Unlocking Equity and Trusts 6th New edition [Pehme köide]

(Uuem väljaanne: 9780367027834)
(University of West London, UK)
  • Formaat: Paperback / softback, 630 pages, kõrgus x laius: 248x191 mm, kaal: 1398 g, 35 Line drawings, color; 28 Tables, color
  • Sari: Unlocking the Law
  • Ilmumisaeg: 09-May-2017
  • Kirjastus: Routledge
  • ISBN-10: 1138218715
  • ISBN-13: 9781138218710 (Uuem väljaanne: 9780367027834)
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  • Formaat: Paperback / softback, 630 pages, kõrgus x laius: 248x191 mm, kaal: 1398 g, 35 Line drawings, color; 28 Tables, color
  • Sari: Unlocking the Law
  • Ilmumisaeg: 09-May-2017
  • Kirjastus: Routledge
  • ISBN-10: 1138218715
  • ISBN-13: 9781138218710 (Uuem väljaanne: 9780367027834)

Unlocking Equity and Trusts will help you grasp the main concepts of Equity and Trusts with ease. Containing accessible explanations in clear and precise terms that are easy to understand, it provides an excellent foundation for learning and revising.

The information is clearly presented in a logical structure and the following features support learning helping you to advance with confidence:

  • Clear learning outcomes at the beginning of each chapter set out the skills and knowledge you will need to get to grips with the subject
  • Key Facts summaries throughout each chapter allow you to progressively build and consolidate your understanding
  • End-of-chapter summaries provide a useful check-list for each topic
  • Cases and judgments are highlighted to help you find them and add them to your notes quickly
  • Frequent activities and self-test questions are included so you can put your knowledge into practice
  • Sample essay questions with annotated answers prepare you for assessment
  • Glossary of legal terms clarifies important definitions

The Unlocking the Law series is designed specifically to make the law accessible. Each chapter opens with a list of aims and objectives, and contains diagrams to aid learning. Cases and judgments are prominently displayed, as are primary source quotations. Summaries help check your understanding of each chapter, there is a glossary of legal terminology. New features include problem questions with guidance on answering, as well as essay questions and answer plans, plus cases and materials exercises.

All titles in the series follow the same formula and include the same features so students can move easily from one subject to another. The series covers all the core subjects required by the Bar Council and the Law Society for entry onto professional qualifications as well as popular option units.

The series website www.unlockingthelaw.co.uk provides free resources such as multiple choice questions, key questions and answers, revision podcasts and cases and materials exercises.

