Bridge in Continuous-Conduction Mode
616(11)
Parallel Resonant Converter (PRC) and Series Resonant Converter (SRC)
616(3)
AC Equivalent Circuits and Gain Curves for Series-Loaded and Parallel-Loaded Half Bridges Operating in the Continuous-Conduction Mode
619(1)
Regulation with Series-Loaded Half Bridge in Continuous-Conduction Mode (CCM)
620(1)
Regulation with a Parallel-Loaded Half Bridge in the Continuous-Conduction Mode
621(1)
Series-Parallel Resonant Converter in Continuous-Conduction Mode
622(1)
Zero-Voltage-Switching Quasi-Resonant (CCM) Converters
623(4)
Resonant Power Supplies---Conclusion
627(4)
References
628(3)
Part III Waveforms
Typical Waveforms for Switching Power Supplies
631(38)
Introduction
631(1)
Forward Converter Waveshapes
632(8)
Vds, Id Photos at 80% of Full Load
633(2)
Vds, Id Photos at 40% of Full Load
635(1)
Overlap of Drain Voltage and Drain Current at Turn ``On''/Turn ``Off'' Transitions
635(3)
Relative Timing of Drain Current, Drain-to-Source Voltage, and Gate-to-Source Voltage
638(1)
Relationship of Input Voltage to Output Inductor, Output Inductor Current Rise and Fall Times, and Power Transistor Drain-Source Voltage
638(1)
Relative Timing of Critical Waveforms in PWM Driver Chip (UC3525A) for Forward Converter of Figure 14.1
639(1)
Push-Pull Topology Waveshapes---Introduction
640(20)
Transformer Center Tap Currents and Drain-to-Source Voltages at Maximum Load Currents for Maximum, Nominal, and Minimum Supply Voltages
642(2)
Opposing Vds Waveshapes, Relative Timing, and Flux Locus During Dead Time
644(3)
Relative Timing of Gate Input Voltage, Drain-to-Source Voltage, and Drain Currents
647(1)
Drain Current Measured with a Current Probe in the Drain Compared to that Measured with a Current Probe in the Transformer Center Tap
647(1)
Output Ripple Voltage and Rectifier Cathode Voltage
647(3)
Oscillatory Ringing at Rectifier Cathodes after Transistor Turn ``On''
650(1)
AC Switching Loss Due to Overlap of Falling Drain Current and Rising Drain Voltage at Turn ``Off''
650(2)
Drain Currents as Measured in the Transformer Center Tap and Drain-to-Source Voltage at One-Fifth of Maximum Output Power
652(3)
Drain Current and Voltage at One-Fifth Maximum Output Power
655(1)
Relative Timing of Opposing Drain Voltages at One-Fifth Maximum Output Currents
655(1)
Controlled Output Inductor Current and Rectifier Cathode Voltage
656(1)
Controlled Rectifier Cathode Voltage Above Minimum Output Current
656(1)
Gate Voltage and Drain Current Timing
656(1)
Rectifier Diode and Transformer Secondary Currents
656(2)
Apparent Double Turn ``On'' per Half Period Arising from Excessive Magnetizing Current or Insufficient Output Currents
658(1)
Drain Currents and Voltages at 15% Above Specified Maximum Output Power
659(1)
Ringing at Drain During Transistor Dead Time
659(1)
Flyback Topology Waveshapes
660(9)
Introduction
660(2)
Drain Current and Voltage Waveshapes at 90% of Full Load for Minimum, Nominal, and Maximum Input Voltages
662(1)
Voltage and Currents at Output Rectifier Inputs
662(3)
Snubber Capacitor Current at Transistor Turn ``Off''
665(1)
References
666(3)
Part IV More Recent Applications for Switching Power Supply Techniques
Power Factor and Power Factor Correction
669(30)
Power Factor---What Is It and Why Must It Be Corrected?
