Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology 13th Revised edition [Kõva köide]

  • Formaat: Hardback, 1168 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 281x217x46 mm, kaal: 2540 g,

    Approx. 1000 illustrations (over 900 in full color)

  • Sari: Guyton Physiology
  • Ilmumisaeg: 20-May-2015
  • Kirjastus: W B Saunders Co Ltd
  • ISBN-10: 1455770051
  • ISBN-13: 9781455770052
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  • Formaat: Hardback, 1168 pages, kõrgus x laius x paksus: 281x217x46 mm, kaal: 2540 g,

    Approx. 1000 illustrations (over 900 in full color)

  • Sari: Guyton Physiology
  • Ilmumisaeg: 20-May-2015
  • Kirjastus: W B Saunders Co Ltd
  • ISBN-10: 1455770051
  • ISBN-13: 9781455770052
Teised raamatud teemal:
The 13th edition of Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology continues this bestselling titles long tradition asthe worlds foremost medical physiology textbook. Unlike other textbooks on this topic, thisclear and comprehensive guide has a consistent, single-author voice and focuses on the content most relevant to clinical and pre-clinical students. The detailed but lucid text is complemented bydidactic illustrations that summarize key concepts in physiology and pathophysiology.Reflects the latest advances in molecular biology and cardiovascular, neurophysiology and gastrointestinal topics.Bold full-color drawings and diagrams.Short, easy-to-read, masterfully edited chapters and a user-friendly full-color design.Clinical vignettes throughout the text all you to see core concepts applied to real-life situations.Larger font size emphasizes core information around how the body must maintain homeostasis in order to remain healthy, whilesupporting information and examples are detailed in smaller font and highlighted in pale blue.Summary figures and tables help quickly convey key processes covered in the text.Brand-new quick-reference chart of normal lab values on the inside back cover.Increased number of figures, clinical correlations, and cellular andmolecular mechanisms important for clinical medicine.Student Consult eBook version included with purchase. This enhanced eBook experienceincludes the complete text, interactive figures, references, plus 50 self-assessment questions and 16 animations.This new edition continues the long tradition of "Guyton" as one of the worlds favorite physiology textbooks

Arvustused

2016 BMA Awards: Highly Commended, Basic & Clinical Sciences "The 13th edition of Guyton and Hall d104book of Medical Physiology continues this bestselling title's long tradition as the world's foremost medical physiology textbook. Unlike other textbooks on this topic, this clear and comprehensive guide has a consistent, single-author voice and focuses on the content most relevant to clinical and pre-clinical students. The detailed but lucid text is complemented by didactic illustrations that summarize key concepts in physiology and pathophysiology." -Doody's Review Service

Unit I Introduction to Physiology: The Cell and General Physiology
Chapter 1 Functional Organization of the Human Body and Control of the "Internal Environment"
3(8)
Cells Are the Living Units of the Body
3(1)
Extracellular Fluid-The "Internal Environment"
3(1)
Homeostasis-Maintenance of a Nearly Constant Internal Environment
4(2)
Control Systems of the Body
6(4)
Summary-Automaticity of the Body
10(1)
Chapter 2 The Cell and Its Functions
11(16)
Organization of the Cell
11(1)
Physical Structure of the Cell
12(6)
Comparison of the Animal Cell With Precellular Forms of Life
18(1)
Functional Systems of the Cell
19(5)
Locomotion of Cells
24(3)
Chapter 3 Genetic Control of Protein Synthesis, Cell Function, and Cell Reproduction
27(20)
Genes in the Cell Nucleus Control Protein Synthesis
27(3)
The DNA Code in the Cell Nucleus Is Transferred to RNA Code in the Cell Cytoplasm-The Process of Transcription
30(5)
Synthesis of Other Substances in the Cell
35(1)
Control of Gene Function and Biochemical Activity in Cells
35(2)
The DNA-Genetic System Controls Cell Reproduction
37(4)
Cell Differentiation
41(1)
Apoptosis-Programmed Cell Death
41(1)
Cancer
41(6)
Unit II Membrane Physiology, Nerve, and Muscle
Chapter 4 Transport of Substances Through Cell Membranes
