Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health 4th edition [Kõva köide]

(Uuem väljaanne: 9780128029657)
  • Formaat: Hardback, 598 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 276x216x33 mm, kaal: 1840 g, illustrations
  • Ilmumisaeg: 09-Mar-2012
  • Kirjastus: Academic Press Inc
  • ISBN-10: 0123819806
  • ISBN-13: 9780123819802 (Uuem väljaanne: 9780128029657)
Teised raamatud teemal:
  • Formaat: Hardback, 598 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 276x216x33 mm, kaal: 1840 g, illustrations
  • Ilmumisaeg: 09-Mar-2012
  • Kirjastus: Academic Press Inc
  • ISBN-10: 0123819806
  • ISBN-13: 9780123819802 (Uuem väljaanne: 9780128029657)
Teised raamatud teemal:
The fourth edition of this bestselling text will again provide the latest coverage of the biochemistry and physiology of vitamins and vitamin-like substances. Extensively revised and expanded on the basis of recent research findings with enlarged coverage of health effects of vitamin-like factors, it is ideally suited for students and an important reference for anyone interested in nutrition, food science, animal science or endocrinology. It contains a cohesive and well-organized presentation of each of the vitamins, as well as the history of their discoveries and current information about their roles in nutrition and health.

NEW TO THIS EDITION:

  • Includes approximately 30% new material
  • Substantial updates have been made to chapters on vitamins A, C, E, K, folate, and the quasi-vitamins
  • Provides checklists of systems affected by vitamin deficiencies and food sources of vitamins
  • Key concepts, learning objectives, vocabulary,case studies, study questions and additional reading lists are included making this ideally suited for students
  • Thoroughly updated with important recent research results, including citations to key reports, many added tables and several new figures
  • Addition of Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES III) data
  • Updated Dietary Reference Values


The fourth edition of this bestselling text will again provide the latest coverage of the biochemistry and physiology of vitamins and vitamin-like substances. Extensively revised and expanded on the basis of recent research findings with enlarged coverage of health effects of vitamin-like factors, it is ideally suited for students and an important reference for anyone interested in nutrition, food science, animal science or endocrinology. It contains a cohesive and well-organized presentation of each of the vitamins, as well as the history of their discoveries and current information about their roles in nutrition and health.

NEW TO THIS EDITION:

  • Includes approximately 30% new material
  • Substantial updates have been made to chapters on vitamins A, C, E, K, folate, and the quasi-vitamins
  • Provides checklists of systems affected by vitamin deficiencies and food sources of vitamins
  • Key concepts, learning objectives, vocabulary,case studies, study questions and additional reading lists are included making this ideally suited for students
  • Thoroughly updated with important recent research results, including citations to key reports, many added tables and several new figures
  • Addition of Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES III) data
  • Updated Dietary Reference Values

Arvustused

PRAISE FOR THE FIRST EDITION: "It was a pleasure to read this magnificent book that can be used for teaching and as a desk reference. In short, this is the premier textbook in vitamins and may be used at both the graduate and undergraduate levels." --JOURNAL OF OPTIMAL NUTRITION "This text would be useful for anyone teaching a course about vitamins." --FOOD TECHNOLOGY "The organization of the book is a unique and useful approach to presenting material. Students will find the formatting of individual chapters extremely useful. This is an excellent learning textbook for an undergraduate or early graduate course on the vitamins." --JOURNAL OF NUTRITION EDUCATION "The book is obviously valuable to those teaching or using information associated with vitamins. I also recommend the book to other teachers as a way of presenting material to students to learn rather than memorize." --JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICAL EDUCATION "The strength of this book is the clear description of the chemistry of each vitamin and related compounds and of the biochemistry and metabolic functions in the body. For those who want to build their knowledge of the vitamins on a chemical and biochemical base, this book will prove excellent." --AUSTRALIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

Muu info

Winner of Doody's Core Titles 2013 2013.
Preface xvii
Preface to the Third Edition xix
Preface to the Second Edition xxi
Preface to the First Edition xxiii
How to Use This Book xxv
Part I Perspectives on the Vitamins in Nutrition
1 What is a Vitamin?
3(4)
1 Thinking About Vitamins
3(1)
2 Vitamin: A Revolutionary Concept
4(1)
Everyday Word or Revolutionary Idea?
4(1)
Vitamin or Vitamine?
4(1)
3 An Operating Definition of a Vitamin
4(2)
Some Caveats
4(2)
4 The Recognized Vitamins
6(1)
2 Discovery of the Vitamins
7(26)
1 The Emergence of Nutrition as a Science
8(1)
2 The Process of Discovery in Nutritional Science
8(1)
Empiricism and Experiment
8(1)
3 The Empirical Phase of Vitamin Discovery
8(4)
Diseases Linked to Diet
9(2)
Ideas Prevalent by 1900
11(1)
Limitations of Empiricism
12(1)
4 The Experimental Phase of Vitamin Discovery
12(2)
Requirements of Nutrition Research
12(1)
Major Forces in the Emergence of Nutritional Science
13(1)
An Animal Model for Beriberi
13(1)
Antiberiberi Factor Is Announced
14(1)
5 The Vitamine Theory
14(3)
Defined Diets Revealed Needs for Accessory Factors
14(1)
Two Lines of Inquiry
14(1)
Two Lines of Inquiry Leading to the Discovery of the Vitamins
15(1)
The Lines Converge
15(1)
Funk's Theory
15(1)
Impact of the New Concept
15(2)
Elucidation of the Vitamines
17(1)
6 Elucidation of the Vitamins
17(10)
New Animal Model Reveals New Vitamin: "C"
17(1)
Fat-Soluble A: Actually Two Factors
18(1)
Vitamin A Prevents Rickets?