Guide to the book xiii
Acknowledgements xv
Preface xvi
Table of cases xviii
Table of statutes and other instruments xxxiv
List of figures xxxix
1 Historical Outlines Of Equity 1(18)
1.1 Introduction to equity
1(6)
1.1.1 Terminology
2(1)
1.1.2 Petitions to the Lord Chancellor
2(1)
1.1.3 Procedure in Chancery
3(1)
1.1.4 The trust-a product of equity
4(1)
1.1.5 The Chancellor's intervention
5(1)
1.1.6 Duality of ownership
5(1)
1.1.7 Statute of Uses 1535
6(1)
1.1.8 Use upon a use
6(1)
1.1.9 Struggle over injunctions
7(1)
1.2 Contributions of equity
7(1)
1.2.1 Court of Appeal in Chancery
8(1)
1.3 Nineteenth-century reforms
8(4)
1.4 Adaptability of equity today
12(2)
1.5 Maxims of equity
14(3)
Sample Essay Question
17(1)
Further Reading
18(1)
2 Introduction To Trusts 19(20)
2.1 Introduction
19(1)
2.2 Trust concept
19(4)
2.2.1 Definitions of trusts
19(2)
2.2.2 Recognition of Trusts Act 1987
21(1)
2.2.3 Lord Browne-Wilkinson's essential characteristics of a trust
22(1)
2.3 Characteristics of a trust
23(7)
2.3.1 Trust property
23(1)
2.3.2 Separation of legal and equitable interests
23(1)
2.3.3 Sub-trusts
24(1)
2.3.4 Obligatory
24(1)
2.3.5 Inter vivos or on death
24(1)
2.3.6 The settlor's position
24(2)
2.3.7 The trustees' position
26(1)
2.3.8 The beneficiaries' position
26(1)
2.3.9 Equitable proprietary interests
27(1)
2.3.10 Bona fide transferee of the legal estate for value without notice
28(2)
2.4 Trusts and other relationships
30(2)
2.4.1 Trusts and gifts
30(1)
2.4.2 Trusts and contracts
30(1)
2.4.3 Trusts and bailment contracts
31(1)
2.4.4 Trustees and personal representatives
31(1)
2.4.5 Trusts and agency
32(1)
2.5 Classification of trusts
32(2)
2.5.1 Private/Public trusts
32(1)
2.5.2 Fixed/Discretionary trusts
33(1)
2.5.3 Resulting trusts
33(1)
2.5.4 Constructive trusts
34(1)
2.5.5 Statutory trusts
34(1)
2.6 Reasons for the creation of express trusts
34(3)
Sample Essay Question
37(1)
Further Reading
37(2)
3 The 'Three Certainties' Test 39(36)
3.1 Introduction
39(1)
3.2 Certainty of intention
40(8)
3.2.1 Intention-a question of fact and degree
40(1)
3.2.2 Intention to benefit distinct from intention to create a trust
41(5)
3.2.3 Precatory words
46(2)
3.2.4 Effect of uncertainty of intention
48(1)
3.3 Certainty of subject-matter
48(7)
3.3.1 Certainty of trust property
49(4)
3.3.2 Beneficial interests
53(1)
3.3.3 Effect of uncertainty of subject-matter
54(1)
3.4 Certainty of objects
55(17)
3.4.1 Fixed trusts
55(2)
3.4.2 Discretionary trusts
57(1)
3.4.3 Powers of appointment
58(2)
3.4.4 Analysis of the 'any given postulant' test
60(3)
3.4.5 Distinct approaches to the 'any given postulant' test
63(9)
Sample Essay Question
72(1)
Further Reading
73(2)
4 Constitution Of An Express Trust 75(48)
4.1 Introduction
75(1)
4.2 The rule in Milroy v Lord [ 1862]
76(8)
4.2.1 Transfer and declaration mode
77(1)
4.2.2 Transfer of shares in a private company
78(6)
4.3 Self-declaration of trust
84(1)
4.4 No self-declaration following imperfect transfer
85(1)
4.5 The settlor may expressly adopt both modes of creation
86(1)
4.6 Multiple trustees including the settlor
87(2)
4.7 No trust of future property
89(1)
4.8 Trusts of choses in action
90(4)
4.8.1 Fletcher restricted to debts enforceable at law
92(2)
4.9 Consequences of a perfect trust
94(1)
4.10 Incompletely constituted trusts
94(4)
4.10.1 Agreements enforceable by non-volunteers
95(1)
4.10.2 Covenants to create trusts before the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999
96(1)
4.10.3 Effect of the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999
97(1)
Sample Essay Question
98(1)
4.11 Introduction to exceptions to the rule that equity will not assist a volunteer
99(4)
4.11.1 The rule in Strong v Bird
99(1)
4.11.2 The nature of the donor's intention
100(3)
4.12 Donatio mortis causa
103(9)
4.12.1 Contemplation of death
104(2)
4.12.2 Conditional on death