47(14)
The Cell Membrane Consists of a Lipid Bilayer With Cell Membrane Transport Proteins
47(1)
Diffusion
47(7)
"Active Transport" of Substances Through Membranes
54(7)
Chapter 5 Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials
61(14)
Basic Physics of Membrane Potentials
61(1)
Measuring the Membrane Potential
62(1)
Resting Membrane Potential of Neurons
63(2)
Neuron Action Potential
65(4)
Propagation of the Action Potential
69(1)
Re-establishing Sodium and Potassium Ionic Gradients After Action Potentials Are Completed-Importance of Energy Metabolism
69(1)
Plateau in Some Action Potentials
70(1)
Rhythmicity of Some Excitable Tissues-Repetitive Discharge
70(1)
Special Characteristics of Signal Transmission in Nerve Trunks
71(4)
Chapter 6 Contraction of Skeletal Muscle
75(14)
Physiological Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
75(2)
General Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
77(1)
Molecular Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
78(4)
Energetics of Muscle Contraction
82(1)
Characteristics of Whole Muscle Contraction
83(6)
Chapter 7 Excitation of Skeletal Muscle: Neuromuscular Transmission and Excitation-Contraction Coupling
89(8)
Transmission of Impulses From Nerve Endings to Skeletal Muscle Fibers: The Neuromuscular Junction
89(4)
Muscle Action Potential
93(1)
Excitation-Contraction Coupling
93(4)
Chapter 8 Excitation and Contraction of Smooth Muscle
97(12)
Contraction of Smooth Muscle
97(2)
Regulation of Contraction by Calcium Ions
99(3)
Nervous and Hormonal Control of Smooth Muscle Contraction
102(7)
Unit III The Heart
Chapter 9 Cardiac Muscle; The Heart as a Pump and Function of the Heart Valves
109(14)
Physiology of Cardiac Muscle
109(4)
Cardiac Cycle
113(6)
Regulation of Heart Pumping
119(4)
Chapter 10 Rhythmical Excitation of the Heart
123(8)
Specialized Excitatory and Conductive System of the Heart
123(3)
Control of Excitation and Conduction in the Heart
126(5)
Chapter 11 The Normal Electrocardiogram
131(8)
Characteristics of the Normal Electrocardiogram
131(2)
Flow of Current Around the Heart During the Cardiac Cycle
133(1)
Electrocardiographic Leads
134(3)
Methods for Recording Electrocardiograms
137(2)
Chapter 12 Electrocardiographic Interpretation of Cardiac Muscle and Coronary Blood Flow Abnormalities: Vectorial Analysis
139(16)
Principles of Vectorial Analysis of Electrocardiograms
139(2)
Vectorial Analysis of the Normal Electrocardiogram
141(3)
Mean Electrical Axis of the Ventricular QRS and Its Significance
144(3)
Conditions That Cause Abnormal Voltages of the QRS Complex
147(1)
Prolonged and Bizarre Patterns of the QRS Complex
148(1)
Current of Injury
148(4)
Abnormalities in the T Wave
152(3)
Chapter 13 Cardiac Arrhythmias and Their Electrocardiographic Interpretation
155(14)
Abnormal Sinus Rhythms
155(1)
Abnormal Rhythms That Result From Block of Heart Signals Within the Intracardiac Conduction Pathways
156(2)
Premature Contractions
158(2)
Paroxysmal Tachycardia
160(1)
Ventricular Fibrillation
161(3)
Atrial Fibrillation
164(1)
Atrial Flutter
165(1)
Cardiac Arrest
165(4)
Unit IV The Circulation
Chapter 14 Overview of the Circulation; Biophysics of Pressure, Flow, and Resistance
169(10)
Physical Characteristics of the Circulation
169(1)
Basic Principles of Circulatory Function
170(1)
Interrelationships of Pressure, Flow, and Resistance
171(8)
Chapter 15 Vascular Distensibility and Functions of the Arterial and Venous Systems
179(10)
Vascular Distensibility
179(1)
Arterial Pressure Pulsations
180(4)
Veins and Their Functions
184(5)
Chapter 16 The Microcirculation and Lymphatic System: Capillary Fluid Exchange, Interstitial Fluid, and Lymph Flow
189(14)
Structure of the Microcirculation and Capillary System
189(1)
Flow of Blood in the Capillaries-Vasomotion
190(1)
Exchange of Water, Nutrients, and Other Substances Between the Blood and Interstitial Fluid
191(1)
Interstitium and Interstitial Fluid
192(1)
Fluid Filtration Across Capillaries Is Determined by Hydrostatic and Colloid Osmotic Pressures and the Capillary Filtration Coefficient
193(5)
Lymphatic System
198(5)
Chapter 17 Local and Humoral Control of Tissue Blood Flow
203(12)
Local Control of Blood Flow in Response to Tissue Needs