18(1)
New Vitamin: "D"
19(1)
β-Carotene, a Provitamin
19(1)
Vitamin A Linked to Vision
19(1)
The Nature of Vitamin D
19(1)
Multiple Identities of Water-Soluble B
20(1)
Vitamin B2: A Complex of Several Factors
20(1)
Components of the Vitamin B2 Complex
20(1)
Vitamin B2 Complex Yields Riboflavin
20(1)
Vitamin B2 Complex Yields Niacin
21(1)
Impact of an Animal Model for Pellagra
22(1)
B2 Complex Yields Pyridoxine
22(1)
B2 Complex Yields Pantothenic Acid
22(1)
A Fat-Soluble, Anti-Sterility Factor: Vitamin E
23(1)
Antihemorrhagic Factor: Vitamin K
23(1)
Bios Yields Biotin
24(1)
Anti-Anemia Factors
25(1)
Antipernicious Anemia Factor
26(1)
Vitamin B12 Isolated
27(1)
Vitamins Discovered in Only Five Decades
27(1)
7 Vitamin Terminology
27(2)
8 Other Factors Sometimes Called Vitamins
29(1)
9 The Modern History of the Vitamins
29(4)
Recommended Reading
30(3)
3 Properties of Vitamins
33(38)
1 Chemical and Physical Properties of the Vitamins
34(6)
Classifying the Vitamins According to Their Solubilities
34(6)
Vitamin Nomenclature
40(1)
2 Vitamin A
40(2)
Vitamin A Nomenclature
41(1)
Chemistry of Vitamin A
41(1)
Vitamin A Biopotency
42(1)
3 Vitamin D
42(3)
Vitamin D Nomenclature
43(1)
Vitamin D Chemistry
43(1)
Vitamin D Biopotency
44(1)
4 Vitamin E
45(1)
Vitamin E Nomenclature
45(1)
Vitamin E Chemistry
45(1)
Vitamin E Biopotency
46(1)
5 Vitamin K
46(1)
Vitamin K Nomenclature
46(1)
Vitamin K Chemistry
47(1)
Vitamin K Biopotency
47(1)
6 Vitamin C
47(2)
Vitamin C Nomenclature
48(1)
Vitamin C Chemistry
48(1)
Vitamin C Biopotency
49(1)
7 Thiamin
49(1)
Thiamin Nomenclature
49(1)
Thiamin Chemistry
49(1)
8 Riboflavin
50(1)
Riboflavin Nomenclature
50(1)
Riboflavin Chemistry
50(1)
9 Niacin
51(1)
Niacin Nomenclature
51(1)
Niacin Chemistry
51(1)
10 Vitamin B6
52(1)
Vitamin B6 Nomenclature
52(1)
Vitamin B6 Chemistry
52(1)
11 Biotin
53(1)
Biotin Nomenclature
53(1)
Biotin Chemistry
53(1)
12 Pantothenic Acid
53(1)
Pantothenic Acid Nomenclature
53(1)
Pantothenic Acid Chemistry
54(1)
13 Folate
54(1)
Folate Nomenclature
54(1)
Folate Chemistry
55(1)
14 Vitamin B12
55(2)
Vitamin B12 Nomenclature
56(1)
Vitamin B12 Chemistry
56(1)
15 General Properties of the Vitamins
57(2)
Multiple Forms of Vitamins
57(1)
Vitamin Stability
57(2)
Vitamin Analysis
59(1)
16 Physiological Utilization of the Vitamins
59(6)
Vitamin Bioavailability
59(1)
Vitamin Absorption
59(5)
Vitamin Transport
64(1)
Tissue Distribution of the Vitamins
65(1)
17 Metabolism of the Vitamins
65(4)
Some Vitamins Have Limited Biosynthesis
65(1)
Most Vitamins Require Metabolic Activation
66(1)
Vitamin Binding to Proteins
66(1)
Vitamin Excretion
66(3)
18 Metabolic Functions of the Vitamins
69(2)
Vitamins Serve Five Basic Functions
69(1)
Recommended Reading
70(1)
4 Vitamin Deficiency
71(22)
1 The Concept of Vitamin Deficiency
72(1)
What Is Meant by the Term Vitamin Deficiency?