106(1)
4.12.3 Parting with dominion
107(3)
4.12.4 The types of property
110(2)
4.13 Proprietary estoppel
112(8)
4.13.1 Five probanda
112(2)
4.13.2 Unconscionability
114(1)
4.13.3 Assurance or expectation
114(3)
4.13.4 Detrimental reliance
117(1)
4.13.5 Nature of the interest acquired
118(2)
Sample Essay Question
120(1)
Further Reading
121(2)
5 Formalities For The Creation Of Express Trusts 123(18)
5.1 Introduction
123(1)
5.2 Declaration of a trust of land
123(2)
5.2.1 'Land or an interest in land'
124(1)
5.2.2 'Declarations of trusts'
124(1)
5.2.3 'Manifested and proved by some writing'
124(1)
5.2.4 'Writing'
125(1)
5.2.5 Signature
125(1)
5.3 Exclusion
125(1)
5.4 Dispositions under s 53(1)(c) of the Law of Property Act 1925
126(13)
5.4.1 Direction to trustees
129(2)
5.4.2 Transfer of both the legal and equitable titles to a third party
131(1)
5.4.3 Section 53(2) of the Law of Property Act 1925
132(3)
5.4.4 Overlap between subsections 53(1)(b) and (c) of the Law of Property Act 1925
135(1)
5.4.5 Estoppel
135(1)
5.4.6 Self-declaration of trust of part of an equitable interest
135(2)
5.4.7 Disclaimers
137(1)
5.4.8 Pension scheme nominations
137(2)
Sample Essay Question
139(1)
Further Reading
140(1)
6 Discretionary Trusts 141(18)
6.1 Introduction
141(1)
6.2 Exhaustive/Non-exhaustive discretionary trusts
142(1)
6.3 Period of accumulation
143(1)
6.4 Reasons for creating discretionary trusts
144(1)
6.4.1 Flexibility
144(1)
6.4.2 Protection of objects from creditors
144(1)
6.5 Administrative discretion
144(1)
6.6 Mere powers and trust powers
144(1)
6.7 Trust powers (discretionary trusts)
145(3)
6.8 Duties imposed on fiduciaries
148(1)
6.9 Control of trustees' discretion
149(3)
6.10 Status of objects under discretionary trusts
152(2)
6.10.1 Individual interest
152(2)
6.10.2 Group interest
154(1)
6.11 Protective trusts under s 33 of the Trustee Act 1925
154(4)
6.11.1 Determining events (forfeiture)
155(1)
6.11.2 Other examples of forfeiting events
156(2)
Sample Essay Question
158(1)
Further Reading
158(1)
7 Resulting Trusts 159(44)
7.1 Introduction
159(1)
7.2 Automatic and presumed resulting trusts
160(3)
7.3 Automatic resulting trusts
163(20)
7.3.1 Quistclose analysis
167(4)
7.3.2 Surplus of trust funds
171(3)
7.3.3 Dissolution of unincorporated associations
174(9)
7.4 Presumed resulting trusts
183(18)
7.4.1 Purchase in the name of another
184(1)
7.4.2 Voluntary transfer in the name of another
185(1)
7.4.3 Presumption of advancement
186(3)
7.4.4 Rebuttal of the presumptions
189(1)
7.4.5 Intended unlawful activity and rebuttal evidence
190(11)
Sample Essay Question
201(1)
Further Reading
202(1)
8 Constructive Trusts I 203(78)
8.1 Introduction
203(1)
8.2 Constructive trusts/duty to account
204(2)
8.3 Institutional and remedial constructive trusts
206(1)
8.4 Recognised categories of constructive trusts
207(31)
8.4.1 Conflict of duty and interest
209(2)
8.4.2 Fiduciary relationship
211(1)
8.4.3 Unauthorised remuneration or financial benefit received by trustee or fiduciary
212(9)
8.4.4 Bribes or secret profits received by fiduciaries
221(10)
8.4.5 Trustee-director's remuneration
231(1)
8.4.6 Occasions when a trustee may receive remuneration
232(2)
8.4.7 Purchases of trust property (rule against self-dealing)
234(4)
8.5 Public policy and the Forfeiture Act 1982
238(6)
8.6 Contracts for the sale of land
244(1)
8.7 Equity will not allow a statute to be used as an engine for fraud
244(2)
8.8 Strangers as constructive trustees
246(32)
8.8.1 Introduction
246(2)
8.8.2 Trustees de son tort
248(1)
8.8.3 Knowingly receiving or dealing with trust property for his own use
249(6)
8.8.4 Alternative rationale of liability
255(5)
8.8.5 Dishonest assistance or accessory liability
260(3)
8.8.6 Royal Brunei v Tan analysis
263(3)
8.8.7 Dishonesty
266(12)
Sample Essay Question
278(2)
Further Reading
280(1)