203(1)
Mechanisms of Blood Flow Control
203(9)
Humoral Control of the Circulation
212(3)
Chapter 18 Nervous Regulation of the Circulation and Rapid Control of Arterial Pressure
215(12)
Nervous Regulation of the Circulation
215(9)
Special Features of Nervous Control of Arterial Pressure
224(3)
Chapter 19 Role of the Kidneys in Long-Term Control of Arterial Pressure and in Hypertension: The Integrated System for Arterial Pressure Regulation
227(18)
Renal-Body Fluid System for Arterial Pressure Control
227(7)
The Renin-Angiotensin System: Its Role in Arterial Pressure Control
234(7)
Summary of the Integrated, Multifaceted System for Arterial Pressure Regulation
241(4)
Chapter 20 Cardiac Output, Venous Return, and Their Regulation
245(14)
Normal Values for Cardiac Output at Rest and During Activity
245(1)
Control of Cardiac Output by Venous Return-The Frank-Starling Mechanism of the Heart
245(3)
Pathologically High or Low Cardiac Outputs
248(8)
Methods for Measuring Cardiac Output
256(3)
Chapter 21 Muscle Blood Flow and Cardiac Output During Exercise; the Coronary Circulation and Ischemic Heart Disease
259(12)
Blood Flow Regulation in Skeletal Muscle at Rest and During Exercise
259(3)
Coronary Circulation
262(9)
Chapter 22 Cardiac Failure
271(12)
Circulatory Dynamics in Cardiac Failure
271(4)
Unilateral Left Heart Failure
275(1)
Low-Output Cardiac Failure-Cardiogenic Shock
275(1)
Edema in Patients With Cardiac Failure
275(2)
Cardiac Reserve
277(6)
Chapter 23 Heart Valves and Heart Sounds; Valvular and Congenital Heart Defects
283(10)
Heart Sounds
283(3)
Abnormal Circulatory Dynamics in Valvular Heart Disease
286(2)
Abnormal Circulatory Dynamics in Congenital Heart Defects
288(2)
Use of Extracorporeal Circulation During Cardiac Surgery
290(1)
Hypertrophy of the Heart in Valvular and Congenital Heart Disease
290(3)
Chapter 24 Circulatory Shock and Its Treatment
293(12)
Physiological Causes of Shock
293(1)
Shock Caused by Hypovolemia-Hemorrhagic Shock
294(5)
Neurogenic Shock-Increased Vascular Capacity
299(1)
Anaphylactic Shock and Histamine Shock
300(1)
Septic Shock
300(1)
Physiology of Treatment in Shock
301(1)
Circulatory Arrest
302(3)
Unit V The Body Fluids and Kidneys
Chapter 25 The Body Fluid Compartments: Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids; Edema
305(18)
Fluid Intake and Output Are Balanced During Steady-State Conditions
305(1)
Body Fluid Compartments
306(1)
Constituents of Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids
307(1)
Measurement of Fluid Volumes in the Different Body Fluid Compartments-The Indicator-Dilution Principle
308(1)
Determination of Volumes of Specific Body Fluid Compartments
309(1)
Regulation of Fluid Exchange and Osmotic Equilibrium Between Intracellular and Extracellular Fluid
310(2)
Volume and Osmolality of Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids in Abnormal States
312(2)
Glucose and Other Solutions Administered for Nutritive Purposes
314(1)
Clinical Abnormalities of Fluid Volume Regulation: Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia
314(2)
Edema: Excess Fluid in the Tissues
316(4)
Fluids in the "Potential Spaces" of the Body
320(3)
Chapter 26 The Urinary System: Functional Anatomy and Urine Formation by the Kidneys
323(12)
Multiple Functions of the Kidneys
323(1)
Physiological Anatomy of the Kidneys
324(3)
Micturition
327(4)
Urine Formation Results From Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Reabsorption, and Tubular Secretion
331(4)
Chapter 27 Glomerular Filtration, Renal Blood Flow, and Their Control
335(12)
Glomerular Filtration-The First Step in Urine Formation
335(2)
Determinants of the GFR
337(3)
Renal Blood Flow
340(1)
Physiological Control of Glomerular Filtration and Renal Blood Flow
341(1)
Autoregulation of GFR and Renal Blood Flow
342(5)
Chapter 28 Renal Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion
347(24)
Tubular Reabsorption Is Quantitatively Large and Highly Selective
347(1)
Tubular Reabsorption Includes Passive and Active Mechanisms
347(6)
Reabsorption and Secretion Along Different Parts of the Nephron
353(6)
Regulation of Tubular Reabsorption
359(6)
Use of Clearance Methods to Quantify Kidney Function
365(6)