72(1)
Vitamin Deficiencies Involve Cascades of Progressive Changes
72(1)
Stages of Vitamin Deficiency
73(1)
2 Clinical Manifestations of Vitamin Deficiencies
73(1)
Many Organ Systems Can Be Affected by Vitamin Deficiencies
73(1)
3 Vitamin Deficiency Diseases: Manifestations of Biochemical Lesions
73(3)
Relationships Between Biochemical Lesions and Clinical Diseases of Vitamin Deficiencies
73(3)
4 The Many Causes of Vitamin Deficiencies
76(17)
Primary and Secondary Causes of Vitamin Deficiencies
76(1)
Causes of Vitamin Deficiencies in Humans
76(3)
Causes of Vitamin Deficiencies in Animals
79(1)
Intervention is Most Effective in Early Stages of Vitamin Deficiency
79(11)
Recommended Reading
90(3)
Part II Considering the Individual Vitamins
5 Vitamin A
93(46)
1 The Significance of Vitamin A
94(1)
2 Sources of Vitamin A
94(3)
Dietary Sources of Vitamin A
94(1)
Expressing the Vitamin A Activities in Foods
95(1)
Foods Rich in Vitamin A
96(1)
3 Absorption of Vitamin A
97(3)
Absorption of Retinoids
97(1)
Absorption of Carotenoids
97(1)
Carotenoid Metabolism Linked to Absorption
97(2)
Mucosal Metabolism of Retinol
99(1)
4 Transport of Vitamin A
100(7)
Retinyl Esters Conveyed by Chylomicra in Lymph
100(1)
Transport of Carotenoids
100(1)
Impact of Abetalipoproteinemia
100(1)
Vitamin A Uptake by the Liver
101(1)
Retinol Transported Protein-Bound in the Plasma
101(2)
Other Vitamin A-Binding Proteins Involved in Vitamin A Transport
103(1)
Cellular Uptake of Retinol
104(1)
Transport Roles of Vitamin A-Binding Proteins
105(1)
Retinol Recycling
106(1)
Plasma Retinol Homeostasis
106(1)
Vitamin A in the Eye
106(1)
Milk Retinol
107(1)
5 Metabolism of Vitamin A
107(3)
Metabolic Fates of Retinol
107(2)
Role of Retinoid-Binding Proteins in Modulating Vitamin A Metabolism
109(1)
Excretion of Vitamin A
110(1)
6 Metabolic Functions of Vitamin A
110(8)
Vitamin A in Vision
110(2)
Systemic Functions of Vitamin A
112(1)
Vitamin A Regulation of Gene Transcription
112(3)
A Coenzyme Role for Vitamin A?
115(1)
Vitamin A in Embryogenesis
115(1)
Vitamin A in Reproduction
116(1)
Vitamin A in Bone Metabolism
116(1)
Vitamin A in Hematopoiesis
117(1)
7 Vitamin A in Health and Disease
118(8)
Immune Function
118(4)
Skin Health
122(1)
Obesity
122(1)
Drug Metabolism
123(1)
Antioxidant Protection
123(1)
Cardiovascular Health
124(1)
Anticarcinogenesis
124(2)
8 Vitamin A Deficiency
126(6)
Detection of Vitamin A Deficiency
129(2)
Treatment of Vitamin A Deficiency
131(1)
9 Vitamin A Toxicity
132(3)
Embryotoxic Potential of High Levels of Vitamin A
133(1)
Carotenoid Toxicity
134(1)
10 Case Studies
135(4)
Instructions
135(1)
Case 1
135(1)
Case 2
135(1)
Case 3
136(1)
Case Questions and Exercises
136(1)
Recommended Reading
137(2)
6 Vitamin D
139(42)
1 The Significance of Vitamin D
140(1)
2 Sources of Vitamin D
141(4)
Distribution in Foods
141(1)
Biosynthesis of Vitamin D3
142(3)
Bioactive Vitamin D Analogs
145(1)
3 Enteric Absorption of Vitamin D
145(1)
Micelle-Dependent Passive Diffusion
145(1)
4 Transport of Vitamin D
146(1)
Transfer from Chylomicra to Plasma
146(1)
Tissue Distribution
147(1)
5 Metabolism of Vitamin D
147(3)
Metabolic Activation
147(2)
Catabolism
149(1)
Regulation of Vitamin D Metabolism
149(1)
6 Metabolic Functions of Vitamin D
150(13)
Vitamin D3 as a Steroid Hormone
150(1)
1,25-(OH)2-D3 as the Metabolically Active Form
151(1)
Pathways of Vitamin D Function
151(4)
Roles of Vitamin D in Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism
155(6)
Vitamin D Functions in Non-Calcified Tissues
161(2)
7 Vitamin D in Health and Disease
163(8)
Autoimmune Diseases
163(4)
Risk of Falling
167(1)
Cardiovascular Health
167(1)
Anticarcinogenesis
167(3)
Healthful Vitamin D Status
170(1)
8 Vitamin D Deficiency
171(4)
Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency
171(1)
Signs of Vitamin D Deficiency
172(1)
Vitamin D Deficiency in Humans
172(2)
Vitamin D Deficiency in Animals
174(1)
9 Vitamin D Toxicity
175(1)
10 Case Studies
176(5)
Instructions
176(1)
Case 1
177(1)
Case 2
177(1)
Case Questions and Exercises
178(1)
Recommended Reading
178(3)
7 Vitamin E
181(32)
1 The Significance of Vitamin E
182(1)
2 Sources of Vitamin E