9 Constructive Trusts II-The Family Home 281(52)
9.1 Introduction
281(1)
9.2 Proprietary rights in the family home
281(21)
9.2.1 Legal title in the joint names of the parties
282(11)
9.2.2 Investment properties
293(5)
9.2.3 Legal title in the name of one party only
298(4)
9.3 Nature of the trust
302(19)
9.3.1 Common intention
305(3)
9.3.2 Domestic duties
308(1)
9.3.3 Indirect contributions
309(3)
9.3.4 The unwarranted requirement for express discussions between the parties
312(1)
9.3.5 Reliance and detriment
313(1)
9.3.6 Date and method of valuation of the interest
314(5)
9.3.7 Imputed intention
319(2)
9.4 Section 37 of the Matrimonial Proceedings and Property Act 1970
321(1)
9.5 Order of sale
322(1)
9.6 Status of ante-nuptial and post-nuptial agreements
322(7)
Sample Essay Question
329(2)
Further Reading
331(2)
10 Secret Trusts And Mutual Wills 333(30)
10.1 Introduction
333(1)
10.2 Two types of secret trust
334(2)
10.3 Basis for enforcing secret trusts
336(2)
10.4 Requirements for the creation of fully secret trusts
338(5)
10.4.1 No agreement for transferee to hold as trustee
341(1)
10.4.2 Terms of trust not communicated
341(1)
10.4.3 Two or more legatees
342(1)
10.5 Requirements for the creation of half-secret trusts
343(5)
10.6 Unresolved issues connected with secret trusts
348(3)
10.6.1 Standard of proof
348(1)
10.6.2 Death of a secret beneficiary
349(1)
10.6.3 Death of a secret trustee
349(1)
10.6.4 Classification of secret trusts
350(1)
10.7 Mutual wills
351(8)
10.7.1 The agreement
352(2)
10.7.2 The effect of the agreement
354(3)
10.7.3 The scope of the agreement
357(2)
Sample Essay Question
359(1)
Further Reading
360(3)
11 Private Purpose Trusts 363(20)
11.1 Introduction
363(1)
11.2 Reasons for failure of a private purpose trust
364(4)
11.2.1 Lack of beneficiaries
365(1)
11.2.2 Uncertainty
365(1)
11.2.3 Perpetuity rule
366(2)
11.3 Exceptions to the Astor principle
368(1)
11.3.1 Trusts for the maintenance of animals
368(1)
11.3.2 Monument cases
368(1)
11.3.3 Saying of masses
369(1)
11.4 The Denley approach
369(3)
11.5 Gifts to unincorporated associations
372(8)
Sample Essay Question
380(1)
Further Reading
381(2)
12 Charitable Trusts 383(68)
12.1 Introduction
383(2)
12.2 Certainty of objects
385(4)
12.3 Perpetuity
389(1)
12.4 The cy-pres doctrine
389(1)
12.5 Fiscal advantages
389(1)
12.6 Registration
389(1)
12.7 Status of charitable organisations
390(1)
12.8 Charitable purposes
391(2)
12.9 Public benefit or element
393(30)
12.9.1 Public benefit
393(6)
12.9.2 Public benefit and poverty exception
399(3)
12.9.3 Classification of charitable purposes
402(3)
12.9.4 Consideration of the charitable purposes
405(18)
12.10 Political purposes
423(2)
12.11 The cy-pres doctrine
425(19)
12.11.1 Impossibility
428(1)
12.11.2 Section 62 of the Charities Act 2011
429(4)
12.11.3 General charitable intention
433(9)
12.11.4 Sections 63-66 of the Charities Act 2011
442(2)
12.12 The Charity Commission
444(1)
12.13 Charity Tribunal (First Tier Tribunal)
444(1)
12.14 The Attorney General
444(1)
12.15 Litigation by charities
445(2)
Sample Essay Question
447(2)
Further Reading
449(2)
13 Appointment, Retirement And Removal Of Trustees 451(14)
13.1 Introduction
451(1)
13.2 Appointment
451(7)
13.2.1 Creation of a new trust
451(1)
13.2.2 Continuance of the trust
452(6)
13.3 Retirement
458(1)
13.3.1 Retirement procedure under s 39
458(1)
13.3.2 Retirement under a court order
459(1)
13.4 Removal
459(3)
13.4.1 Court order
459(3)
Sample Essay Question
462(1)
Further Reading
463(2)
14 Duties And Powers Of Trustees 465(38)
14.1 Introduction
465(1)
14.2 Duties of trustees
466(4)
14.2.1 Duty and standard of care at common law
466(3)
14.2.2 Duty and standard of care under the Trustee Act 2000
469(1)
14.3 Duty to act unanimously
470(1)
14.4 Duty to act impartially
471(3)
14.5 Duty to act personally
474(2)
14.5.1 Power to appoint nominees
475(1)