Chapter 29 Urine Concentration and Dilution; Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
371(18)
Kidneys Excrete Excess Water by Forming Dilute Urine
371(2)
Kidneys Conserve Water by Excreting Concentrated Urine
373(1)
Special Characteristics of the Loop of Henle That Cause Solutes to be Trapped in the Renal Medulla
374(7)
Control of Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
381(1)
Osmoreceptor-ADH Feedback System
381(3)
Importance of Thirst in Controlling Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
384(5)
Chapter 30 Renal Regulation of Potassium, Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium; Integration of Renal Mechanisms for Control of Blood Volume and Extracellular Fluid Volume
389(20)
Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Potassium Concentration and Potassium Excretion
389(7)
Control of Renal Calcium Excretion and Extracellular Calcium Ion Concentration
396(2)
Control of Renal Magnesium Excretion and Extracellular Magnesium Ion Concentration
398(1)
Integration of Renal Mechanisms for Control of Extracellular Fluid
398(1)
Importance of Pressure Natriuresis and Pressure Diuresis in Maintaining Body Sodium and Fluid Balance
399(2)
Distribution of Extracellular Fluid Between the Interstitial Spaces and Vascular System
401(1)
Nervous and Hormonal Factors Increase the Effectiveness of Renal-Body Fluid Feedback Control
402(3)
Integrated Responses to Changes in Sodium Intake
405(1)
Conditions That Cause Large Increases in Blood Volume and Extracellular Fluid Volume
405(1)
Conditions That Cause Large Increases in Extracellular Fluid Volume but With Normal Blood Volume
406(3)
Chapter 31 Acid-Base Regulation
409(18)
H+ Concentration Is Precisely Regulated
409(1)
Acids and Bases-Their Definitions and Meanings
409(1)
Defending Against Changes in 1-1+ Concentration: Buffers, Lungs, and Kidneys
410(1)
Buffering of H+ in the Body Fluids
410(1)
Bicarbonate Buffer System
411(2)
Phosphate Buffer System
413(1)
Proteins Are Important Intracellular Buffers
413(1)
Respiratory Regulation of Acid-Base Balance
414(1)
Renal Control of Acid-Base Balance
415(1)
Secretion of 1-1+ and Reabsorption of HCO3-by the Renal Tubules
416(2)
Combination of Excess H+ With Phosphate and Ammonia Buffers in the Tubule Generates "New" HCO3-
418(2)
Quantifying Renal Acid-Base Excretion
420(1)
Renal Correction of Acidosis-Increased Excretion of H+ and Addition of HCO3-to the Extracellular Fluid
421(1)
Renal Correction of Alkalosis-Decreased Tubular Secretion of 1-1+ and Increased Excretion of HCO3-
422(1)
Clinical Causes of Acid-Base Disorders
422(5)
Chapter 32 Diuretics, Kidney Diseases
427(18)
Diuretics and Their Mechanisms of Action
427(2)
Kidney Diseases
429(1)
Acute Kidney Injury
429(3)
Chronic Kidney Disease Is Often Associated With Irreversible Loss of Functional Nephrons
432(8)
Treatment of Renal Failure by Transplantation or by Dialysis With an Artificial Kidney
440(5)
Unit VI Blood Cells, Immunity, and Blood Coagulation
Chapter 33 Red Blood Cells, Anemia, and Polycythemia
445(10)
Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
445(7)
Anemias
452(1)
Polycythemia
453(2)
Chapter 34 Resistance of the Body to Infection: I. Leukocytes, Granulocytes, the Monocyte-Macrophage System, and Inflammation
455(10)
Leukocytes (White Blood Cells)
455(2)
Neutrophils and Macrophages Defend Against Infections
457(1)
Monocyte-Macrophage Cell System (Reticuloendothelial System)
458(2)
Inflammation: Role of Neutrophils and Macrophages
460(2)
Eosinophils
462(1)
Basophils
462(1)
Leukopenia
463(1)
Leukemias
463(2)
Chapter 35 Resistance of the Body to Infection: II. Immunity and Allergy
465(12)
Acquired (Adaptive) Immunity
465(10)
Allergy and Hypersensitivity
475(2)
Chapter 36 Blood Types; Transfusion; Tissue and Organ Transplantation
477(6)
Antigenicity Causes Immune Reactions of Blood
477(1)
0-A-B Blood Types
477(2)
Rh Blood Types
479(2)
Transplantation of Tissues and Organs
481(2)
Chapter 37 Hemostasis and Blood Coagulation
483(14)
Hemostasis Events
483(2)
Mechanism of Blood Coagulation
485(5)
Conditions That Cause Excessive Bleeding in Humans
490(1)
Thromboembolic Conditions
491(1)
Anticoagulants for Clinical Use
492(1)
Blood Coagulation Tests
493(4)
Unit VII Respiration
Chapter 38 Pulmonary Ventilation
497(12)
Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation
497(4)
Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities
501(2)
Alveolar Ventilation
503(1)
Functions of the Respiratory Passageways
504(5)
Chapter 39 Pulmonary Circulation, Pulmonary Edema, Pleural Fluid
509(8)
Physiological Anatomy of the Pulmonary Circulatory System
509(1)
Pressures in the Pulmonary System
509(1)
Blood Volume of the Lungs
510(1)
Blood Flow Through the Lungs and Its Distribution
510(1)
Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure Gradients in the Lungs on Regional Pulmonary Blood Flow
511(2)
Pulmonary Capillary Dynamics
513(2)
Fluid in the Pleural Cavity
515(2)
Chapter 40 Principles of Gas Exchange; Diffusion of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Through the Respiratory Membrane
517(10)
Physics of Gas Diffusion and Gas Partial Pressures
517(2)
Compositions of Alveolar Air and Atmospheric Air Are Different
519(2)
Diffusion of Gases Through the Respiratory Membrane
521(6)
Chapter 41 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Blood and Tissue Fluids
527(12)
Transport of Oxygen From the Lungs to the Body Tissues
527(7)
Transport of Carbon Dioxide in the Blood
534(2)
Respiratory Exchange Ratio
536(3)
Chapter 42 Regulation of Respiration
539(10)
Respiratory Center
539(2)
Chemical Control of Respiration
541(1)
Peripheral Chemoreceptor System for Control of Respiratory Activity-Role of Oxygen in Respiratory Control
542(3)
Regulation of Respiration During Exercise
545(1)
Other Factors That Affect Respiration
546(3)
Chapter 43 Respiratory Insufficiency-Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Oxygen Therapy
549(12)
Useful Methods for Studying Respiratory Abnormalities
549(2)
Pathophysiology of Specific Pulmonary Abnormalities
551(3)
Hypoxia and Oxygen Therapy
554(2)
Hypercapnia-Excess Carbon Dioxide in the Body Fluids
556(1)
Artificial Respiration
556(5)
Unit VIII Aviation, Space, and Deep-Sea Diving Physiology
Chapter 44 Aviation, High Altitude, and Space Physiology
561(8)
Effects of Low Oxygen Pressure on the Body
561(4)
Effects of Acceleratory Forces on the Body in Aviation and Space Physiology
565(2)
"Artificial Climate" in the Sealed Spacecraft
567(1)
Weightlessness in Space
567(2)
Chapter 45 Physiology of Deep-Sea Diving and Other Hyperbaric Conditions
569(8)
Effect of High Partial Pressures of Individual Gases on the Body
569(4)
Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) Diving
573(1)
Special Physiological Problems in Submarines
574(1)
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
574(3)
Unit IX The Nervous System: A. General Principles and Sensory Physiology
Chapter 46 Organization of the Nervous System, Basic Functions of Synapses, and Neurotransmitters
577(18)
General Design of the Nervous System
577(2)
Major Levels of Central Nervous System Function
579(1)
Comparison of the Nervous System to a Computer
580(1)
Central Nervous System Synapses
580(12)
Some Special Characteristics of Synaptic Transmission
592(3)
Chapter 47 Sensory Receptors, Neuronal Circuits for Processing Information
595(12)
Types of Sensory Receptors and the Stimuli They Detect
595(1)
Transduction of Sensory Stimuli Into Nerve Impulses
596(4)
Transmission of Signals of Different Intensity in Nerve Tracts-Spatial and Temporal Summation
600(1)
Transmission and Processing of Signals in Neuronal Pools
601(4)
Instability and Stability of Neuronal Circuits
605(2)
Chapter 48 Somatic Sensations: I. General Organization, the Tactile and Position Senses
607(14)
Classification of Somatic Senses
607(1)
Detection and Transmission of Tactile Sensations
607(2)
Sensory Pathways for Transmitting Somatic Signals Into the Central Nervous System
609(1)
Transmission in the Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscal System
609(7)
Transmission of Less Critical Sensory Signals in the Anterolateral Pathway
616(2)
Some Special Aspects of Somatosensory Function
618(3)
Chapter 49 Somatic Sensations: II. Pain, Headache, and Thermal Sensations
621(14)
Types of Pain and Their Qualities-Fast Pain and Slow Pain
621(1)
Pain Receptors and Their Stimulation
621(1)
Dual Pathways for Transmission of Pain Signals Into the Central Nervous System
622(3)