182(3)
Distribution in Foods
182(1)
Synthetic Forms
183(1)
Expressing Vitamin E Activity
183(1)
Dietary Sources of Vitamin E
183(2)
3 Absorption of Vitamin E
185(1)
Micelle-Dependent Diffusion
185(1)
Role of Mucosal Receptors
185(1)
Uptake into Lymphatic Circulation
185(1)
4 Transport of Vitamin E
186(5)
Roles of Lipoproteins
186(1)
Cellular Uptake
187(2)
Tissue Tocopherols
189(2)
5 Metabolism of Vitamin E
191(2)
Oxidation of the Chroman Group
191(1)
Redox Cycling
192(1)
Oxidation of the Phytyl Side Chain
192(1)
Other Metabolism
193(1)
6 Metabolic Functions of Vitamin E
193(5)
Vitamin E as a Biological Antioxidant
193(2)
Interrelationships of Vitamin E and Other Factors in Antioxidant Defense
195(1)
Physiological Roles of ROS
196(2)
Pro-Oxidant Potential of Vitamin E
198(1)
Non-Antioxidant Functions of Vitamin E
198(1)
7 Vitamin E in Health and Disease
198(8)
ROS of Metabolic Origin
199(1)
ROS of Exogenous Origin
200(1)
Disorders Involving Oxidative Stress
200(3)
Diseases Involving Inflammation
203(1)
Cardiovascular Health
203(2)
Anticarcinogenesis
205(1)
Other Conditions
206(1)
Use in Food Animals
206(1)
8 Vitamin E Deficiency
206(2)
9 Vitamin E Toxicity
208(1)
10 Case Studies
208(5)
Instructions
208(1)
Case 1
209(1)
Case 2
209(1)
Case Questions and Exercises
210(1)
Recommended Reading
210(3)
8 Vitamin K
213(20)
1 The Significance of Vitamin K
214(1)
2 Sources of Vitamin K
214(3)
Vitamers K
214(1)
Dietary Sources
215(1)
Bioavailability
215(1)
Intestinal Microbial Synthesis
216(1)
3 Absorption of Vitamin K
217(1)
Micellar Solubilization
217(1)
Active Transport of Phylloquinone
217(1)
Other Vitamers Absorbed by Diffusion
217(1)
4 Transport of Vitamin K
217(1)
Absorbed Vitamin K Transferred to Lipoproteins
217(1)
Tissue Distribution
218(1)
5 Metabolism of Vitamin K
218(3)
Side Chain Modification
218(1)
Redox Cycling
219(1)
Catabolism
220(1)
Vitamin K Antagonists
220(1)
6 Metabolic Functions of Vitamin K
221(5)
Vitamin K-Dependent γ-Carboxylations
221(1)
Vitamin K-Dependent Gla Proteins
221(5)
7 Vitamin K in Health and Disease
226(2)
Coagulation
226(1)
Bone Health
226(1)
Cardiovascular Health
226(1)
Anticarcinogenesis
226(1)
Obesity
227(1)
Nervous Function
227(1)
8 Vitamin K Deficiency
228(2)
Signs of Vitamin K Deficiency
228(1)
Risk Factors for Vitamin K Deficiency
228(2)
9 Vitamin K Toxicity
230(1)
10 Case Studies
230(3)
Instructions
230(1)
Case 1
230(1)
Case 2
231(1)
Case Questions and Exercises
231(1)
Recommended Reading
232(1)
9 Vitamin C
233(28)
1 The Significance of Vitamin C
234(1)
2 Sources of Vitamin C
234(3)
Distribution in Foods
234(1)
Stability in Foods
234(1)
Vitamin C Bioavailability
235(1)
Biosynthesis of Ascorbic Acid
235(1)
Dietary Need Due to Enzyme Deficiency
236(1)
3 Absorption of Vitamin C
237(1)
Species without Dietary Needs: Passive Uptake
237(1)
Species with Dietary Needs: Active Uptake
237(1)
4 Transport of Vitamin C
237(2)
Transport Predominantly in Reduced Form
237(1)
Cellular Uptake by the Same Mechanisms
237(1)
Tissue Distribution
238(1)
5 Metabolism of Vitamin C
239(1)
Oxidation
239(1)
Ascorbic Acid Regeneration
239(1)
Excretion
240(1)
6 Metabolic Functions of Vitamin C
240(6)
Electron Transport
241(1)
Antioxidant Functions
241(2)
Cellular Antioxidant Functions
243(1)
Metal Ion Metabolism
243(1)
Enzyme Co-Substrate Functions
244(2)
7 Vitamin C in Health and Disease
246(7)
Immunity and Inflammation
247(1)
Other Infections
248(1)
Cardiovascular Health
249(1)
Exercise Tolerance
250(1)
Diabetes
251(1)
Neurologic Function
251(1)
Pregnancy Outcomes
251(1)
Skin Health
251(1)
Cataracts
252(1)
Lung Health
252(1)
Anticarcinogenesis
252(1)
Bone Health
253(1)
Environmental Stress
253(1)
8 Vitamin C Deficiency
253(2)
Determinants of Risk
253(1)
General Signs of Deficiency
254(1)
Deficiency Signs in Humans
254(1)
Deficiency Signs in Animals
255(1)
Subclinical Deficiency
255(1)
"Rebound Scurvy"
255(1)
9 Vitamin C Toxicity
255(1)
10 Case Studies
256(5)
Instructions
256(1)
Case 1
256(1)
Case 2
257(1)
Case Questions and Exercises
258(1)
Recommended Reading
258(3)
10 Thiamin
261(16)
1 The Significance of Thiamin
262(1)
2 Sources of Thiamin
262(3)