669(2)
Power Factor Correction in Switching Power Supplies
671(2)
Power Factor Correction---Basic Circuit Details
673(8)
Continuous- Versus Discontinuous-Mode Boost Topology for Power Factor Correction
676(2)
Line Input Voltage Regulation in Continuous-Mode Boost Converters
678(1)
Load Current Regulation in Continuous-Mode Boost Regulators
679(2)
Integrated-Circuit Chips for Power Factor Correction
681(10)
The Unitrode UC 3854 Power Factor Correction Chip
681(1)
Forcing Sinusoidal Line Current with the UC 3854
682(2)
Maintaining Constant Output Voltage with UC 3854
684(1)
Controlling Power Output with the UC 3854
685(2)
Boost Switching Frequency with the UC 3854
687(1)
Selection of Boost Output Inductor L1
687(1)
Selection of Boost Output Capacitor
688(2)
Peak Current Limiting in the UC 3854
690(1)
Stabilizing the UC 3854 Feedback Loop
690(1)
The Motorola MC 34261 Power Factor Correction Chip
691(8)
More Details of the Motorola MC 34261 (Figure 15.11)
693(1)
Logic Details for the MC 34261 (Figures 15.11 and 15.12)
693(1)
Calculations for Frequency and Inductor L1
694(2)
Selection of Sensing and Multiplier Resistors for the MC 34261
696(1)
References
697(2)
Electronic Ballasts: High-Frequency Power Regulators for Fluorescent Lamps
699(48)
Introduction: Magnetic Ballasts
699(4)
Fluorescent Lamp---Physics and Types
703(3)
Electric Arc Characteristics
706(9)
Arc Characteristics with DC Supply Voltage
707(2)
AC-Driven Fluorescent Lamps
709(2)
Fluorescent Lamp Volt/Ampere Characteristics with an Electronic Ballast
711(4)
Electronic Ballast Circuits
715(1)
DC/AC Inverter---General Characteristics
716(1)
DC/AC Inverter Topologies
717(20)
Current-Fed Push-Pull Topology
718(2)
Voltage and Currents in Current-Fed Push-Pull Topology
720(1)
Magnitude of ``Current Feed'' Inductor in Current-Fed Topology
721(1)
Specific Core Selection for Current Feed Inductor
722(7)
Coil Design for Current Feed Inductor
729(1)
Ferrite Core Transformer for Current-Fed Topology
729(8)
Toroidal Core Transformer for Current-Fed Topology
737(1)
Voltage-Fed Push-Pull Topology
737(3)
Current-Fed Parallel Resonant Half Bridge Topology
740(2)
Voltage-Fed Series Resonant Half Bridge Topology
742(3)
Electronic Ballast Packaging
745(2)
References
745(2)
Low-Input-Voltage Regulators for Laptop Computers and Portable Electronics
747(46)
Introduction
747(1)
Low-Input-Voltage IC Regulator Suppliers
748(1)
Linear Technology Corporation Boost and Buck Regulators
749(38)
Linear Technology LT1170 Boost Regulator
751(2)
Significant Waveform Photos in the LT1170 Boost Regulator
753(3)
Thermal Considerations in IC Regulators
756(3)
Alternative Uses for the LT1170 Boost Regulator
759(1)
LT1170 Buck Regulator
759(1)
LT1170 Driving High-Voltage MOSFETS or NPN Transistors
759(3)
LT1170 Negative Buck Regulator
762(1)
LT1170 Negative-to-Positive Polarity Inverter
762(1)
Positive-to-Negative Polarity Inverter
763(1)
LT1170 Negative Boost Regulator
763(1)
Additional LTC High-Power Boost Regulators
763(1)
Component Selection for Boost Regulators
764(1)
Output Inductor L1 Selection
764(1)
Output Capacitor C1 Selection
765(2)
Output Diode Dissipation
767(1)
Linear Technology Buck Regulator Family
767(1)
LT1074 Buck Regulator
767(3)
Alternative Uses for the LT1074 Buck Regulator
770(1)
LT1074 Positive-to-Negative Polarity Inverter
770(1)
LT1074 Negative Boost Regulator
771(2)
Thermal Considerations for LT1074
773(2)
LTC High-Efficiency, High-Power Buck Regulators
775(1)
LT1376 High-Frequency, Low Switch Drop Buck Regulator
775(1)
LTC1148 High-Efficiency Buck with External MOSFET Switches
775(2)
LTC1148 Block Diagram
777(3)
LTC1148 Line and Load Regulation
780(1)
LTC1148 Peak Current and Output Inductor Selection
780(1)
LTC1148 Burst-Mode Operation for Low Output Current
781(1)
Summary of High-Power Linear Technology Buck Regulators
782(1)
Linear Technology Micropower Regulators
783(1)
Feedback Loop Stabilization
783(4)
Maxim IC Regulators
787(1)
Distributed Power Systems with IC Building Blocks
787(6)
References
792(1)
Appendix 793(4)
Bibliography 797(10)
Index 807
McGraw-Hill authors represent the leading experts in their fields and are dedicated to improving the lives, careers, and interests of readers worldwide McGraw-Hill authors represent the leading experts in their fields and are dedicated to improving the lives, careers, and interests of readers worldwide Taylor Morey, currently a professor of Electronics at Conestoga College in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada, is co-author of an electronics devices textbook, and has taught courses at Wilfred Laurier University in Waterloo. He collaborates with Keith Billings as an independent power supply engineer and consultant, and previously worked in switchmode power supply development at Varian Canada in Georgetown, and Hammond Manufacturing and GFC Power in Guelph, where he first met Keith in 1988. During a 5-year sojourn to Mexico, he became fluent in Spanish and taught electronics engineering courses at the Universidad Cati?lica de La Paz, and English as a second language at CIBNOR biological research institution of La Paz, where he also worked as an editor of graduate biology students articles for publication in refereed scientific journals. Earlier in his career he worked for IBM Canada on mainframe computers, and at Global TVs studios in Toronto.

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