Pain Suppression (Analgesia) System in the Brain and Spinal Cord
625(1)
Referred Pain
626(1)
Visceral Pain
626(2)
Some Clinical Abnormalities of Pain and Other Somatic Sensations
628(1)
Headache
629(1)
Thermal Sensations
630(5)
Unit X The Nervous System: B. The Special Senses
Chapter 50 The Eye: I. Optics of Vision
635(12)
Physical Principles of Optics
635(3)
Optics of the Eye
638(6)
Fluid System of the Eye-Intraocular Fluid
644(3)
Chapter 51 The Eye: II. Receptor and Neural Function of the Retina
647(14)
Anatomy and Function of the Structural Elements of the Retina
647(2)
Photochemistry of Vision
649(5)
Color Vision
654(1)
Neural Function of the Retina
655(6)
Chapter 52 The Eye: III. Central Neurophysiology of Vision
661(12)
Visual Pathways
661(1)
Organization and Function of the Visual Cortex
662(2)
Neuronal Patterns of Stimulation During Analysis of the Visual Image
664(2)
Eye Movements and Their Control
666(3)
Autonomic Control of Accommodation and Pupillary Aperture
669(4)
Chapter 53 The Sense of Hearing
673(12)
Tympanic Membrane and the Ossicular System
673(1)
Cochlea
674(5)
Central Auditory Mechanisms
679(3)
Hearing Abnormalities
682(3)
Chapter 54 The Chemical Senses-Taste and Smell
685(10)
Sense of Taste
685(3)
Sense of Smell
688(7)
Unit XI The Nervous System: C. Motor and Integrative Neurophysiology
Chapter 55 Motor Functions of the Spinal Cord; the Cord Reflexes
695(12)
Organization of the Spinal Cord for Motor Functions
695(2)
Muscle Sensory Receptors-Muscle Spindles and Golgi Tendon Organs-and Their Roles in Muscle Control
697(5)
Flexor Reflex and the Withdrawal Reflexes
702(1)
Crossed Extensor Reflex
703(1)
Reciprocal Inhibition and Reciprocal Innervation
703(1)
Reflexes of Posture and Locomotion
704(1)
Scratch Reflex
705(1)
Spinal Cord Reflexes That Cause Muscle Spasm
705(1)
Autonomic Reflexes in the Spinal Cord
705(1)
Spinal Cord Transection and Spinal Shock
705(2)
Chapter 56 Cortical and Brain Stem Control of Motor Function
707(14)
Motor Cortex and Corticospinal Tract
707(6)
Control of Motor Functions by the Brain Stem
713(1)
Vestibular Sensations and Maintenance of Equilibrium
714(5)
Functions of Brain Stem Nuclei in Controlling Subconscious, Stereotyped Movements
719(2)
Chapter 57 Contributions of the Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia to Overall Motor Control
721(16)
The Cerebellum and Its Motor Functions
721(9)
The Basal Ganglia and Their Motor Functions
730(5)
Integration of the Many Parts of the Total Motor Control System
735(2)
Chapter 58 Cerebral Cortex, Intellectual Functions of the Brain, Learning, and Memory
737(14)
Physiological Anatomy of the Cerebral Cortex
737(1)
Functions of Specific Cortical Areas
738(5)
Function of the Brain in Communication-Language Input and Language Output
743(2)
Function of the Corpus Callosum and Anterior Commissure to Transfer Thoughts, Memories, Training, and Other Information Between the Two Cerebral Hemispheres
745(1)
Thoughts, Consciousness, and Memory
745(6)
Chapter 59 Behavioral and Motivational Mechanisms of the Brain-The Limbic System and the Hypothalamus
751(12)
Activating-Driving Systems of the Brain
751(3)
Limbic System
754(1)
The Hypothalamus, a Major Control Headquarters for the Limbic System
755(4)
Specific Functions of Other Parts of the Limbic System
759(4)
Chapter 60 States of Brain Activity-Sleep, Brain Waves, Epilepsy, Psychoses, and Dementia
763(10)
Sleep
763(3)
Brain Waves
766(2)
Seizures and Epilepsy
768(2)
Psychotic Behavior-Roles of Specific Neurotransmitter Systems
770(1)
Alzheimer's Disease-Amyloid Plaques and Depressed Memory
771(2)
Chapter 61 The Autonomic Nervous System and the Adrenal Medulla
773(14)
General Organization of the Autonomic Nervous System
773(2)
Basic Characteristics of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Function
775(7)
Autonomic Reflexes
782(1)
Stimulation of Discrete Organs in Some Instances and Mass Stimulation in Other Instances by the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems
783(1)
Pharmacology of the Autonomic Nervous System
784(3)
Chapter 62 Cerebral Blood Flow, Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Brain Metabolism
787(10)
Cerebral Blood Flow
787(3)
Cerebrospinal Fluid System
790(4)
Brain Metabolism
794(3)
Unit XII Gastrointestinal Physiology