Distribution in Foods
262(1)
Stability in Foods
262(1)
Thiamin Antagonists
263(2)
3 Absorption of Thiamin
265(1)
4 Transport of Thiamin
265(1)
Thiamin Bound to Serum Proteins
265(1)
Cellular Uptake
265(1)
Tissue Distribution
265(1)
5 Metabolism of Thiamin
266(1)
Phosphorylation
266(1)
Catabolism
266(1)
Excretion
266(1)
6 Metabolic Functions of Thiamin
267(2)
Cocarboxylase
267(1)
α-Keto Acid Dehydrogenases
267(1)
Transketolase
268(1)
Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Oxidation
268(1)
Thiamin Triphosphate
269(1)
7 Thiamin in Health and Disease
269(2)
Nervous Function
269(1)
Vascular Function
270(1)
Thiamin-Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia
271(1)
Thiamin Dependency
271(1)
Other Conditions
271(1)
8 Thiamin Deficiency
271(3)
Groups at Risk
271(1)
General Signs
271(1)
Polyneuritis in Animals
272(1)
Beriberi in Humans
273(1)
Other Conditions
274(1)
9 Thiamin Toxicity
274(1)
10 Case Studies
274(3)
Instructions
274(1)
Case 1
274(1)
Case 2
275(1)
Case Questions and Exercises
275(1)
Recommended Reading
275(2)
11 Riboflavin
277(14)
1 The Significance of Riboflavin
278(1)
2 Sources of Riboflavin
278(1)
Distribution in Foods
278(1)
Stability
278(1)
Bioavailability
279(1)
Role of Hindgut Microflora
279(1)
3 Absorption of Riboflavin
279(1)
Hydrolysis of Coenzyme Forms
279(1)
Active Transport of Free Riboflavin
279(1)
4 Transport of Riboflavin
279(1)
Protein Binding
279(1)
Specific Binding Proteins
280(1)
Cellular Uptake
280(1)
Tissue Distribution
280(1)
5 Metabolism of Riboflavin
280(2)
Conversion to Coenzyme Forms
280(1)
Glycosylation
281(1)
Catabolism
281(1)
Excretion
281(1)
6 Metabolic Functions of Riboflavin
282(2)
Coenzyme Functions
282(2)
Metabolic Roles
284(1)
7 Riboflavin in Health and Disease
284(1)
Oxidative Stress
284(1)
Vascular Disease
284(1)
Mineral Utilization
284(1)
Anticarcinogenesis
284(1)
Malaria
285(1)
Tryptophan Deficiency-Induced Cataract
285(1)
Defects in Fat Metabolism
285(1)
8 Riboflavin Deficiency
285(2)
Risk Factors for Riboflavin Deficiency
286(1)
Deficiency Signs in Humans
286(1)
Deficiency Disorders in Animals
287(1)
9 Riboflavin Toxicity
287(1)
10 Case Study
288(3)
Instructions
288(1)
Case
288(1)
Case Questions and Exercises
288(1)
Recommended Reading
288(3)
12 Niacin
291(18)
1 The Significance of Niacin
292(1)
2 Sources of Niacin
292(2)
Distribution in Foods
292(1)
Stability
292(1)
Bioavailability
292(1)
Importance of Dietary Tryptophan
293(1)
3 Absorption of Niacin
294(1)
Digestion of NAD/NADP
294(1)
Facilitated Diffusion
294(1)
4 Transport of Niacin
294(1)
Free in Plasma
294(1)
Cellular Uptake
294(1)
Niacin Receptor
294(1)
Tissue Storage
295(1)
5 Metabolism of Niacin
295(3)
Niacin Biosynthesis
295(3)
Catabolism
298(1)
Excretion
298(1)
6 Metabolic Functions of Niacin
298(2)
Coenzyme Functions
298(1)
Metabolic Roles
299(1)
ADP-Ribosylation
299(1)
Glucose Tolerance Factor
300(1)
7 Niacin in Health and Disease
300(3)
Cardiovascular Health
300(2)
Skin Health
302(1)
Lung Health
302(1)
Anticarcinogenesis
302(1)
Psychological Disorders
302(1)
Diabetes
303(1)
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
303(1)
Other Responses
303(1)
8 Niacin Deficiency
303(2)
General Signs
303(1)
Deficiency Signs in Humans
303(1)
Deficiency Signs in Animals
304(1)
Determinants of Niacin Status
304(1)
9 Niacin Toxicity
305(1)
Nicotinic Acid
305(1)
Nicotinamide
305(1)
10 Case Study
306(3)
Instructions
306(1)
Case
306(1)
Case Questions and Exercises
306(1)
Recommended Reading
307(2)
13 Vitamin B6
309(16)
1 The Significance of Vitamin B6
310(1)
2 Sources of Vitamin B6
310(1)
Distribution in Foods
310(1)
Stability
310(1)
Bioavailability
310(1)
Hindgut Microbial Synthesis
310(1)
3 Absorption of Vitamin B6
311(1)
Digestion of Food Forms
311(1)
Diffusion Linked to Phosphorylation
311(1)
4 Transport of Vitamin B6
312(1)
Plasma Vitamin B6
312(1)
Cellular Uptake
312(1)
Tissue Distribution
312(1)
5 Metabolism of Vitamin B6
312(2)
Interconversion of Vitamers
312(2)
Enzyme Binding
314(1)
Catabolism
314(1)
Excretion
314(1)
Effects of Alcohol and Other Drugs
314(1)
6 Metabolic Functions of Vitamin B6
314(3)
Mechanisms of Action
314(1)
Metabolic Roles
315(2)