14.5.2 Power to appoint custodians
475(1)
14.5.3 Persons who may be appointed as nominees or custodians
475(1)
14.5.4 Review of acts of agents, nominees and custodians
475(1)
14.5.5 Liability for the acts of agents, nominees and custodians
476(1)
14.6 Other statutory provisions permitting delegation of discretions
476(1)
14.6.1 Delegation under the Trusts of Land and Appointment of Trustees Act 1996
476(1)
14.7 Exclusion clauses
477(3)
14.8 Duty to provide accounts and information
480(1)
14.9 Duty to distribute to the correct beneficiaries
481(1)
14.10 Duty not to make profits from the trust
482(8)
14.10.1 The rule against self-dealing
483(1)
14.10.2 The fair-dealing rule
484(1)
14.10.3 Remuneration and other financial benefits
485(4)
14.10.4 Competition with the trust
489(1)
14.11 Powers of investment
490(3)
14.11.1 Express power
490(1)
14.11.2 Statutory power under the Trustee Act 2000
490(3)
14.11.3 Enlargement of investment powers
493(1)
14.12 The right of beneficiaries to occupy land
493(1)
14.13 Powers of maintenance and advancement
493(5)
14.13.1 Power of maintenance
493(2)
14.13.2 Power of advancement
495(3)
14.14 Power of trustees to give receipts
498(1)
14.15 Power to partition land under a trust of land
498(3)
Sample Essay Question
501(1)
Further Reading
502(1)
15 Variation Of Trusts 503(20)
15.1 Introduction
503(1)
15.2 The rule in Saunders v Vautier
504(1)
15.3 Variation of the management powers of trustees
504(2)
15.3.1 Inherent jurisdiction of the court
504(1)
15.3.2 Section 57 of the Trustee Act 1925
505(1)
15.4 Variation of beneficial interests
506(15)
15.4.1 Section 53 of the Trustee Act 1925
506(1)
15.4.2 Section 64 of the Settled Land Act 1925
507(1)
15.4.3 Sections 23 and 24 of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973
507(1)
15.4.4 Section 96 of the Mental Health Act 1983
507(1)
15.4.5 Compromise (inherent jurisdiction)
507(1)
15.4.6 The Variation of Trusts Act 1958
508(13)
Sample Essay Question
521(1)
Further Reading
522(1)
16 Breach Of Trust 523(70)
16.1 Introduction
523(1)
16.2 Measure of liability
523(11)
16.2.1 Interest
531(3)
16.3 Contribution and indemnity between trustees
534(3)
16.3.1 Fraudulent benefit from breach of trust
535(1)
16.3.2 Breach committed on advice of a solicitor-trustee
536(1)
16.3.3 The rule in Chillingworth v Chambers
536(1)
16.4 Defences to an action for breach of trust
537(20)
16.4.1 Knowledge and consent of the beneficiaries
537(1)
16.4.2 Impounding the interest of a beneficiary
538(1)
16.4.3 Relief under s 61 of the Trustee Act 1925
538(7)
16.4.4 Limitation and laches
545(12)
16.5 Proprietary remedies (tracing or the claim in rem)
557(28)
16.5.1 Advantages of the proprietary remedy over personal remedies
560(1)
16.5.2 Tracing at common law
560(3)
16.5.3 Tracing in equity
563(22)
16.6 Tracing/subrogation
585(5)
Sample Essay Question
590(2)
Further Reading
592(1)
17 Equitable Remedies Of Injunctions And Specific Performance 593(26)
17.1 Introduction
593(1)
17.2 Injunctions
594(1)
17.3 Underlying principles
595(5)
17.4 Types of injunctions
600(10)
17.4.1 Perpetual injunctions
601(1)
17.4.2 Prohibitory injunctions
601(1)
17.4.3 Mandatory injunctions
602(1)
17.4.4 Quia timet injunctions
603(1)
17.4.5 Interim injunctions
604(4)
17.4.6 Freezing injunctions
608(1)
17.4.7 Search orders (Anton Piller orders)
609(1)
17.5 Specific performance
610(1)
17.6 Underlying principles for specific performance
611(5)
17.6.1 Damages inadequate
611(1)
17.6.2 Discretionary nature of the remedy
612(1)
17.6.3 Contracts requiring supervision
612(1)
17.6.4 Contracts for personal services
613(1)
17.6.5 Agreements that are futile
614(1)
17.6.6 Mistake and misrepresentation
614(2)
Sample Essay Question
616(2)
Further Reading
618(1)
Glossary 619(2)
Index 621
Mohamed Ramjohn is Associate Professor at Ealing Law School.

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