Chapter 63 General Principles of Gastrointestinal Function-Motility, Nervous Control, and Blood Circulation
797(10)
General Principles of Gastrointestinal Motility
797(2)
Neural Control of Gastrointestinal Function-Enteric Nervous System
799(3)
Hormonal Control of Gastrointestinal Motility
802(1)
Functional Types of Movements in the Gastrointestinal Tract
803(1)
Gastrointestinal Blood Flow-Splanchnic Circulation
804(3)
Chapter 64 Propulsion and Mixing of Food in the Alimentary Tract
807(10)
Ingestion of Food
807(2)
Motor Functions of the Stomach
809(3)
Movements of the Small Intestine
812(2)
Movements of the Colon
814(2)
Other Autonomic Reflexes That Affect Bowel Activity
816(1)
Chapter 65 Secretory Functions of the Alimentary Tract
817(16)
General Principles of Alimentary Tract Secretion
817(2)
Secretion of Saliva
819(2)
Esophageal Secretion
821(1)
Gastric Secretion
821(4)
Pancreatic Secretion
825(2)
Bile Secretion by the Liver
827(3)
Secretions of the Small Intestine
830(1)
Secretion of Mucus by the Large Intestine
831(2)
Chapter 66 Digestion and Absorption in the Gastrointestinal Tract
833(10)
Digestion of the Various Foods by Hydrolysis
833(4)
Basic Principles of Gastrointestinal Absorption
837(1)
Absorption in the Small Intestine
837(4)
Absorption in the Large Intestine: Formation of Feces
841(2)
Chapter 67 Physiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders
843(10)
Disorders of Swallowing and the Esophagus
843(1)
Disorders of the Stomach
843(2)
Disorders of the Small Intestine
845(1)
Disorders of the Large Intestine
846(1)
General Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract
847(6)
Unit XIII Metabolism and Temperature Regulation
Chapter 68 Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Formation of Adenosine Triphosphate
853(10)
Release of Energy From Foods and "Free Energy"
853(1)
Adenosine Triphosphate Is the "Energy Currency" of the Body
853(1)
Central Role of Glucose in Carbohydrate Metabolism
854(1)
Transport of Glucose Through the Cell Membrane
854(1)
Glycogen Is Stored in the Liver and Muscle
855(1)
Release of Energy From Glucose by the Glycolytic Pathway
856(2)
Formation of Large Quantities of ATP by Oxidation of Hydrogen-the Process of Oxidative Phosphorylation
858(1)
Summary of ATP Formation During the Breakdown of Glucose
859(1)
Anaerobic Release of Energy-Anaerobic Glycolysis
860(1)
Release of Energy From Glucose by the Pentose Phosphate Pathway
861(1)
Formation of Carbohydrates From Proteins and Fats-Gluconeogenesis
861(2)
Chapter 69 Lipid Metabolism
863(12)
Basic Chemical Structure of Triglycerides (Neutral Fat)
863(1)
Transport of Lipids in the Body Fluids
863(2)
Fat Deposits
865(1)
Use of Triglycerides for Energy: Formation of Adenosine Triphosphate
866(3)
Regulation of Energy Release From Triglycerides
869(1)
Phospholipids and Cholesterol
870(2)
Atherosclerosis
872(3)
Chapter 70 Protein Metabolism
875(6)
Basic Properties of Proteins
875(1)
Transport and Storage of Amino Acids
875(2)
Functional Roles of the Plasma Proteins
877(3)
Hormonal Regulation of Protein Metabolism
880(1)
Chapter 71 The Liver as an Organ
881(6)
Physiological Anatomy of the Liver
881(1)
Hepatic Vascular and Lymph Systems
881(2)
Metabolic Functions of the Liver
883(1)
Protein Metabolism
883(1)
Measurement of Bilirubin in the Bile as a Clinical Diagnostic Tool
884(3)
Chapter 72 Dietary Balances; Regulation of Feeding; Obesity and Starvation; Vitamins and Minerals
887(16)
Energy Intake and Output Are Balanced Under Steady-State Conditions
887(1)
Dietary Balances
887(2)
Regulation of Food Intake and Energy Storage
889(5)
Obesity
894(2)
Inanition, Anorexia, and Cachexia
896(1)
Starvation
897(1)
Vitamins
897(3)
Mineral Metabolism
900(3)
Chapter 73 Energetics and Metabolic Rate
903(8)
Adenosine Triphosphate Functions as an "Energy Currency" in Metabolism
903(2)
Control of Energy Release in the Cell
905(1)
Metabolic Rate
906(1)
Energy Metabolism-Factors That Influence Energy Output
907(4)
Chapter 74 Body Temperature Regulation and Fever
911(14)
Normal Body Temperatures
911(1)
Body Temperature Is Controlled by Balancing Heat Production and Heat Loss
911(4)
Regulation of Body Temperature-Role of the Hypothalamus
915(4)
Abnormalities of Body Temperature Regulation