7 Vitamin B6 in Health and Disease
317(3)
Vascular Disease
317(1)
Neurologic Function
317(1)
Immune Function
318(1)
Anticarcinogenesis
318(1)
Effects Associated with High Vitamin B6 Doses
318(1)
Congenital Disorders of Vitamin B6 Metabolism
319(1)
8 Vitamin B6 Deficiency
320(1)
Deficiency Syndromes in Animals
320(1)
Deficiency in Humans
321(1)
9 Vitamin B6 Toxicity
321(1)
10 Case Studies
322(3)
Instructions
322(1)
Case 1
322(1)
Case 2
322(1)
Case Questions and Exercises
323(1)
Recommended Reading
323(2)
14 Biotin
325(14)
1 The Significance of Biotin
326(1)
2 Sources of Biotin
326(2)
Distribution in Foods
326(1)
Stability
326(1)
Bioavailability
326(1)
Synthesis by Intestinal Microflora
327(1)
3 Absorption of Biotin
328(1)
Liberation from Bound Forms
328(1)
Two Types of Transport
328(1)
4 Transport of Biotin
328(1)
Unbound Biotin
328(1)
Protein-Bound Biotin
328(1)
Cellular Uptake
329(1)
Tissue Distribution
329(1)
5 Metabolism of Biotin
329(1)
Linkage to Apoenzymes
329(1)
Recycling the Vitamin
329(1)
Catabolism
330(1)
Excretion
330(1)
6 Metabolic Functions of Biotin
330(2)
Carboxylations
331(1)
Biotin Sensing
331(1)
Gene Expression
332(1)
Cell Cycle
332(1)
7 Biotin in Health and Disease
332(3)
Birth Defects
332(1)
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
333(1)
Disorders of Biotin Metabolism
333(1)
Egg White Injury
333(1)
Deficiency Syndromes in Animals
334(1)
Deficiency Signs in Humans
335(1)
8 Biotin Deficiency
335(1)
Subclinical Deficiency
335(1)
9 Biotin Toxicity
336(1)
10 Case Study
336(3)
Instructions
336(1)
Case
336(1)
Case Questions and Exercises
337(1)
Recommended Reading
337(2)
15 Pantothenic Acid
339(10)
1 The Significance of Pantothenic Acid
339(1)
2 Sources of Pantothenic Acid
340(1)
Distribution in Foods
340(1)
Stability
340(1)
Bioavailability
340(1)
3 Absorption of Pantothenic Acid
340(1)
Hydrolysis of Coenzyme Forms
340(1)
Two Types of Transport
340(1)
4 Transport of Pantothenic Acid
340(2)
Plasma and Erythrocytes
340(2)
Cellular Uptake
342(1)
Tissue Distribution
342(1)
5 Metabolism of Pantothenic Acid
342(1)
CoA Synthesis
342(1)
ACP Synthesis
343(1)
Catabolism of CoA and ACP
343(1)
Excretion
343(1)
6 Metabolic Functions of Pantothenic Acid
343(2)
General Functions
343(1)
CoA
344(1)
ACP
345(1)
7 Pantothenic Acid in Health and Disease
345(1)
Reduced Serum Cholesterol Level
345(1)
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
345(1)
Athletic Performance
345(1)
Wound Healing
345(1)
Other Outcomes
345(1)
Disorders of Pantothenic Acid Metabolism
346(1)
8 Pantothenic Acid Deficiency
346(1)
Deficiencies Rare
346(1)
Antagonists
346(1)
Deficiency Signs in Animals
346(1)
Deficiency Signs in Humans
347(1)
9 Pantothenic Acid Toxicity
347(1)
10 Case Study
347(2)
Experiment
347(1)
Case Questions and Exercises
347(1)
Recommended Reading
348(1)
16 Folate
349(28)
1 The Significance of Folate
350(1)
2 Sources of Folate
350(2)
Distribution in Foods
350(1)
Stability
350(1)
Bioavailability
351(1)
Synthesis by Intestinal Microflora
352(1)
3 Absorption of Folate
352(2)
Deconjugation of Polyglutamyl Folates
352(1)
Active Uptake by the Enterocyte
353(1)
Passive Diffusion into the Enterocyte
353(1)
Re-Conjugation
354(1)
Exportation
354(1)
4 Transport of Folate
354(2)
Free in Plasma
354(1)
Folate-Binding Proteins (FBP)
355(1)
Cellular Uptake
355(1)
Tissue Distribution
355(1)
5 Metabolism of Folate
356(4)
Methyl-Folate Trap
357(1)
Catabolism
358(1)
Excretion
359(1)
Polymorphisms of Enzymes in Folate Metabolism
359(1)
6 Metabolic Functions of Folate
360(2)
Single-Carbon Metabolism
360(1)
DNA Methylation
361(1)
Erythropoiesis
362(1)
7 Folate in Health and Disease
362(9)
Pernicious Anemia
362(1)
Infant Health
362(3)
Cardiovascular Health
365(3)
Anticarcinogenesis
368(1)
Immune Function
368(1)
Neurological Conditions
369(1)
Bone Health
369(1)
Malaria
370(1)
Arsenicosis
370(1)
Effects of Drugs on Folate Utilization
370(1)
8 Folate Deficiency
371(2)
Determinants of Folate Deficiency
371(1)
General Signs of Folate Deficiency
371(1)
Deficiency Syndromes in Animals
372(1)
Deficiency Signs in Humans
372(1)
9 Folate Toxicity
373(1)
10 Case Study
373(4)
Instructions
373(1)
Case