919(6)
Unit XIV Endocrinology and Reproduction
Chapter 75 Introduction to Endocrinology
925(14)
Coordination of Body Functions by Chemical Messengers
925(1)
Chemical Structure and Synthesis of Hormones
925(4)
Hormone Secretion, Transport, and Clearance From the Blood
929(1)
Mechanisms of Action of Hormones
930(6)
Measurement of Hormone Concentrations in the Blood
936(3)
Chapter 76 Pituitary Hormones and Their Control by the Hypothalamus
939(12)
Pituitary Gland and Its Relation to the Hypothalamus
939(1)
Hypothalamus Controls Pituitary Secretion
940(2)
Physiological Functions of Growth Hormone
942(6)
Posterior Pituitary Gland and Its Relation to the Hypothalamus
948(3)
Chapter 77 Thyroid Metabolic Hormones
951(14)
Synthesis and Secretion of the Thyroid Metabolic Hormones
951(3)
Physiological Functions of the Thyroid Hormones
954(4)
Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Secretion
958(2)
Diseases of the Thyroid
960(5)
Chapter 78 Adrenocortical Hormones
965(18)
Corticosteroids: Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids, and Androgens
965(1)
Synthesis and Secretion of Adrenocortical Hormones
965(3)
Functions of the Mineralocorticoids-Aldosterone
968(4)
Functions of Glucocorticoids
972(6)
Adrenal Androgens
978(1)
Abnormalities of Adrenocortical Secretion
979(4)
Chapter 79 Insulin, Glucagon, and Diabetes Mellitus
983(18)
Physiological Anatomy of the Pancreas
983(1)
Insulin and Its Metabolic Effects
983(9)
Glucagon and Its Functions
992(1)
Somatostatin Inhibits Glucagon and Insulin Secretion
993(1)
Summary of Blood Glucose Regulation
993(1)
Diabetes Mellitus
994(7)
Chapter 80 Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism, Vitamin D, Bone, and Teeth
1001(20)
Overview of Calcium and Phosphate Regulation in the Extracellular Fluid and Plasma
1001(2)
Bone and Its Relation to Extracellular Calcium and Phosphate
1003(4)
Vitamin D
1007(2)
Parathyroid Hormone
1009(3)
Calcitonin
1012(1)
Summary of Control of Calcium Ion Concentration
1013(1)
Pathophysiology of Parathyroid Hormone, Vitamin D, and Bone Disease
1014(2)
Physiology of the Teeth
1016(5)
Chapter 81 Reproductive and Hormonal Functions of the Male (and Function of the Pineal Gland)
1021(16)
Physiological Anatomy of the Male Sexual Organs
1021(1)
Spermatogenesis
1021(5)
Male Sexual Act
1026(2)
Testosterone and Other Male Sex Hormones
1028(5)
Abnormalities of Male Sexual Function
1033(1)
Erectile Dysfunction in the Male
1034(1)
The Function of the Pineal Gland in Controlling Seasonal Fertility in Some Animals
1034(3)
Chapter 82 Female Physiology Before Pregnancy and Female Hormones
1037(18)
Physiological Anatomy of the Female Sexual Organs
1037(1)
Oogenesis and Follicular Development in the Ovaries
1037(2)
Female Hormonal System
1039(1)
Monthly Ovarian Cycle; Function of the Gonadotropic Hormones
1039(3)
Functions of the Ovarian Hormones-Estradiol and Progesterone
1042(5)
Regulation of the Female Monthly Rhythm-Interplay Between the Ovarian and Hypothalamic-Pituitary Hormones
1047(4)
Abnormalities of Secretion by the Ovaries
1051(1)
Female Sexual Act
1051(1)
Female Fertility
1052(1)
Hormonal Suppression of Fertility "The Pill"
1053(1)
Abnormal Conditions That Cause Female Sterility
1053(2)
Chapter 83 Pregnancy and Lactation
1055(16)
Maturation and Fertilization of the Ovum
1055(2)
Early Nutrition of the Embryo
1057(1)
Anatomy and Function of the Placenta
1057(2)
Hormonal Factors in Pregnancy
1059(3)
Response of the Mother's Body to Pregnancy
1062(2)
Parturition
1064(2)
Lactation
1066(5)
Chapter 84 Fetal and Neonatal Physiology
1071(14)
Growth and Functional Development of the Fetus
1071(1)
Development of the Organ Systems
1071(1)
Fetal Metabolism
1072(1)
Adjustments of the Infant to Extrauterine Life
1073(3)
Special Functional Problems in the Neonate
1076(3)
Special Problems of Prematurity
1079(1)
Growth and Development of the Child
1080(5)
Unit XV Sports Physiology
Chapter 85 Sports Physiology
1085(12)
Female and Male Athletes
1085(1)
Muscles in Exercise
1085(5)
Respiration in Exercise
1090(2)
Cardiovascular System in Exercise
1092(2)
Body Heat in Exercise
1094(1)
Body Fluids and Salt in Exercise
1094(1)
Drugs and Athletes
1095(1)
Body Fitness Prolongs Life
1095(2)
Index 1097