373(1)
Case Questions and Exercises
374(1)
Recommended Reading
374(3)
17 Vitamin B12
377(18)
1 The Significance of Vitamin B12
378(1)
2 Sources of Vitamin B12
378(1)
Distribution in Foods
378(1)
Stability
379(1)
Bioavailability
379(1)
3 Absorption of Vitamin B12
379(2)
Digestion
379(1)
Protein Binding
379(1)
Mechanisms of Absorption
380(1)
4 Transport of Vitamin B12
381(2)
Transport Proteins
381(1)
Transcobalamin Receptor
381(1)
Intracellular Protein Binding
382(1)
Distribution in Tissues
382(1)
Enterohepatic Circulation
383(1)
5 Metabolism of Vitamin B12
383(1)
Activation to Coenzyme Forms
383(1)
Catabolism
383(1)
Excretion
383(1)
Congenital Disorders of Vitamin B12 Metabolism
383(1)
6 Metabolic Functions of Vitamin B12
384(2)
Coenzyme Functions
384(1)
Interrelationship with Folate
385(1)
DNA Methylation
385(1)
7 Vitamin B12 in Health and Disease
386(2)
Neural Tube Defects (NTDs)
386(1)
Cardiovascular Health
386(1)
Neurological Function
386(1)
Anticarcinogenesis
387(1)
Osteoporosis
387(1)
Hearing Loss
387(1)
Cyanide Metabolism
388(1)
8 Vitamin B12 Deficiency
388(4)
Determinants of Vitamin B12 Deficiency
388(1)
Vegetarian Diets
388(1)
Malabsorption
388(2)
Congenital Disorders of Vitamin B12 Metabolism
390(1)
General Signs of Deficiency
390(1)
Marginal (Subclinical) Deficiencies
391(1)
Deficiency Syndromes in Animals
391(1)
Deficiency Signs in Humans
391(1)
Distinguishing Deficiencies of Vitamin B12 and Folate
391(1)
9 Vitamin B12 Toxicity
392(1)
10 Case Study
392(3)
Case
392(1)
Case Questions and Exercises
393(1)
Recommended Reading
393(2)
18 Quasi-Vitamins
395(42)
1 Is the List of Vitamins Complete?
396(1)
Common Features in the Recognition of Vitamins
396(1)
Limitations of Traditional Designations of Vitamins
396(1)
Quasi-Vitamins
397(1)
2 Choline
397(6)
Metabolite Acting Like a Vitamin
397(1)
Chemical Nature
397(1)
Distribution in Foods and Feedstuffs
397(1)
Absorption
398(1)
Transport and Cellular Uptake
398(2)
Choline Metabolism
400(1)
Metabolic Functions of Choline
401(1)
Conditions of Need
401(1)
Humans
402(1)
Health Effects
402(1)
Safety
403(1)
3 Carnitine
403(7)
Chemical Nature
403(1)
Dietary Sources
403(1)
Absorption
403(1)
Transport and Cellular Uptake
404(1)
Metabolism
404(1)
Metabolic Function
405(1)
Conditions of Need
406(2)
Health Effects
408(2)
Safety
410(1)
4 myo-Inositol
410(4)
Chemical Nature
410(1)
Dietary Sources
410(1)
Absorption and Transport
411(1)
Metabolism
412(1)
Metabolic Functions
413(1)
Conditions of Need
414(1)
Health Effects
414(1)
5 Pyrroloquinoline Quinone
414(2)
Chemical Nature
415(1)
Dietary Sources
415(1)
Absorption and Metabolism
415(1)
Metabolic Activities
415(1)
Conditions of Need
415(1)
Safety
416(1)
6 Ubiquinones
416(3)
Chemical Nature
416(1)
Dietary Sources
416(1)
Absorption and Tissue Distribution
416(1)
Metabolism
416(1)
Conditions of Need
417(1)
Health Effects
418(1)
Safety
419(1)
7 Flavonoids
419(4)
Ubiquitous Plant Metabolites
419(1)
Dietary Sources
420(1)
Absorption and Transport
420(1)
Metabolism
420(1)
Metabolic Effects
420(1)
Health Effects
421(2)
8 Non-Provitamin A Carotenoids
423(4)
Dietary Sources
423(1)
Absorption
424(1)
Metabolism
425(1)
Metabolic Effects
426(1)
Health Effects
426(1)
Safety
427(1)
9 Orotic Acid
427(1)
Chemical Nature
427(1)
Dietary Sources
427(1)
Metabolism
427(1)
Health Effects
427(1)
Safety
427(1)
10 p-Aminobenzoic Acid
428(1)
Precursor to Folate in Bacteria
428(1)
Chemical Nature
428(1)
Dietary Sources
428(1)
Metabolism
428(1)
Health Effects
428(1)
11 Lipoic Acid
428(2)
Chemistry
428(1)
Dietary Sources
428(1)
Absorption and Transport
429(1)
Metabolism
429(1)
Metabolic Functions
429(1)
Conditions of Need
429(1)
Health Effects
430(1)
Safety
430(1)
12 Ineffective Factors
430(1)
"Vitamin B15"
430(1)
Gerovital
431(1)
Laetrile
431(1)
13 Unidentified Growth Factors
431(1)
14 Questions of Semantics
431(6)
Recommended Reading
432(5)
Part III Using Current Knowledge of the Vitamins
19 Sources of the Vitamins
437(28)
1 Vitamins in Foods
437(5)
Vitamin Content Data
437(1)
Core Foods for Vitamins
438(3)
Vitamins in Human Diets
441(1)
Vitamins in Breast Milk and Formula Foods
442(1)
2 Predicting Vitamin Contents
442(6)
Sources of Inaccuracy
442(1)
Analytical Errors
443(1)
Natural Variation in Vitamin Contents
443(1)
Environmental Effects
443(3)
Effects of Agronomic Practices
446(1)
Tissue Variation
446(1)
Accommodating Variation in Vitamin Contents of Foods and Feedstuffs
447(1)
3 Vitamin Bioavailability
448(1)
Bioavailability
448(1)
4 Vitamin Losses
448(2)
Storage Losses
448(1)
Milling Losses
448(1)
Processing Losses
449(1)
Cooking Losses
450(1)
Cumulative Losses
450(1)
5 Vitamin Fortification
450(3)
Availability of Purified Vitamins
450(1)
Addition of Vitamins to Foods
451(1)
Stabilities of Vitamins Added to Foods
452(1)
Vitamin Intakes from Foods
452(1)
6 Biofortification
453(1)
7 Vitamin Labeling of Foods
453(3)
8 Vitamin Supplementation
456(2)
Vitamin Supplements
456(2)
Guidelines for Supplement Use
458(1)
9 Vitamins in Livestock Feeding
458(7)
Vitamins in Animal Feeds
458(1)
Losses of Vitamins from Feedstuffs and Finished Feeds
458(3)
Vitamin Premixes for Animal Feeds
461(1)
Stabilities of Vitamins in Feeds
462(2)
Recommended Reading
464(1)
20 Assessing Vitamin Status
465(14)
1 General Aspects of Nutritional Assessment
465(1)
Systems of Nutritional Assessment
466(1)
Methods of Nutritional Assessment
466(1)
2 Assessment of Vitamin Status
466(4)
Dietary Assessment
466(1)
Clinical Assessment
467(1)
Biochemical Assessment
467(1)
Available Biomarkers of Vitamin Status
467(1)
Interpreting Biomarker Data
468(2)
3 Vitamin Status of Human Populations
470(9)
Reserve Capacities of Vitamins
470(1)
National Nutrition Surveillance
470(1)
Vitamins in US Food Supply
470(4)
Nutritional Surveillance Reveals Vitamin Deficiencies
474(1)
Global Malnutrition
474(4)
Recommended Reading
478(1)
21 Quantifying Vitamin Needs
479(18)
1 Dietary Standards
480(1)
Purposes of Dietary Standards
480(1)
Allowances and Requirements
480(1)
2 Determining Dietary Standards for Vitamins
480(1)
Determining Nutrient Requirements
480(1)
3 Factors Affecting Vitamin Requirements
481(5)
Developing Vitamin Allowances
481(1)
Differences between Requirements and Allowances
482(1)
Applications of RDAs
483(1)
The RDA Concept
484(1)
Considering Non-Classical Functions of Nutrients
485(1)
New Paradigms for Nutrition
485(1)
Reconstructing the RDA
486(1)
4 Vitamin Allowances for Humans
486(4)
Several Standards
486(1)
RDAs
486(1)
The DRIs
487(3)
International Standards
490(1)
5 Vitamin Allowances for Animals
490(7)
Public and Private Information
490(5)
Recommended Reading
495(2)
22 Vitamin Safety
497(12)
1 Uses of Vitamins Above Required Levels
497(1)
Typical Uses Exceed Requirements
497(1)
Clinical Conditions Requiring Elevated Doses
497(1)
Other Putative Benefits of Elevated Doses
498(1)
2 Hazards of Excessive Vitamin Intakes
498(1)
Non-Linear Risk Responses to Vitamin Dosages
498(1)
Factors Affecting Vitamin Toxicity
498(1)
3 Signs of Hypervitaminoses
498(7)
Vitamin A
498(4)
Vitamin D
502(1)
Vitamin E
503(1)
Vitamin K
503(1)
Vitamin C
503(1)
Thiamin
504(1)
Riboflavin
504(1)
Niacin
504(1)
Vitamin B6
504(1)
Biotin
505(1)
Pantothenic Acid
505(1)
Folate
505(1)
Vitamin B12
505(1)
4 Safe Intakes of Vitamins
505(4)
Ranges of Safe Intakes
505(1)
Quantifying Safe Intakes
505(3)
Recommended Reading
508(1)
Appendix A Current and Obsolete Designations of Vitamins (Bolded) and Other Vitamin-Like Factors 509(4)
Appendix B Original Reports for Case Studies 513(2)
Appendix C A Core of Current Vitamin Literature 515(8)
Appendix D Vitamin Contents of Foods (units per 100g edible portion) 523(30)
Appendix E Vitamin Content of Feedstuffs (units per kg) 553(4)
Index 557
Gerald F. Combs, Jr. is internationally recognized as a leader in Nutrition, having published widely and conducted research ranging from fundamental studies with cultured cells and animal models to human metabolic and clinical investigations. His specialties include the metabolism and health roles of minerals and vitamins, and the linkages of agriculture and human health in national development. He has published more than 300 scientific papers and reviews and 14 books, and is an Emeritus Professor of Nutrition at Cornell University.

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